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Encyclopedia > Mass media in India
Media penetration as of 2003
All India Urban
Print 25% 46%
Terrestrial television 53% 80%
Cable and satellite television 20% 46%
Radio 22% 25%
Cinema 7% 11%
Internet 1% 3%

Mass media in India is that part of the Indian media which aims to reach a wide audience. Besides the news media, which includes print, radio and television, the internet is playing an increasing role, along with the growth of the Indian blogging community. News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... Print media includes newspapers, magazines, and the like. ... GOOD BLOGS: For and Against Bizarre Things Games Casino Sudoku Challenge Star Wars REDIRECT Blog ...


Compared with many other developing countries, the Indian press is relatively unfettered, except for obstacles in the way of setting up media companies which were part of the pre-1990 license raj. In 2001, India had 45,974 newspapers, including 5364 daily newspapers published in over 100 languages. The largest number of newspapers were published in Hindi (20,589), followed by English (7,596), Marathi (2,943), Urdu (2,906), Bengali (2,741), Gujarati (2,215), Tamil (2,119), Kannada (1,816), Malayalam(1,505) and Telugu (1,289). The Hindi daily press has a circulation of over 23 million copies, followed by English with over 8 million copies. There are several major publishing groups in India, the most prominent among them being the Times of India Group, the Indian Express Group, the Hindustan Times Group, The Hindu group, the Anandabazar Patrika Group, the Eenadu Group, the Malayala Manorama Group, the Mathrubhumi group, the Kerala Kaumudi group, the Sahara group, the Bhaskar group, and the Dainik Jagran group. Indian press started from Calcutta, the then first colonial establishment of the East India Company. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the two central official languages of India, the other being English. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India (Maharashtrians). ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... The Common Man featured on a commemorative stamp released by the Indian Postal Service on the 150th Anniversary of the Times of India - 1988. ... The Indian Express is an Indian newspaper started by Ram Nath Goenka, and is published from New Delhi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hindu is a leading English-language newspaper in South India, with its largest base of circulation in Tamil Nadu. ... Anandabazar Patrika is a Bengali language broadsheet published from Kolkata. ... Eenadu (ఈనాడు), headquartered in Hyderabad, India, is the largest circulated Telugu news daily in the state of Andhra Pradesh. ... The Manorama Logo in Malayalam Malayala Manorama (Malayalam: മലയാള മനോരമ) is a popular Malayalam newspaper in Kerala, India. ... Mathrubhumi is one of the leading Malayalam language newspapers in Kerala state of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bhaskar is a Telugu film director. ... Dainik Jagran is a Hindi daily newspaper. ...


India has more than forty domestic news agencies. The Express News Service, the Press Trust of India, and the United News of India are among the major news agencies. Press Trust of India is a nonprofit cooperative among the Indian newspapers. ... United News of India is one of the two primary Indian news agencies. ...

Contents

Colonial journalism

The history of media in India is coloured by the colonial experience. William Bolts, an ex-employee of the British East India Company attempted to start the first newspaper in India in 1776. Bolts had to beat a retreat under the disapproving gaze of the Court of Directors of the Company. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Bengal

The Hickey's Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Advertiser was started by James Augustus Hickey in 1780. The Gazette, a two-sheet newspaper, specialised in writing on the private lives of the Sahibs of the Company. He dared even to mount scurrillious attacks on the Governor-General, Warren Hastings', wife, which soon landed "the late printer to the Honourable Company" in trouble. Founded by William Augustus Hickey, The Hickeys Bengal Gazette or the Calcutta General Advertiser was the first English language newspaper, and indeed the first printed newspaper, to be published in the Indian sub-continent. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Sahib (the female form is memsahib or sahiba) is a Hindi and Bengali word meaning sir, master or Lord. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ...


Hickey was sentenced to a 4 months jail term and Rs.500 fine, which did not deter him. After a bitter attack on the Governor-General and the Chief Justice, Hickey was sentenced to one year in prison and fined Rs.5,000, which finally drove him to penury. These were the first tentative steps of journalism in India.


Calcutta (Kolkata)

B.Messink and Peter Reed were pliant publishers of the India Gazette, unlike their infamous predecessor. The colonial establishment started the Calcutta Gazette. It was followed by another private initiative the Bengal Journal. The Oriental Magazine of Calcutta Amusement, a monthly magazine made it four weekly newspapers and one monthly magazine published from Calcutta, now Kolkata. , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ...


Madras (Chennai)

The Madras Courier was started in 1785 in the southern stronghold of Madras, which is now called Chennai. Richard Johnson, its founder, was a government printer. Madras got its second newspaper when, in 1791, Hugh Boyd, who was the editor of the Courier quit and founded the Hurkaru. Tragically for the paper, it ceased publication when Boyd died within a year of its founding. , “Madras” redirects here. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Madras refers to: the Indian city of Chennai, formerly known as Madras, the former Indian state, now known as Tamil Nadu (Plural of Madra): Ancient people of Iranian affinites, who lived in northwest Panjab in the Uttarapatha division of ancient India. ... Richard Johnson may refer to: Richard Johnson, the Somerset and England cricketer; Richard Mentor Johnson, the 19th century United States politician and vice-president; Richard Johnson, the 16th century romance writer; Richard Johnson, the English actor; Reverend Richard Johnson, chaplain to first settlement in New South Wales; Richard Johnson (1830... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


It was only in 1795 that competitors to the Courier emerged with the founding of the Madras Gazette followed by the India Herald. The latter was an "unauthorised" publication, which led to the deportation of its founder Humphreys. The Madras Courier was designated the purveyor of official information in the Presidency. 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1878, The Hindu was founded, and played a vital role in promoting the cause of Indian independence from the colonial yoke. It's founder, Kasturi Ranga Iyengar, was a lawyer, and his son, K Srinivasan assumed editorship of this pioneering newspaper during for the first half of the 20th century. Today this paper enjoys the highest circulation in South India, and is among the top five nationally. The Hindu is a leading English-language newspaper in South India, with its largest base of circulation in Tamil Nadu. ...


Bombay (Mumbai)

Bombay, now Mumbai, surprisingly was a late starter - The Bombay Herald came into existence in 1789. Significantly, a year later a paper called the Courier started carrying advertisements in Gujarati. , “Bombay” redirects here. ... This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


The first media merger of sorts: The Bombay Gazette, which was started in 1791, merged with the Bombay Herald the following year. Like the Madras Courier, this new entity was recognised as the publication to carry "official notifications and advertisements". 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


'A Chronicle of Media and the State', by Jeebesh Bagchi in the Sarai Reader 2001 is a timeline on the role of the state in the development of media in India for more than a century. For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ...


Bagchi divides the timeline into three 'ages'. The Age of Formulation, which starts with the Indian Telegraph Act in 1885 and ends with the Report of the Sub-Committee on Communication, National Planning Committee in 1948. 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Post colonial journalism

The Age of Consolidation that follows stretches from 1951, with the extension of the Indian Telegraph Act to the whole of India and ends with the promulgation of the "Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act" in 1985. The current age is the Age of Uncertainty, which began in 1989 with the introduction of the Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Bill. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) was established on November 23, 1997 following a demand that the electronic media in India should be made free from the Government control and given autonomy in their functioning. ...


Two News Agencies

Press Trust of India (PTI) and United News of India (UNI) are the two primary Indian news agencies. The former was formed after it took over the operations of the Associated Press of India and the Indian operations of Reuters soon after independence on August 27, 1947. PTI is a non-profit cooperative of the Indian newspapers. Press Trust of India is a nonprofit cooperative among the Indian newspapers. ... United News of India is one of the two primary Indian news agencies. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


UNI began its operations on March 21, 1961, though it was registered as a company in 1959 itself. is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Popular non-English dailies in urban India in 2005

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Prajavani (voice of the people in Kannada) is the sister publication of the Deccan Herald. ... Kannada Prabha is a major Kannada newspaper which has its headquarters in Bangalore, Karnataka. ... Samyuktha Karnataka is one of leading news papers in the state of Karnataka, India http://www. ... Udayavani is a major Kannada newspaper which has its headquarters in Manipal, Karnataka. ... Vijaya Karnataka is a Kannada newspaper. ... Sanjevani is a major Kannada newspaper which has its headquarters in Bangalore, Karnataka. ... Anandabazar Patrika is a Bengali language broadsheet published from Kolkata. ... Dainik Bhaskar is a Hindi-language daily newspaper of India. ... Dainik Jagran is a Hindi daily newspaper. ... Dinakaran is daily Tamil newspaper in Chennai and Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Eenadu (ఈనాడు), headquartered in Hyderabad, India, is the largest circulated Telugu news daily in the state of Andhra Pradesh. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Divya Bhaskar is a Gujarati newspaper in Gujarat, India. ... Sandesh is a Gujarati newspaper in Gujarat, India. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... The Manorama Logo in Malayalam Malayala Manorama (Malayalam: മലയാള മനോരമ) is a popular Malayalam newspaper in Kerala, India. ... Mathrubhumi is one of the leading Malayalam language newspapers in Kerala state of India. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deepika, a Malayalam language newspaper, is one of the oldest newspapers published in India. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Launched in 1935 by a man called K. Sarangapany, in singapore, Tamil Murasu is Singapores only Tamil language newspaper. ...

Popular English dailies in urban India in 2003 and News websites

Further information: News sources India

The Times of India, often abbreviated as TOI, is one of Indias leading daily newspapers, owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hindu is a leading English-language newspaper in South India, with its largest base of circulation in Tamil Nadu. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... The Deccan Chronicle Deccan Chronicle is a regional English daily in India. ... The Asian Age newspaper logo The Asian Age is a newspaper sold in the Indian city of Bombay. ... The Economic Times, launched in 1961, is Indias largest financial daily and the worlds second largest financial daily after The Wall Street Journal, with a daily readership of over 650,000 copies. ... The New Indian Express is a newspaper based in Chennai, India. ... Mid-day is an afternoon newspaper in India with editions in Mumbai (Bombay) and Delhi. ... The Deccan Herald is the largest English-language daily newspaper in the state of Karnataka in India. ... The Indian Express is an Indian newspaper started by Ram Nath Goenka, and is published from New Delhi. ... The Tribune, now published from Chandigarh and Delhi, started publication on February 2, 1881, in Lahore (now in Pakistan). ...

Editorials from English dailies

India Editorials and Opinions


Note: NRS (National Readership Survey) and IRS (Indian Readership Survey) are monitoring surveys - and they don't always agree.


References

  1. ^ a b IRS Survey. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.

 
 

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