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Encyclopedia > Mass Media
"Popular press" redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint "The Popular Press".

Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. It was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines, although mass media was present centuries before the term became common. The term public media has a similar meaning: it is the sum of the public mass distributors of news and entertainment across mediums such as newspapers, television, radio, broadcasting, which require union membership in large markets such as Newspaper Guild and AFTRA, & text publishers. The concept of mass media is complicated in some internet media as now individuals have a means of potential exposure on a scale comparable to what was previously restricted to select group of mass media producers. These internet media can include personal web pages, podcasts and blogs. The University of Wisconsin Press (or UW Press), founded in 1936, is a university press that is part of the Graduate School of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A nation-state is a specific form of state, which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation, and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Gefen Publishing House, is dedicated to producing a broad range of quality titles relating to Judaism, Jewish thought, and Israel, including history, the Holocaust, art, childrens books, philosophy, science, biographies, and more. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Podcasting is a way of publishing sound files to the Internet, allowing users to subscribe to a feed and receive new audio files automatically. ... It has been suggested that Online diary be merged into this article or section. ...


The communications audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda. The term "MSM" or "mainstream media" has been widely used in the blogosphere in discussion of the mass media and media bias. Mass society is a society in which the concerns of the majority – the lower social classes – play a prominent role, characterized by extension of voting rights, an improved standard of living for the lower classes and mass education. ... “Advert” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Blogosphere is a collective term encompassing all blogs and their interconnections. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

History

Types of drama in numerous cultures were probably the first mass-media, going back into the Ancient World. The first dated printed book known is the "Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD, although it is clear that books were printed earlier. Movable clay type was invented in 1041 in China. However, due to the slow spread to the masses of literacy in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about 1400. Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about 1600 have not survived. Johannes Gutenberg printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. This invention transformed the way the world received printed materials, although books remained too expensive really to be called a mass-medium for at least a century after that. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Popular Prints is a term for printed images of generally low artistic quality which were sold cheaply in Europe and later the New World from the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries, often with text as well as images. ... This article is about the inventor of printing in Europe; for other uses, see Guttenberg (disambiguation) and Gutenberg. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ...


Newspapers developed around from 1605, with the first example in English in 1620 [3] ; but they took until the nineteenth century to reach a mass-audience directly.


During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology that allowed the massive duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Print. ...


Mass media had the economics of linear replication: a single work could make money proportional to the number of copies sold, and as volumes went up, units costs went down, increasing profit margins further. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media. In a democratic society, independent media serve to educate the public/electorate about issues regarding government and corporate entities (see Media influence). Some consider the concentration of media ownership to be a grave threat to democracy. In mathematics, two quantities are called proportional if they vary in such a way that one of the quantities is a constant multiple of the other, or equivalently if they have a constant ratio. ... In psychology, communication theory and sociology, media influence or media effects refers to the theories about the ways in which the mass media affect how their audiences, think and behave. ... Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation) is a commonly used term among media critics, policy makers, and others to characterize ownership structure of mass media industries. ...


Timeline

  • c1400: Appearance of European popular prints.
  • 1453: Johnannes Gutenberg uses his printing press to print the bible, making books freely acceptable to many people during the Renaissance.
  • 1620: First newspaper (or coranto) in English.
  • 1825: Nicéphore Niépce takes the first permanent photograph.
  • 1830: Telegraphy is independently developed in England and the United States.
  • 1876: First telephone call made by Alexander Graham Bell.
  • 1878: Thomas Alva Edison patents the phonograph.
  • 1890: First juke box in San Francisco's Palais Royal Saloon.
  • 1890: Telephone wires are installed in Manhattan.
  • 1895: Cinematograph invented by Auguste and Louis Lumiere.
  • 1896: Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Co. It will become IBM in 1924.
  • 1897: Guglielmo Marconi patents the wireless telegraph.
  • 1898: Loudspeaker is invented.
  • 1902: Daily Nation is started in Kenya.
  • 1906: The Story of the Kelly Gang from Australia is world's first feature length film.
  • 1909: RMS Republic, a palatial White Star passenger liner, uses the Marconi Wireless for a distress at sea. She had been in a collision. This is the first "breaking news" mass media event.
  • 1912: Air mail begins.
  • 1913: Edison transfers from cylinder recordings to more easily reproducible discs.
  • 1913: The portable phonograph is manufactured.
  • 1915: Radiotelephone carries voice from Virginia to the Eiffel Tower.
  • 1916: Tunable radios invented.
  • 1919: Short-wave radio is invented.
  • 1920: KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh, United States, becoming the world's first commercial radio station.
  • 1922: BBC is formed and broadcasting to London.
  • 1924: KDKA created a short-wave radio transmitter.
  • 1925: BBC broadcasting to the majority of the UK.
  • 1926: NBC is formed.
  • 1927: The Jazz Singer: The first motion picture with sounds debuts.
  • 1927: Philo Taylor Farnsworth debuts the first electronic television system.
  • 1928: The Teletype was introduced.
  • 1933: Edwin Armstrong invents FM Radio.
  • 1935: First telephone call made around the world.
  • 1936: BBC opened world's first regular (then defined as at least 200 lines) high definition television service.
  • 1938: The War of the Worlds is broadcast on October 30, causing mass hysteria.
  • 1939: Western Union introduces coast-to-coast fax service.
  • 1939: Regular electronic television broadcasts begin in the US.
  • 1939: The wire recorder is invented in the US.
  • 1940: The first commercial television station, WNBT (now WNBC-TV)/New York signs on the air.
  • 1948: Cable television becomes available in the US.
  • 1951: The first color televisions go on sale.
  • 1957: Sputnik is launched and sends back signals from near earth orbit.
  • 1959: Xerox makes the first copier.
  • 1960: Echo I, a US balloon in orbit, reflects radio signals to Earth.
  • 1962: Telstar satellite transmits an image across the Atlantic.
  • 1963: Audio cassette is invented in the Netherlands.
  • 1963: Martin Luther King gives "I have a dream" speech.
  • 1965: Vietnam War becomes first war to be televised.
  • 1967: Newspapers, magazines start to digitize production.
  • 1969: Man's first landing on the moon is broadcast to 600 million people around the globe.
  • 1970s: ARPANET, progenitor to the internet developed.
  • 1971: Intel debuts the microprocessor.
  • 1972: Pong becomes the first video game to win widespread popularity.
  • 1975: The MITS Altair 8800 becomes the first pre-assembled desktop computer available on the market.
  • 1976: JVC introduces VHS videotape - becomes the standard consumer format in the 1980s & 1990s.
  • 1980: CNN launches.
  • 1980: New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones put news database online.
  • 1981: The IBM PC is introduced on 12 August.
  • 1982: Philips and Sony put the Compact Disc on the Japanese market. It arrives on the US market early the following year.
  • 1983: Cellular phones begin to appear.
  • 1984: Apple Macintosh is introduced.
  • 1985: CD-ROMs begin to be sold.
  • 1985: Pay-per-view channels open for business.
  • 1991: World Wide Web (WWW) publicly released by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN.
  • 1993: CERN announces that the WWW will be free for anyone to use.
  • 1996: First DVD players and discs are available in Japan. Twister is the first film on DVD.
  • 1999: Napster contributes to the popularization of MP3.
  • 2005: Media forms began to converge. The Palm Pilot and the BlackBerry became popular. E-mail accounts were now accessible via telephones.

Popular Prints is a term for printed images of generally low artistic quality which were sold cheaply in Europe and later the New World from the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries, often with text as well as images. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Nicéphore Niépces earliest surviving photograph, circa 1826 Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (March 7, 1765 – July 5, 1833) was a French inventor, most noted as a pioneer in photography. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 - 2 August 1922) was a Scottish scientist, inventor and innovator. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... “Tonearm” redirects here. ... A jukebox is a partially automated music-playing device, usually a coin-operated machine, that can play specially selected songs from self-contained media. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... The Lumi re Brothers, Louis Jean (October 5, 1864–June 6, 1948) and Auguste Marie Louis Nicholas (October 19, 1862–April 10, 1954), were the creators of the cinematographic projector. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Guglielmo Marconi [gue:lmo marko:ni] (25 April 1874 - 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor of mixed Italian and Irish ethnicity, best known for his development of a radiotelegraph system, which served as the foundation for the establishment of numerous affiliated companies worldwide. ... Wireless is an old-fashioned term for a radio receiver, referring to its use as a wireless telegraph. ... For the Marty Friedman album, see Loudspeaker (album) An inexpensive low fidelity 3. ... The Daily Nation, an independent newspaper is the most influential newspaper in Kenya with a daily circulation of about 205,000 copies [1]. The total readership is likely to be higher as each copy is read by a large number of people. ... The Story of the Kelly Gang (also screened as Ned Kelly and His Gang) is widely regarded as the worlds first feature length film. ... The RMS Republic, often referred to as a palatial steamship, was built in 1903 at the Harland and Wolff shipyards, Belfast, yard (hull) number 345. ... Airmail (or air mail) is mail that is transported by aircraft. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... Shortwave radio operates between the frequencies of 3,000 kHz and 30 MHz (30,000 kHz) and came to be referred to as such in the early days of radio because the wavelengths associated with this frequency range were shorter than those commonly in use at that time. ... KDKA is a U.S. class A clear channel AM radio station located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that operates on 1020 kHz. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the television network. ... The Jazz Singer (1927) is a U.S. movie musical and the first feature-length motion picture with talking sequences. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor. ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The War of the Worlds was an episode of the American radio drama anthology series Mercury Theatre on the Air. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Western Union (NYSE: WU) is a financial services and communications company based in the United States. ... A Samsung fax machine Fax (short for facsimile, from Latin fac simile, make similar, i. ... WNBC-TV, NBC4 is the flagship TV station of the NBC television network, with studios located in Rockefeller Center in Manhattan. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ... Thats somewhere between two hundred and four hundred miles in space. ... Echo 1 sits fully inflated at a Navy hangar in Weeksville, North Carolina. ... The original Telstar had a roughly spherical shape. ... For the meaning of cassette in genetics, see cassette (genetics). ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The first moon landing by a human was that of American Neil Armstrong, Commander of the Apollo 11 mission. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... For other uses, see Pong (disambiguation). ... Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS) was an Albuquerque, New Mexico company founded in 1968 by Ed Roberts. ... Altair 8800 Computer with 8 inch floppy disk system The MITS Altair 8800 was a microcomputer design from 1975, based on the Intel 8080 CPU. Sold as a kit through Popular Electronics magazine, the designers intended to sell only a few hundred to hobbyists, and were surprised when they sold... Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a computer made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such as laptops or PDAs. ... Victor Company of Japan, Limited ) (TYO: 6792 ), usually referred to as JVC, is an international consumer and professional electronics corporation based in Yokohama, Japan which was founded in 1927. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... IBM PC (IBM 5150) with keyboard and green screen monochrome monitor (IBM 5151), running MS-DOS 5. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... “Cell Phone” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ... Twister is a 1996 disaster film starring Helen Hunt and Bill Paxton as storm chasers researching tornadoes. ... Napster was a file sharing service that paved the way for decentralized P2P file-sharing programs such as Kazaa, Limewire, iMesh, Morpheus, and BearShare, which are now used for many of the same reasons and can download music, pictures, and other files. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... An early model - the Pilot 5000 The Palm m130 was one of the first Palms with a colour screen Pilot was the name given to the first generation of personal digital assistants manufactured by Palm Computing in 1996 (then a division of U.S. Robotics and later 3Com). ... This article is about the wireless e-mail device. ...

Purposes

Mass media can be used for various purposes:

Advocacy is the act of arguing on behalf of a particular issue, idea or person. ... “Advert” redirects here. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... // Public relations (PR) Public Relations- a promotion intended to create goodwill for a person or institutions image. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... This article is about institutionalized education. ... A stilt-walker entertaining shoppers at a shopping centre in Swindon, England Entertainment is an event, performance, or activity designed to give pleasure or relaxation to an audience (although, for example, in the case of a computer game the audience may be only one person). ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and more broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... A public service announcement (PSA) or community service announcement (CSA) is a non-commercial advertisement typically on radio or television, ostensibly broadcast for the public good. ...

Claimed negative characteristics of mass media

Another description of Mass Media is central media meaning they emanate from a central point, the same identical message to numerous recipients. It is claimed this forces certain intrinsic constraints on the kind of messages and information that can be conveyed, such as: from http://www. ...

  • An inability to transmit tacit knowledge (or perhaps it can only transfer bad tacit knowledge as opposed to good),
  • A focus on the unusual and sensational rather than a restatement of wisdom,
  • The promotion of anxiety and fear to sell the newspaper / channel, etc.
  • Simplification of complex issues so as to appeal to more sorts of people.
  • It can be a conflict of interest when large corporations own large news outlets, and thusly, control what the people know, i.e. corporate propaganda.
  • The manipulation of large groups of people through media outlets, for the benefit of a particular political party and/or group of people.
  • One of the biggest critics in Media's history is Marshall McLuhan. He brought up the idea that "the medium is the message".

This view of central media can be contrasted with lateral media, such as email networks, where messages are all slightly different and spread by a process of lateral diffusion. The concept of tacit knowing comes from scientist and philosopher Michael Polanyi. ... Lateral media can be seen as any specific technology to promote lateral communication. ... This is the process whereby information can be spread from one node in a social network to another, often in a selective way and rapidly traverse an entire population, but preferentially to those nodes likely to be interested, or needing to know. ...


Journalism

Journalism is a discipline of collecting, analyzing, verifying, and presenting information regarding current events, trends, issues and people. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. Journalism is a discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and more broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Highlights The so-called iTunes Law, which Apple has called state-sponsored piracy, is approved by the French Parliament (coat of arms pictured). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ...


News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of history" (attributed to Phil Graham), because journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization's standards of accuracy, quality and style. Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable. For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... For the U.S. Senator from Texas, see Phil Gramm. ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... Editing is the process of preparing language, images, or sound for presentation through correction, condensation, organization, and other modifications. ... Proofreading means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. ...


Public relations

Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. Examples include: // Public relations (PR) Public Relations- a promotion intended to create goodwill for a person or institutions image. ...

  • Corporations use marketing public relations (MPR) to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts. Typically, they support sales in the short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market.
  • Corporations also use public-relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs.
  • Non-profit organizations, including schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services.
  • Politicians use public relations to attract votes and raise money, and, when successful at the ballot box, to promote and defend their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at career’s end, to their legacy.

Forms

Electronic media and print media include:

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... The terms storage (U.K.) or memory (U.S.) refer to the parts of a digital computer that retain physical state (data) for some interval of time, possibly even after electrical power to the computer is turned off. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the machine. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers. ... For other uses, see News (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Publisher” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... The Wii (pronounced as the pronoun we, IPA: ) is the fifth home video game console released by Nintendo. ...

Audio recording and reproduction

Sound recording and reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. This involves the use of audio equipment such as microphones, recording devices and loudspeakers. From early beginnings with the invention of the phonograph using purely mechanical techniques, the field has advanced with the invention of electrical recording, the mass production of the 78 record, the magnetic wire recorder followed by the tape recorder, the vinyl LP record. The invention of the compact cassette in the 1960s, followed by Sony's Walkman, gave a major boost to the mass distribution of music recordings, and the invention of digital recording and the compact disc in 1983 brought massive improvements in ruggedness and quality. The most recent developments have been in digital audio players. “Sound recorder” redirects here. ... The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... The term Audio equipment refers to any device designed principally to reproduce broadcast or recorded sounds. ... “Tonearm” redirects here. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... Wire recording is a type of analogue audio storage in which the recording is made onto thin steel or stainless steel wire. ... Sony reel-to-reel tape recorder. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply tape, is a magnetic tape sound recording format. ... Sony Walkman Official Logo (2000 — present) Various products of the Walkman line Walkman is a popular Sony brand used to market its portable audio and video players. ... In digital recording, the analog signal of a motion-picture/sound is converted into a stream of discrete numbers, representing the changes in air pressure (chroma and luminace values in case of video) through time; thus making an abstract template for the original sound. ... A compact disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Apple iPod, the best-selling hard drive-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player or DAP is a portable, handheld digital music player that stores, organizes and...

33⅓ LP vinyl record for The Beatles' Magical Mystery Tour album from the 1960s.

An album is a collection of related audio tracks, released together to the public, usually commercially. Analogue LP vinyl record album File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Analogue LP vinyl record album File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Magical Mystery Tour is an album by British rock band The Beatles, first released in late November 1967. ... Audio can mean: Sounding that can be heard. ...


The term record album originated from the fact that 78 RPM Phonograph disc records were kept together in a book resembling a photo album. The first collection of records to be called an "album" was Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite, release in April 1909 as a four-disc set by Odeon records.[1][2] It retailed for 16 shillings — about £15 in modern currency. An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ... “Tonearm” redirects here. ... A 12-inch record (left), a 7-inch record (right), and a CD (above) Two 7 singles (left), two colored 7 singles (middle), and two 7 singles with large spindle holes (right). ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... A performance of The Nutcracker The story of The Nutcracker and the Mouse King was written by E. T. A. Hoffmann. ... Odeon Records was a record label founded by Max Strauss and Heinrich Zunz in Berlin, Germany. ... The shilling was a British coin first issued in 1548 for Henry VIII, although arguably the testoon issued about 1487 for Henry VII was the first shilling. ... “GBP” redirects here. ...


A music video (also promo) is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. Modern music videos were primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. Although the origins of music videos go back much further, they came into their own in the 1980s, when Music Television's format was based around them. In the 1980s, the term "rock video" was often used to describe this form of entertainment, although the term has fallen into disuse. A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Song (disambiguation). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The MTV logotype, often used in different, less stylized, forms. ...


Music videos can accommodate all styles of filmmaking, including animation, live action films, documentaries, and non-narrative, abstract film. The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Abstract film is a subgenre of experimental film. ...


Broadcasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals (programs) to a number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") that belong to a large group. This group may be the public in general, or a relatively large audience within the public. Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music world-wide, while a public address system in (for example) a workplace may broadcast very limited ad hoc soundbites to a small population within its range. Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In telecommunication, signalling (or signaling) has the following meanings: The use of signals for controlling communications. ... A public address system, abbreviated PA system, is an electronic amplification system used as a communication system in public areas. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. With all technological endeavours a number of technical terms and slang are developed please see the list of broadcasting terms for a glossary of terms used. Television scheduling is the practice of using variety, repetition, connection and originality within an evenings schedule (and within a weeks schedule, and the whole television season) to create harmonious and mutually supportive arrangements (Ellis 2000). ... With every new technology a number of terms and slang words develop to assist in the rapid communication of ideas between the users of the technology. ...


Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable, often both simultaneously. By coding signals and having decoding equipment in homes, the latter also enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-view services. Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... For other senses of the word code, see code (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... The subscription business model is a business model that has long been used by magazines and record clubs, but the application of this model is spreading. ... Pay-per-view is the name given to a system by which television viewers can call and order events to be seen on TV and pay for the private telecast of that event to their homes later. ...


A broadcasting organisation may broadcast several programs at the same time, through several channels (frequencies), for example BBC One and Two. On the other hand, two or more organisations may share a channel and each use it during a fixed part of the day. Digital radio and digital television may also transmit multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... BBC One is the primary television channel of the BBC, and the first in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Digital television (DTV) is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound by means of digital signals, in contrast to analog signals used by analog (traditional) TV. DTV uses digital modulation data, which is digitally compressed and requires decoding by a specially designed television set, or a... In telecommunications, multiplexing (also muxing or MUXing) is the combining of two or more information channels onto a common transmission medium using hardware called a multiplexer or (MUX). ... “Source coding” redirects here. ... DAB ensembles are groups of Digital audio broadcasting broadcasters transmitting multiple digital radio channels on a single radio transmission. ...


When broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. In 2004 a new phenomenon occurred when a number of technologies combined to produce podcasting. Podcasting is an asynchronous broadcast/narrowcast medium, with one of the main proponents being Adam Curry and his associates the Podshow. The word webcast is derived from web and broadcast. Its use has varied since the early-mid 1990s as the nature of the medium came into public use. ... A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers. ... This article is about the video jockey. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Broadcasting forms a very large segment of the mass media. Broadcasting to a very narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting. The term "broadcast" was coined by early radio engineers from the midwestern United States. To send data to a specific list of recipients. ...


Film

Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. The origin of the name comes from the fact that photographic film (also called filmstock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist — motion pictures (or just pictures or "picture"), the silver screen, photoplays, the cinema, picture shows, flicks — and commonly movies. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... A recording medium is a physical material that holds information expressed in any of the existing recording formats. ...


Films are produced by recording people and objects with cameras, or by creating them using animation techniques and/or special effects. They comprise a series of individual frames, but when these images are shown rapidly in succession, the illusion of motion is given to the viewer. Flickering between frames is not seen due to an effect known as persistence of vision — whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Also of relevance is what causes the perception of motion; a psychological effect identified as beta movement. Historical records of events have been made for thousands of years in one form or another. ... This article is about the photographing device. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Special effects (also called SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ... According to the theory of persistence of vision, the perceptual processes of the brain or the retina of the human eye retains an image for a brief moment. ... Beta movement is a perceptual illusion, described by Max Wertheimer in his 1912 Experimental Studies on the Seeing of Motion, whereby two or more still images are combined by the brain into surmised motion. ...


Film is considered by many to be an important art form; films entertain, educate, enlighten and inspire audiences. The visual elements of cinema need no translation, giving the motion picture a universal power of communication. Any film can become a worldwide attraction, especially with the addition of dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue. Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a motion picture. ... In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ...


Internet

The Internet (also known simply as "the Net" or "the Web") can be briefly understood as "a network of networks". Specifically, it is the worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and governmental networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. For the scientific and engineering discipline studying computer networks, see Computer networking. ... In Computer Science, data is often distinguished from code, though both are represented in modern computers as binary strings. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ... The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... Electronic mail, abbreviated e-mail or email, is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chat room. ... A computer file is a collection of information that is stored in a computer system and can be identified by its full path name. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...


Contrary to some common usage, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous: the Internet is a collection of interconnected computer networks, linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections etc.; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. The World Wide Web is accessible via the Internet, along with many other services including e-mail, file sharing and others described below. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in a propagating form. ... For the use of the term in networking, see Wireless networking. ... // A hyperlink (often referred to as simply link), is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document, another document, or a specified section of another document, that automatically brings the referred information to the user when the navigation element is selected by the... A Uniform Resource Locator, URL (spelled out as an acronym, not pronounced as earl), or Web address, is a standardized address name layout for resources (such as documents or images) on the Internet (or elsewhere). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ...


Toward the end of the 20th century, the advent of the World Wide Web marked the first era in which any individual could have a means of exposure on a scale comparable to that of mass media. For the first time, anyone with a web site can address a global audience, although serving to high levels of web traffic is still relatively expensive. It is possible that the rise of peer-to-peer technologies may have begun the process of making the cost of bandwidth manageable. Although a vast amount of information, imagery, and commentary (i.e. "content") has been made available, it is often difficult to determine the authenticity and reliability of information contained in web pages (in many cases, self-published). The invention of the Internet has also allowed breaking news stories to reach around the globe within minutes. This rapid growth of instantaneous, decentralized communication is often deemed likely to change mass media and its relationship to society. "Cross-media" means the idea of distributing the same message through different media channels. A similar idea is expressed in the news industry as "convergence". Many authors understand cross-media publishing to be the ability to publish in both print and on the web without manual conversion effort. An increasing number of wireless devices with mutually incompatible data and screen formats make it even more difficult to achieve the objective “create once, publish many”. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... A website, Web site or WWW site (often shortened to just site) is a collection of webpages, that is, HTML/XHTML documents accessible via HTTP on the Internet; all publicly accessible websites in existence comprise the World Wide Web. ... // Web traffic is the amount of data sent and received by visitors to a web site. ... A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... For other uses, see Print. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... For the use of the term in networking, see Wireless networking. ...


The internet is quickly becoming the center of mass media. Everything is becoming accessible via the internet. Instead of picking up a newspaper, or watching the 10 o'clock news, people will log onto the internet to get the news they want, when they want it. Many workers listen to the radio through the internet while sitting at their desk. Games are played through the internet. Blogging has become a huge form of media, popular through the internet. Even the education system relies on the internet [3]. Teachers can contact the entire class by sending one e-mail. They have web pages where students can get another copy of the class outline or assignments. Some classes even have class blogs where students must post weekly, and are graded on their contributions. The internet thus far has become an extremely dominant form of media. GOOD BLOGS: For and Against Bizarre Things Games Casino Sudoku Challenge Star Wars REDIRECT Blog ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ...


Publishing

Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information – the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers. “Publisher” redirects here. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ...


Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include websites, blogs, and the like. For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


As a business, publishing includes the development, marketing, production, and distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary works, musical works, software, other works dealing with information. In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For the magazine, see Marketing (magazine). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... Literary work is a generic term for texts such as fiction and non-fiction books, articles, screenplays, It is a term of art in copyright law. ... Musical composition is a phrase used in a number of contexts, the most commonly used being a piece of music. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


Publication is also important as a legal concept; (1) as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, and; (2) as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation; that is, the alleged libel must have been published. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Slander and Libel redirect here. ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ...


Book

Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902.
Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902.

A book is a collection of sheets of paper, parchment or other material with a piece of text written on them, bound together along one edge within covers. A book is also a literary work or a main division of such a work. A book produced in electronic format is known as an e-book. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 763 KB) Brockhaus Universal-Lexikon, ca. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 763 KB) Brockhaus Universal-Lexikon, ca. ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... A user viewing an electronic page on an eBook reading device In computing, an e-book (for electronic book: also eBook, ebook) is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. ...


In library and information science, a book is called a monograph to distinguish it from serial publications such as magazines, journals or newspapers. Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... A monograph is a scholarly book or a treatise on a single subject or a group of related subjects. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ...


Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-proof editions known as galleys or 'bound proofs' for promotional purposes, such as generating reviews in advance of publication. Galleys are usually made as cheaply as possible, since they are not intended for sale. Movable type on a composing stick In printing, galley proofs are preliminary versions of publications. ...


A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile, a bibliophilist, or a philobiblist, or, more informally, a bookworm. Bibliophilia is the love of books; a bibliophile is a lover of books. ... Bibliophilia is the love of books; a bibliophile is a lover of books. ...


A book may be studied by students in the form of a book report. It may also be covered by a professional writer as a book review to introduce a new book. Some belong to a book club. A book report is an exposition giving a short summary of a book and a reaction to it. ... A book review (or book report) is a form of literary criticism in which the work is analyzed based on content, style, and merit. ... A book club is a club where people usually meet to discuss a book that they have read and express their opinions, likes, dislikes, etc. ...


Magazine

A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Advert” redirects here. ...


Magazines are typically published weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly, with a date on the cover that is in advance of the date it is actually published. They are often printed in color on coated paper, and are bound with a soft cover. For more details on each day of the week, see days of the week. ... Look up biweekly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Quarterly means once a quarter (i. ... Periodical cover date refers to the date displayed on the covers of magazines. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ...


Magazines fall into two broad categories: consumer magazines and business magazines. In practice, magazines are a subset of periodicals, distinct from those periodicals produced by scientific, artistic, academic or special interest publishers which are subscription-only, more expensive, narrowly limited in circulation, and often have little or no advertising.


Magazines can be classified as:

Frontline (ISSN 0970-1710)is a fortnightly English language magazine published by The Hindu Group of publications from Chennai, India. ... 30th Anniversary issue of India Today India Today is an Indian weekly newsmagazine, in publication since 1975. ... Cover of U.S. edition from December 16, 2005. ... Scuba diving is swimming underwater while using self-contained breathing equipment. ...

Newspaper

A selection of newspapers

A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or special interest, most often published daily or weekly. The first printed newspaper was published in 1605, and the form has thrived even in the face of competition from technologies such as radio and television. Recent developments on the Internet are posing major threats to its business model, however. Paid circulation is declining in most countries, and advertising revenue, which makes up the bulk of a newspaper's income, is shifting from print to online; some commentators, nevertheless, point out that historically new media such as radio and television did not entirely supplant existing media. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1461x1177, 272 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Newspaper Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1461x1177, 272 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Newspaper Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Newsprint is low-cost, low-quality, non-archival paper. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Software publishing

A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor. In some companies, two or all three of these roles may be combined (and indeed, may reside in a single person, especially in the case of shareware). A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor. ... “Publisher” redirects here. ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... Starting in the 1980s, application software has been sold in mass-produced packages through retailers The software industry comprises of businesses involved in the development, maintenance and publication of computer software. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... Look up shareware in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Software publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region. The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret.


Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focussing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified.


Major reasons why media has an influence on our society is because the people who control it (the government and rich people) are the people who control what news is given to us, therefore the information we are could either be bias or “exaggerated”. This is why many people do not trust the media, but sometimes they may have to because it is the only source of news bulletins available. Therefore we may be forced into believing something when it may not even be true. Sometimes newspapers try and compete with each other to sell their newspapers by giving dramatic headlines to entice the public.


Mass wire media

Mass wire media is a new frontier of news reporting in the high-tech age. A few decades ago news reporting was through newspapers and radio and television. The radio broadcasts that were made famous by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II changed the way radio was looked at. These fireside chats made the radio news and news radio. Things are different now as we are witnessing a revolution of people-oriented reporting in real time and other times. This element of intimate knowledge of the event or story being reported has dramatically changed the way we all view news stories. FDR redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


This is called by some the Social Media Revolution. This revolution has intrinsically altered the way news is reported almost the way it happens. The trend of people-oriented reporting is only on the rise as reporting news becomes more personal and more accurate. [4]


Video games

A video game is a computer-controlled game where a video display such as a monitor or television is the primary feedback device. The term "computer game" also includes games which display only text (and which can therefore theoretically be played on a teletypewriter) or which use other methods, such as sound or vibration, as their primary feedback device, but there are very few new games in these categories. There always must also be some sort of input device, usually in the form of button/joystick combinations (on arcade games), a keyboard & mouse/trackball combination (computer games), or a controller (console games), or a combination of any of the above. Also, more esoteric devices have been used for input. Usually there are rules and goals, but in more open-ended games the player may be free to do whatever they like within the confines of the virtual universe. This article is about the machine. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... Input and output devices together make up the hardware interface between a computer and the user or external world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Button (computing). ... A 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and QWERTY. A computer keyboard is a peripheral partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ... Logitech TrackMan A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball. ... A game controller is an input device used to control a video game. ... “Game console” redirects here. ...


The phrase interactive entertainment is the formal reference to computer and video games. To avoid ambiguity, this game software is referred to as "computer and video games" throughout this article, which explores properties common to both types of game.


In common usage, a "computer game" or a "PC game" refers to a game that is played on a personal computer. "Console game" refers to one that is played on a device specifically designed for the use of such, while interfacing with a standard television set. "Video game" (or "videogame") has evolved into a catchall phrase that encompasses the aforementioned along with any game made for any other device, including, but not limited to, mobile phones, PDAs, advanced calculators, etc. “Computer Games” redirects here. ... A console game is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. ... Look up Personal digital assistant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ...


Contrast with non-mass media

Non-mass or "personal" media (point-to-point and person-to-person communication) include:

Arguably, blogs and other first-person, web-based communications are non-mass media. A modern day speaker addressing an audience through microphones Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. ... See mouse gesture for gestures in computing Military signalmen use hand and body gestures to direct flight operations aboard aircraft carriers. ... In telecommunication, Telephony encompasses the general use of equipment to provide voice communication over distances. ... A British pillar box The postal system is a system by which written documents typically enclosed in envelopes, and also small packages containing other matter, are delivered to destinations around the world. ... Interactive media refers to media of communication that allow for active participation by the recipient, hence interactivity. ...


See also

Look up Mass media in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Media manipulation is an aspect of public relations in which partisans create an image or argument that favours their particular interests. ... The media industry describes the once very distinct, but today interacting, newspaper, magazine, book, radio, internet and TV industries. ... Concentration of media ownership (also known as media consolidation) is a commonly used term among media critics, policy makers, and others to characterize ownership structure of mass media industries. ... Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ... The CNN effect is a theory in political science and media studies that postulates that the development of the popular 24-hour international television news channel known as Cable News Network or CNN had a major impact on the conduct of states foreign policy in the late Cold War period... Media controversy is controversy involving forms of media, especially electronic media. ... Media Imperialism is a critical theory regarding the perceived effects of globalization on the worlds media. ... Media Studies is the academic study of the constitution and effects of media. ... Multimedia literacy is a new aspect of literacy that is being recognised as technology expands the way people communicate. ... Media Transparency is the concept of determining how and why information is conveyed through various means. ... According to communication theorist Harold Innis, monopolies of knowledge are created in the atmosphere of hostility between time-biased and space-biased media, wherein one tradition marginalizes the other. ... News media satellite up-link trucks and photojournalists gathered outside the Prudential Financial headquarters in Newark, New Jersey in August, 2004 following the announcement of evidence of a terrorist threat to it and to buildings in New York City. ... In Laws of Media (1988) and The Global Village (1989), published posthumously, Marshall McLuhan summarized his ideas about media in a concise tetrad of media effects. ... Trial by media is a phrase popular in the late 20th century and early 21st century to describe the impact of television and newspaper coverage on a persons reputation by creating a widespread perception of guilt regardless of any verdict in a court of law. ... The propaganda model is a theory advanced by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky that alleges systemic biases in the mass media and seeks to explain them in terms of structural economic causes. ... Locative Media are media of communication bound to a location. ... Television is a telecommunication system for broadcasting and receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance. ... Media Democracy is a production and distribution model which promotes a mass media system that informs and empowers all members of society, and enhances democratic values. ...

References

  1. ^ Recording Technology History.
  2. ^ Chronomedia.
  3. ^ The Internet and Education: Findings of the Pew Internet & American Life Project[1]
  4. ^ Reporting on Risk: How the Mass Media Portray Accidents, Diseases, Disasters and Other Hazards, Singer and Endreny [2]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mass Media (0 words)
The Mass Media has taken the task of exploring the areas in which we reside in order to find the best ice cream eateries in the Boston area and beyond.
For months flyers have been up all over campus, postcards have been scattered around the city of Boston, there was even a cover story in The Mass Media about it.
The Mass Media is hiring for next semester.
Amazon.com: Mass Media: Books: Media Studies, Newspaper, Media Culture & More (0 words)
Books › Nonfiction › Current Events › Mass Media
Media and Culture: An Introduction to Mass Communication by Richard Campbell, Christopher R. Martin, and Bettina Fabos (Paperback - Jul 2001)
Other Editions: Hardcover, Paperback, Mass Market Paperback, Library Binding; See all 9.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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