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Encyclopedia > Mass (music)

The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. Most Masses are settings of the liturgy in Latin, the traditional language of the Roman Catholic Church, but there are a significant number written in the languages of non-Catholic countries where vernacular worship has long been the norm. For example, there are many Masses (often called "Communion Services") written in English for the Church of England. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


Masses can be a cappella, for the human voice alone, or they can be accompanied by instrumental obbligatos up to and including a full orchestra. Many masses, especially later ones, were never intended to be performed during the celebration of an actual mass. This article is about the vocal technique. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Form of the Mass

Generally, for a composition to be a full Mass, it must contain the following six sections, which together constitute the Ordinary of the Mass: The Ordinary of the Mass (Latin: Ordo Missae) is the set of texts of the Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite Mass that are generally invariable. ...


I. Kyrie

The Kyrie is the first movement of a setting of the Ordinary of the Mass: Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison which is Greek for Lord, have mercy. ...

Kyrie eleison; Christe eleison; Kyrie eleison (Κυριε ελεησον; Χριστε ελεησον; Κυριε ελεησον)
Lord have mercy; Christ, have mercy; Lord, have mercy.

Kyrie movements often have a structure that reflects the concision and symmetry of the text. Many have a ternary (ABA) form, where the two appearances of the phrase "Kyrie eleison" are comprised of identical or closely related material and frame a contrasting "Christe eleison" section. Or AAABBBCCC' form is also found later on. Famously, Mozart sets the "Kyrie" and "Christe" texts in his Requiem Mass as the two subjects of a double fugue. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... The Requiem Mass in D minor (K. 626) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was composed in 1791. ... In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition or technique of composition for a fixed number of parts, normally referred to as voices, irrespective of whether the work is vocal or instrumental. ...


II. Gloria

The Gloria is a celebratory passage praising God and Christ: Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Latin for Glory to God in the highest)woot is the title and beginning of the great doxology (song of praise) used in the Roman Catholic Mass and, in translation, in the services of many other Christian churches. ...

Gloria in excelsis Deo et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis. Laudamus te, benedicimus te, adoramus te, glorificamus te, gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam, Domine Deus, Rex caelestis [coelestis], Deus Pater omnipotens.
Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men of good will. We praise You, we bless You, we adore You, we glorify You, we give thanks to You for Your great glory, Lord God, heavenly King, almighty God the Father.
Domine Fili unigenite, Iesu Christe, Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis; qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprecationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere nobis.
Lord Jesus Christ, only begotten Son, Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, You who take away the sins of the world, have mercy on us; You who take away the sins of the world, hear our prayers. You who sit at the right hand of the Father, have mercy upon us.
Quoniam tu solus Sanctus, tu solus Dominus, tu solus Altissimus, Iesu Christe, cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Amen.
For You are the only Holy One, the only Lord, the only Most High, Jesus Christ, with the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father, Amen.

In Mass settings (normally in English) composed for the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer liturgy, the Gloria is commonly the last movement, because it occurs in this position in the text of the service. In Order One of the newer Common Worship liturgy, however, it is restored to its earlier place. For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Common Worship is a series of books of services and prayers, known as a liturgy, published by the Church of England. ...


III. Credo

The longest text of the Mass, this is a setting of the Nicene Creed: Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ...

Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem,
factorem caeli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium.
I believe in one God, the Father Almighty
Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible:
Et in unum Dominum Iesum Christum,
Filium Dei unigenitum, et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula.
Deum de Deo, Lumen de Lumine, Deum verum de Deo vero,
genitum non factum, consubstantialem Patri;
per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de caelis.
Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex Maria Virgine, et homo factus est.
Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus et sepultus est,
et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scripturas,
et ascendit in caelum, sedet ad dexteram Patris.
Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, iudicare vivos et mortuos,
cuius regni non erit finis;
And in one Lord Jesus Christ,
the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds;
God of God, Light of Light, very [true] God of very [true] God;
begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father,
by Whom all things were made;
Who for us men and for our salvation came down from Heaven, and became man.
and was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man:
And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried:
And the third day he rose again according to the Scriptures:
And ascended into Heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of the Father:
And he shall come again, with glory, to judge both the living and the dead:
Whose Kingdom will have no end;
Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dominum et vivificantem,
qui ex Patre Filioque procedit.
Qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et conglorificatur:
qui locutus est per prophetas.
Et unam, sanctam, catholicam et apostolicam Ecclesiam.
Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum.
Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum,
et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen.
And I believe in the Holy Ghost the Lord, and Giver of Life,
Who proceedeth from the Father and the Son
Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified,
Who spake by the Prophets.
And I believe in One Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church,
I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins.
And I look for the Resurrection of the Dead:
And the Life of the world to come. Amen.

The Credo movement presents unique challenges to the composer due to its length. Because of this, in a service the Creed is often either said by the congregation or sung to one of the many chant settings. Chant is the rhythmic speaking or singing of words or sounds, often primarily on one or two pitches called reciting tones. ...


IV. Sanctus

The Sanctus is a doxology praising the Trinity: Sanctus is the Latin word for holy, and is the name of an important hymn of Christian liturgy. ... A doxology (from the Greek doxa, glory + logos, word or speaking) is a short hymn of praise to God in various Christian worship services, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth; pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua
Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Hosts; Heaven and earth are full of Your glory.
Hosanna in excelsis
Hosanna in the highest.

V. Benedictus

The Benedictus is a continuation of the Sanctus:

Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord

Hosanna in excelsis is usually repeated after the Benedictus section, often with musical material identical to that used after the Sanctus, or very closely related.


In Gregorian chant the Sanctus (with Benedictus) was sung whole at its place in the mass. However, as composers produced more embellished settings of the Sanctus text, the music often would go on so long that it would run into the consecration of the bread and wine. This was considered the most important part of the Mass, so composers began to stop the Sanctus halfway through to allow this to happen, and then continue it after the consecration is finished. This practice was forbidden for a period in the twentieth century. To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ...


VI. Agnus Dei

The Agnus Dei is a setting of the "Lamb of God" litany: A lamb holding a Christian banner is a typical symbol for Agnus Dei. ...

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,
miserere nobis
Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world,
have mercy upon us.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi,
dona nobis pacem.
Lamb of God, who take away the sins of the world,
give us peace.

In a Requiem Mass, the words "miserere nobis" are replaced by "dona eis requiem" (grant them rest), while "dona nobis pacem" is replaced by "dona eis requiem sempiternam" (grant them eternal rest).


Other Sections

In a liturgical Mass, there are other sections that may be sung, often in Gregorian chant. These sections, the "Proper" of the Mass, change with the day and season according to the Church calendar, or according to the special circumstances of the mass. The Proper of the Mass is usually not set to music in a Mass itself, except in the case of a Requiem Mass, but may be the subject of motets or other musical compositions. The sections of the Proper of the Mass include the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia or Tract (depending on the time of year), Offertory and Communion. Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ...


Musical settings

Middle Ages

The earliest musical settings of the Mass are Gregorian chant. The different portions of the Ordinary came into the liturgy at different times, with the Kyrie probably being first (perhaps as early as the 7th century) and the Credo being last (it did not become part of the Roman mass until 1014)[1].


In the early 14th century, composers began writing polyphonic versions of the sections of the Ordinary. The reason for this surge in interest is not known, but it has been suggested that there was a shortage of new music since composers were increasingly attracted to secular music, and overall interest in writing sacred music had entered a period of decline.[2] The non-changing part of the mass, the Ordinary, then would have music which was available for performance all the time.


Two manuscripts of the 14th century, the Ivrea Codex and the Apt Codex, are the primary sources for polyphonic settings of the Ordinary. Stylistically these settings are similar to both motets and secular music of the time, with a three-voice texture dominated by the highest part. Most of this music was written or assembled at the papal court at Avignon. The Ivrea Codex (Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, 115) is a manuscript containing a significant body of 14th century French polyphonic music. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig...


Several anonymous complete masses from the 14th century survive, including the Tournai Mass; however, discrepancies in style indicate that the movements of these masses were written by several composers and later compiled by scribes into a single set. The first complete Mass we know of whose composer can be identified was the Messe de Nostre Dame (Mass of Our Lady) by Guillaume de Machaut in the 14th century. Look up anonymous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Tournai Mass is a polyphonic setting of the mass from 14th-century France. ... Messe de Nostre Dame (Mass of Our Lady) is a polyphonic mass composed before 1365 by the French poet, composer and cleric Guillaume de Machaut (circa 1300-1377). ... Guillaume de Machaut (around 1300 – 1377), was a French composer and poet of the late Medieval era. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Renaissance

Main articles: Cyclic mass, Cantus firmus mass, Paraphrase mass, Parody mass

The musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass was the principal large-scale form of the Renaissance. The earliest complete settings date from the 14th century, with the most famous example being the Messe de Nostre Dame of Guillaume de Machaut. Individual mass movements, and especially pairs of movements (such as Gloria-Credo pairs, or Sanctus-Agnus pairs), were commonly composed during the 14th and early 15th centuries. Complete masses by a single composer were the norm by the middle of the 15th century, and the form of the mass, with the possibilities for large-scale structure inherent in its multiple movement format, was the main focus of composers within the area of sacred music; it was not to be eclipsed until the motet and related forms became more popular in the first decades of the 16th century. In Renaissance music, the cyclic mass was a setting of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass, in which each of the movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei – shared a common musical theme, commonly a cantus firmus, thus making it a unified whole. ... In Renaissance music, the cyclic mass was a setting of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass, in which each of the movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei – shared a common musical theme, commonly a cantus firmus, thus making it a unified whole. ... Manuscript showing the opening Kyrie of the Missa de Beata Virgine, a late work by Josquin des Prez, and a paraphrase mass. ... A parody mass is a mass that uses a piece of secular music, typically a fragment of a motet or chanson as part of its melodic material. ... Messe de Nostre Dame (Mass of Our Lady) is a polyphonic mass composed before 1365 by the French poet, composer and cleric Guillaume de Machaut (circa 1300-1377). ... Guillaume de Machaut (around 1300 – 1377), was a French composer and poet of the late Medieval era. ...


Most 15th century masses were based on a cantus firmus, usually from a Gregorian chant, and most commonly put in the tenor voice. The cantus firmus sometimes appeared simultaneously in other voices, using a variety of contrapuntal techniques. Later in the century, composers such as Guillaume Dufay, Johannes Ockeghem, and Jacob Obrecht, used secular tunes for cantus firmi. This practice was accepted with little controversy until prohibited by the Council of Trent in 1562. In particular, the song L'homme armé has a long history with composers; more than 40 separate mass settings exist. In music, a cantus firmus (fixed song) is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition, often set apart by being played in long notes. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Du Fay (left), with Gilles Binchois Guillaume Dufay (Du Fay, Du Fayt) (?August 5, 1397 – November 27, 1474) was a Franco-Flemish composer and music theorist of the late Middle Ages/early Renaissance. ... Ockeghem (with glasses) and his singers Johannes Ockeghem (also Jean de; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (c. ... Jacob Obrecht Jacob Obrecht (November 22, 1458 – late July, 1505) was a Dutch composer of the Renaissance. ... Lhomme armé was a secular song from the time of the Renaissance. ...


Other techniques for organizing the cyclic mass evolved by the beginning of the 16th century, including the paraphrase technique, in which the cantus firmus was elaborated and ornamented, and the parody technique, in which several voices of a polyphonic source, not just one, were incorporated into the texture of the mass. Paraphrase and parody supplanted cantus-firmus as the techniques of choice in the 16th century: Palestrina alone wrote 51 parody masses. In Renaissance music, the cyclic mass was a setting of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass, in which each of the movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei – shared a common musical theme, commonly a cantus firmus, thus making it a unified whole. ... Manuscript showing the opening Kyrie of the Missa de Beata Virgine, a late work by Josquin des Prez, and a paraphrase mass. ... A parody mass is a mass that uses a piece of secular music, typically a fragment of a motet or chanson as part of its melodic material. ...


Yet another technique used to organize the multiple movements of a mass was canon. The earliest masses based entirely on canon are Johannes Ockeghem's Missa prolationum, in which each movement is a prolation canon on a freely-composed tune, and the Missa L'homme armé of Guillaume Faugues, which is also entirely canonic but also uses the famous tune L'homme armé throughout. Pierre de La Rue wrote four separate canonic masses based on plainchant, and one of Josquin des Prez's mature masses, the Missa Ad fugam, is entirely canonic and free of borrowed material.[3] In music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e. ... The Missa prolationum is a musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass, by Johannes Ockeghem, dating from the second half of the 15th century. ... A prolation canon is a type of musical canon. ... Guillaume Faugues ( 1460–1475) was a French composer. ... Lhomme armé was a secular song from the time of the Renaissance. ... Pierre de La Rue (c. ... 1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, copied from a now-lost oil painting done during his lifetime. ...


The Missa Sine nomine, literally "mass without a name", refers to a mass written on freely composed material. Sometimes these masses were named for other things, such as Palestrina's famous Missa Papae Marcelli, and many times they were canonic masses, as in Josquin's Missa Sine nomine. A Missa Sine nomine, literally a Mass without a name, is a musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass, usually from the Renaissance, which uses no pre-existing musical source material, as was normally the case in mass composition. ... Missa Papae Marcelli, or Pope Marcellus Mass, is a mass by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. ... The Missa Sine nomine is a setting of the Ordinary of the Mass by Renaissance composer Josquin des Prez. ...


Many famous and influential masses were composed by Josquin des Prez, the single most influential composer of the middle Renaissance. At the end of the 16th century, prominent representatives of a cappella choral counterpoint included the Englishman William Byrd, the Castilian Tomás Luis de Victoria and the Roman Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose Mass for Pope Marcellus is sometimes credited with saving polyphony from the censure of the Council of Trent. By the time of Palestrina, however, most composers outside of Rome were using other forms for their primary creative outlet for expression in the realm of sacred music, principally the motet and the madrigale spirituale; composers such as the members of the Venetian School preferred the possibilities inherent in the new forms. Other composers, such as Orlande de Lassus, working in Munich and comfortably distant from the conservative influence of the Council of Trent, continued to write parody masses on secular songs. 1611 woodcut of Josquin des Prez, copied from a now-lost oil painting done during his lifetime. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see William Byrd (disambiguation). ... Tomás Luis de Victoria (1548 – August 20, 1611) was a gifted Spanish composer of the late Renaissance. ... Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (between 3 February 1525 and 2 February 1526[1] - 2 February 1594) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... A madrigale spirituale (Italian; pl. ... San Marco in the evening. ... Composer Orlande de Lassus Orlande de Lassus (also Orlandus Lassus, Orlando di Lasso, Roland de Lassus, or Roland Delattre) (1532 (possibly 1530) – June 14, 1594) was a Franco-Flemish composer of late Renaissance music. ... A parody mass is a mass that uses a piece of secular music, typically a fragment of a motet or chanson as part of its melodic material. ...


Major Works in Baroque through Romantic

After the Renaissance, the mass tended not to be the central genre for any one composer, yet some of the most famous of all musical works of the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods are masses. Many of the most famous of the great masses of the Romantic era were Requiem masses. The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in...


Among the Masses written for the Ordinary of the Mass are: The Ordinary of the Mass (Latin: Ordo Missae) is the set of texts of the Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite Mass that are generally invariable. ...

Francesco Cavalli (February 14, 1602 – January 14, 1676), Italian composer, was born at Crema. ... The Missa Scala Aretina controversy and Francisco Valls (1672-1747) In 1696 Francisco Valls was headhunted from the Church of Santa María del Mar, Barcelona, to the post of Maestro de capilla at Barcelona Cathedral. ... The Mass in B Minor (BWV 232) is a work of music by Johann Sebastian Bach. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Jan Dismas Zelenka, also known as Johann Dismas Zelenka, (October 16, 1679 - December 23, 1745) was a Czech Baroque composer whose music was notably adventurous with great harmonic invention and mastery of counterpoint. ... Mozarts Große Messe (or Great Mass) No. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Masses composed by Joseph Haydn include: No. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... The Missa in angustiis (also known as the Lord Nelson Mass, Imperial Mass, and other names) is a mass for soloists, chorus, and orchestra, written in 1798 by Joseph Haydn. ... Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809): Mass No. ... Ludwig van Beethoven wrote his Mass in C major (or Mass in C) to a commission from Nikolaus Esterházy in 1807. ... Ludwig van Beethovens Missa Solemnis in D Major, Op. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... “Liszt” redirects here. ... Mass No. ... Schubert redirects here. ... Mass in F Minor is an album by the Electric Prunes. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Charles Gounod. ... Giacomo Puccinis Messa or Messa a quattro voci (once incorrectly entitled Messa di Gloria) was composed in 1880 as his graduation exercise at the Istituto Musicale Pacini. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Gioacchino Rossinis Petite Messe Solennelle was written in 1863, last, the composer called it, of his pêchés de vieilesse (his sins of old age)[1]. The witty composer, who produced little for public hearing during his long retirement at Passy, prefaced his mass—characterized, apocryphally by Napoleon... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ...

Major Works in the 20th and 21st century

In the 20th century, composers continued to write masses, in an even wider diversity of style, form and function than before.


The 20th century

The 21st century Frederick Albert Theodore Delius CH (January 29, 1862, – June 10, 1934) was an English composer born in Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. ... The Mass in G Minor is a choral work by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written in 1921. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Original cover to the vocal score of the Mass, published by Boosey & Hawkes Igor Stravinsky composed his Mass between 1944 and 1948. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... MASS (formally, MASS: A Theatre Piece for Singers, Players, and Dancers) is a musical piece composed by Leonard Bernstein. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Frank Martin (September 15, 1890 – November 21, 1974) was a Swiss composer. ... Bertold Hummel (November 27, 1925 to August 9, 2002) was a German composer. ... Mass of the Children is a major work of English composer John Rutter. ... John Milford Rutter CBE (born September 24, 1945)) is an English composer, choral conductor, editor, arranger and record producer. ... Steve Dobrogosz[1] is an American pianist and composer. ... David Warren Brubeck (born December 6, 1920 in Concord, California[1]), better known as Dave Brubeck, is a U.S. jazz pianist. ...

Kentaro Sato 2005 Kentaro Sato (佐藤賢太郎; born May 12, 1981) is a Los Angeles-based composer of media music (Film/TV/Game) and concert music (Symphonic and Choral). ...

Masses written for the Anglican liturgy

These are more often known as 'Communion Services', and differ not only in that they are settings of English words, but also, as mentioned above, in that the Gloria usually forms the last movement. Sometimes the Kyrie movement takes the form of sung responses to the Ten Commandments, 1 to 9 being followed by the words 'Lord have mercy upon us and incline our heartd to keep this law', and the tenth by 'Lord have mercy upon us and write all these thy laws in our hearts, we beseech thee'. Since the texts of the 'Benedictus qui venit' and the 'Agnus Dei' do not actually feature in the liturgy of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, these movements are often missing from some of the earlier Anglican settings. Charles Villiers Stanford composed a Benedictus and Agnus in the key of F major which was published separately to complete his service in C. For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ...


With reforms in the Anglican liturgy, the movements are now usually sung in the same order that they are in the Roman Catholic rite, leading, according to some, to the musical integrity of the settings being somewhat compromised. Choral settings of the Creed, the most substantial movement are rarely performed in Anglican cathedrals now.


Well known Anglican settings of the Mass, which may be found in the repertoire of many English cathedrals are:

Harold Darke was a composer and organist of St Michaels, Cornwall from 1916 to 1966, leaving only briefly in 1941 to act as a substitute for Boris Ord at Kings College, Cambridge during World War I. Darkes setting of In the Bleak Midwinter is often sung still... Harold Darke was a composer and organist of St Michaels, Cornwall from 1916 to 1966, leaving only briefly in 1941 to act as a substitute for Boris Ord at Kings College, Cambridge during World War I. Darkes setting of In the Bleak Midwinter is often sung still... Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ... Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (September 30, 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer. ... Herbert Sumsion (14 January 1899 — 11 August 1995) was an English organist and composer in the Anglican church music tradition. ... Dr. George Oldroyd (1887 - 1956) was an English organist and composer of Anglican church music. ... Francis Alan Jackson OBE (born October 2, 1917) is a British organist and composer. ... Herbert Norman Howells CH (17 October 1892 – 23 February 1983) was an English composer, organist, and teacher. ... Kenneth Leighton ( Wakefield, October 2, 1929 Edinburgh, August 24, 1988) was born in Wakefield, Yorkshire. ... Thomas Tertius Noble (May 5, 1867–May 4, 1953) was an English-born organist and composer, resident in the United States for the latter part of his career. ... Basil Harwood (11 April 1859–3 April 1949) was an English organist and composer. ... Charles Wood (15 June 1866-12 July 1926)was an Irish composer and teacher. ... Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ...

Musical reforms of Pius X

Pope St. Pius X initiated many regulations to the mass music in the early 20th century. He felt that most of the masses composed by the famous composers were not appropriate for a church setting, and advocated primarily Gregorian chant and polyphony. He was primarily influenced by the work of the Abbey of Solesmes. Some of the rules he put forth include the following: Pope Pius X (1903-1914), pictured in 1904, wearing the 1834 Triple Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI Saint Pius X, né Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 - 20 August 1914) was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope... Solesmes is a town and commune of the Sarthe département, in France, located near Sablé. Abbey The Abbey Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, founded in 1010, is a Benedictine abbey. ...

  • That any Mass be composed in an integrated fashion, not by assembling different compositions for different parts
  • That all percussion instruments should be forbidden
  • That ideally the choir should be all male
  • That the congregation itself should ideally be trained to sing along with the Gregorian chant.

These regulations carry little if any weight today, especially after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. Quite recently, Pope Benedict XVI has encouraged a return to chant as the primary music of the liturgy, as this is explicitly mentioned in the documents of the Second Vatican Council, specifically Sacrosanctum Concilium 116[4]. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Missa Brevis (Short Mass)

In addition, a number of composers wrote shorter, abbreviated masses, Missa Brevis, which often missed out the longer movements. A Missa Brevis is, literally, a short Mass. ...


References

  • Gustave Reese, Music in the Renaissance. New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1954. ISBN 0-393-09530-4
  • Harold Gleason and Warren Becker, Music in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Music Literature Outlines Series I). Bloomington, Indiana. Frangipani Press, 1986. ISBN 0-89917-034-X
  • Lewis Lockwood, "Mass." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. ISBN 1-56159-174-2
  • The New Harvard Dictionary of Music, ed. Don Randel. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-674-61525-5
  • M. Jennifer Bloxham, "Masses on Polyphonic Songs", in Robert Scherr, ed., The Josquin Companion. Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-816335-5
  • http://classicalmusic.about.com/od/theordinaryofthemass/f/gloria.htm

Gustave Reese (November 29, 1899 – September 7, 1977) was an American musicologist and teacher. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Harvard Dictionary of Music, p. 472.
  2. ^ Lockwood, "Mass", Grove (1980)
  3. ^ Bloxham, p. 196
  4. ^ [1]


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Gregorian chants of the Roman Mass Image File history File links Sample of Gregorian chant; Kyrie orbis factor File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...

Ordinary:
Proper:
Accentus: The Ordinary of the Mass (Latin: Ordo Missae) is the set of texts of the Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite Mass that are generally invariable. ... The Proper (Latin proprium) is that part of the Christian liturgy that varies according to the date, either representing an observance within the Liturgical Year, or of a particular saint or significant event. ... Accentus Ecclesiasticus is a Church music term, the counterpart of concentus. ...

 

Kyrie | Gloria | Credo | Sanctus | Agnus Dei | Ite missa est or Benedicamus Domino
Introit | Gradual | Alleluia or Tract | Sequence | Offertory | Communion
Collect | Epistle | Gospel | Secret | Preface | Canon | Postcommunion Kyrie is the vocative case of the Greek word κύριος (kyrios - lord) and means O Lord; it is the common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy, also called Kyrie eleison which is Greek for Lord, have mercy. ... Gloria in Excelsis Deo (Latin for Glory to God in the highest) is the title and beginning of the Great Doxology used in the Roman Catholic Mass, Divine Service of the Lutheran Church and in the services of many other [1] Christian churches. ... The credo (Latin for I believe; pronounced ) is a statement of religious belief, such as the Nicene Creed (or, less often, another creed, such as the Apostles Creed). ... Sanctus is the Latin word for holy, and is the name of an important hymn of Christian liturgy. ... A lamb holding a Christian banner is a typical symbol for Agnus Dei. ... The Ite missa est is the concluding salutation of the Mass (liturgy) of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Benedicamus Domino (Latin for Let us bless the Lord) is a closing salutation used in the Roman Mass instead of the Ite missa est in Masses which lack the Gloria (such as those during Lent). ... The introit (Latin: introitus, entrance) is part of the opening of the celebration of the Mass. ... The Gradual (Latin: graduale, sometimes called the Grail) is a chant in the Roman Catholic Mass, sung after the reading or singing of the Epistle and before the Alleluia, or, during penitential seasons, before the Tract. ... Hallelujah, Halleluyah, or Alleluia, is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְלוּיָהּ meaning [Let us] praise (הַלְלוּ) God (יָהּ) (or Praise (הַלְלוּ) [the] Lord (&#1497... The tract (Latin: tractus) is part of the proper of the Roman Mass, which is used instead of the Alleluia during Lenten or pre-Lenten seasons, and a few other penitential occasions, when the joyousness of an Alleluia is deemed inappropriate. ... In Latin poetry, a sequence (Latin sequentia) is a poem written in a non-classical metre, often on a sacred Christian subject. ... Offertory (from the ecclesiastical Latin offertorium, French offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service. ... The Communion is the Gregorian chant sung during the Eucharist in the Roman Mass. ... In Christian liturgy, a collect is both a liturgical action and a short, general prayer. ... An epistle (Greek επιστολη, epistolÄ“, letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually a letter and a very formal, often didactic and elegant one. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The Secret (Latin: Secreta, oratio secreta) is the prayer said in a low voice by the celebrant at the end of the Offertory in the Mass. ... In liturgical use the term Preface is applied to that portion of the Eucharistic service which immediately precedes the Canon or central portion; the preface, which begins at the words Vere dignum et justum est, aequum et salutare, It is very meet and just, right and salutary, is ushered in... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Canon of the Mass (Canon Missæ, Canon Actionis) is the name used in the Roman Missal of the Tridentine period for the part of the Mass that began after the Sanctus with the words Te igitur. ... Postcommunion (Latin: Postcommunio) is the text said or sung on a reciting tone following the Communion of the Mass. ...


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