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Encyclopedia > Mask
Papierkrattler masks at the Narrensprung 2005 Carnival parade, Ravensburg Germany
Papierkrattler masks at the Narrensprung 2005 Carnival parade, Ravensburg Germany

A mask is an artefact normally worn on the face, typically for protection, concealment, performance, or amusement. Masks have been used since antiquity for both ceremonial and practical purposes. They are usually worn on the face, although they may also be positioned for effect elsewhere on the wearer's body, so in parts of Australasia giant totem masks cover the body, whilst Inuit women use finger masks during storytelling and dancing.[1] The term mask may refer to Mask, an article of clothing or equipment worn on the face and covering it (at least largely) for various reasons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 674 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (901 × 801 pixel, file size: 288 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ravensburg, Germany: Papierkrattler masks at the Narrensprung 2005 carnival parade Photo: Andreas Praefcke, February 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 674 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (901 × 801 pixel, file size: 288 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ravensburg, Germany: Papierkrattler masks at the Narrensprung 2005 carnival parade Photo: Andreas Praefcke, February 2005 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to...

Contents

Etymology

The word "mask" came via French masque and either Italian maschera or Spanish máscara. Possible ancestors are Latin (not classical) mascus, masca = "ghost"; Hebrew masecha= "mask"; Arabic maskharah مَسْخَرَۃٌ = "jester", "man in masquerade", maskhara مَسْخَرَ = "he ridiculed, he mocked", masakha مَسَخَ = "he transfomed" (transitive). For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Masquerade ball at the Carnival of Venice An artists depiction of a masquerade ball. ... In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ...


Masks in performance

Throughout the world masks are used for their expressive power as a feature of masked performance - both ritually and in various theatre traditions. The ritual and theatrical definitions of mask usage frequently overlap and merge but still provide a useful basis for categorisation. Image File history File links Punchj. ... Image File history File links Punchj. ... For other uses, see Punch and Judy (disambiguation). ... Horse and Bamboo Theatre or Horse + Bamboo Theatre is a British theatre company founded in 1978 by the Artistic Director, Bob Frith, that works internationally as well as within the UK and from its Centre in Waterfoot, Rossendale, Lancashire. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


In ancient Rome the word persona meant 'a mask'; it also referred to an individual who had full Roman citizenship. A citizen could demonstrate their lineage through imagines, death masks of the ancestors. These were wax casts kept in a lararium, the family shrine. Rites of passage, such as initiation of young members of the family, or funerals, were carried out at the shrine under the watch of the ancestral masks. At funerals professional actors would wear these masks to perform deeds of the lives of the ancestor, [2] thus linking the role of mask as a ritual object and in theatre. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Lares Familiares (Family Guardians in Latin) were mythological spirits of ancient Rome. ...


Masks are a familiar and vivid element in many folk and traditional pageants, ceremonies, rituals and festivals, and are often of an ancient origin. The mask is normally a part of a costume that adorns the whole body and embodies a tradition important to the religious and/or social life of the community as whole or a particular group within the community. Masks are used almost universally and maintain their power and mystery both for their wearers and their audience.The continued popularity of wearing masks at carnival, and for children at parties and for festivals such as Halloween are good examples. Nowadays these are usually mass-produced plastic masks, often associated with popular films, TV programmes or cartoon characters - they are, however, reminders of the enduring power of pretence and play and the power and appeal of masks. Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on the related German... Look up pageant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A ceremony is an activity, infused with ritual significance, performed on a certain occasion. ... Rituals was an American soap opera that ran in syndication from September 1984 to September 1985 in 260 25 minutes episodes. ... A festival or fest is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some theme, sometimes on some unique aspect of the community. ... For other uses, see Community (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ... This article is about the holiday. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Film may refer to: photographic film a motion picture in academics, the study of motion pictures as an art form a thin skin or membrane, or any covering or coating, whether transparent or opaque a thin layer of liquid, either on a solid or liquid surface or free-standing Film... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ...


Ritual masks

Ritual masks occur throughout the world, and although they tend to share many characteristics, highly distinctive forms have developed. The function of the masks may be magical or religious; they may appear in rites of passage or as a make-up for a form of theatre. Equally masks may disguise a penitent or preside over important ceremonies; they may help mediate with spirits, or offer a protective role to the society who utilise their powers.[3]


Africa

See also: African tribal masks

There are an enormous variety of masks used in Africa. In West Africa, masks are used in masquerades that form part of religious ceremonies enacted to communicate with spirits and ancestors. Examples are the masquerades of the Yoruba, Igbo and Edo cultures, including Egungun Masquerades and Northern Edo Masquerades. The masks are usually carved with an extraordinary skill and variety by artists who will usually have received their training as an apprentice to a master carver - frequently it is a tradition that has been passed down within a family through many generations. Such an artist holds a respected position in tribal society because of the work that he or she creates, embodying not only complex craft techniques but also spiritual/social and symbolic knowledge.[4] African masks are also used in the Mas or Masquerade of the Caribbean Carnival. A traditional Malian mask There are an enormous variety of masks used in Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Yoruba (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are a large ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa. ... The Ibo are a group of people living in what is now Nigeria. ... This article is about the history of the city now known as Tokyo. ... Egungun is a part of the Yoruba Pantheon of divinities. ... // This section does not cite any references or sources. ... Caribbean Carnival is an event that takes place in many of the Caribbean islands annually. ...

Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers. Wood, Gabon, 19th century.
Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers. Wood, Gabon, 19th century.

Many African masks represent animals. Some African tribes believe that the animal masks can help them communicate with the spirits who live in forests or open savannas. People of Burkina Faso known as the Bwa and Nuna call to the spirit to stop destruction. The Dogon of Mali have complex religions that also have animal masks. Their beliefs are in three main cults - the Awa, cult of the dead, Bini, cult of communication with spirits and Lebe, cult of earth and nature. These three main cults nevertheless use seventy-eight different types of masks. Most of the ceremonies of the Dogon culture are secret, although the antelope dance is shown to non-Dogons. The antelope masks are rough rectangular boxes with several horns coming out of the top. The Dogons are expert agriculturists and the antelope symbolizes a hard working farmer. [5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x2900, 2189 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mask Beti-Pahuin African tribal masks Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x2900, 2189 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mask Beti-Pahuin African tribal masks Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... The Beti-Pahuin are a group of related peoples who inhabit the rain forest regions of Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and São Tomé and Príncipe. ... For the popping bean, see common bean. ... The Dogon village of Banani. ... AWA abbre Application Web Access, Some kind of access to application by web Awadhi language (ISO 639 language code awa) Awa (or variants) can mean: Awá, an endangered indigenous people of Amazonia Awa (people), a people group in the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea Awa, Chiba (Japan), a... MINI is the name of a subsidiary of BMW as well as that of a car produced by that subsidiary since April 2001. ...


Another culture that has a very rich agricultural tradition is the Bamana people of Mali. The antelope (called Chiwara) is believed to have taught man the secrets of agriculture. Although the Dogons and Bamana people both believe the antelope symbolises agriculture, they interpret elements the masks differently. To the Bamana people, swords represent the sprouting of grain. Bambara, also known as Bamanankan in the language itself, is a language spoken in Mali by as many six million people. ... Drawing of a male, vertical Chiwara mask. ... This article is about the herbivorous mammals. ...


Masks may also indicate a culture’s ideal of feminine beauty. The masks of Punu of Gabon have highly arched eyebrows, almost almond-shaped eyes and a narrow chin. The raised strip running from both sides of the nose to the ears represent jewellery. Dark black hairstyle, tops the mask off. The whiteness of the face represent the whiteness and beauty of the spirit world. Only men wear the masks and perform the dances with high stilts despite it being a “female” masks. One of the most beautiful representations of female beauty is the Idia’s Mask of Benin. It is believed to have been commissioned by a king of Benin in memory of his mother. To honor his dead mother, the king wore the mask on his hip during special ceremonies.[6] Queen Idia was the mother of Esigie, the Oba of Benin who ruled from 1504 to 1550. ...


The Senoufo people of the Ivory Coast represent tranquility by making masks with eyes half-shut and lines drawn near the mouth. The Temne of Sierra Leone use masks with small eyes and mouths to represent humility and humbleness. They represent wisdom by making bulging forehead. Other masks that have exaggerated long faces and broad foreheads symbolize the soberness of one’s duty that comes with power. War masks are also popular. The Grebo of the Ivory Coast carve masks with round eyes to represent alertness and anger, with the straight nose to represent unwillingness to retreat.[7] Map showing the approximate distribution of Senufo peoples and some neighbouring peoples in Mali, Côte dIvoire, Burkina Faso and Ghana. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... Temne can refer to: The Mel Temne language, one of the four official languages of Sierra Leone, Africa. ... For the language, see Grebo language. ...


Today, the qualities of African art are beginning to be more understood and appreciated. However most African masks are now being produced for the tourist trade. Although they often show skilled craftsmanship and they will nearly always lack the spiritual character of the traditional tribal masks. Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ...


Oceania

The variety and beauty of the masks of Melanesia are almost as highly developed as in Africa. It is a culture where ancestor worship is dominant and religious ceremonies are devoted to ancestors. Inevitably many of the mask types relate to use in these ceremonies and are linked with the activities of secret societies. The mask is regarded as an instrument of revelation, giving form to the sacred. This is often accomplished by linking the mask to an ancestral presence, and thus bringing the past into the present. map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ...


As a culture of scattered islands and peninsulars Melanesian mask forms have developed in a highly diversified fashion, with a great deal of variety in their construction and aesthetic.[8] In Papua New Guinea six metre-high totem masks are placed to protect the living from spirits; whereas the duk-duk and tubuan masks of New Guinea are used to enforce social codes by intimidation. They are conical masks, made from cane and leaves.[9]


North America

Arctic Coastal groups have tended towards rudimentary religious practice but a highly evolved and rich mythology, especially concerning hunting. In some areas annual shamanic ceremonies involved masked dances and these strongly abstracted masks are arguably the most striking artifacts produced in this region. For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Specifically, Shaman (saman) is a term in Evenk, Manchu and other Manchu-Tungus languages for an intellectual and spiritual figure; who usually possess power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, one of which is analogous to the function of a healer in other cultures. ...


Pacific Northwest Coastal indigenous groups were generally highly skilled woodworkers. Their masks were often master-pieces of carving, sometimes with moveable jaws, or a mask within a mask, and parts moved by pulling cords. The carving of masks were an important feature of wood craft, along with many other features that often combined the utilitarian with the symbolic, such as shields, canoes, poles and houses. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ... This article is about the handheld defensive device. ... Canoe at El Nido, Philippines A canoe is a relatively small human-powered boat. ...


Woodland tribes, especially in the North-East and around the Great Lakes, cross-fertilized culturally with one another. The Iroquois made spectacular wooden ‘false face’ masks, used in healing ceremonies and carved from living trees. These masks appear in a great variety of shapes, depending on their precise function. The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


Pueblo craftsmen produced impressive work for masked religious ritual, especially the Hopi and Zuni. The kachinas, god/spirits, frequently take the form of highly distinctive and elaborate masks that are used in ritual dances. These are usually made of leather with appendages of fur, feathers or leaves. Some cover the face, some the whole head and are often highly abstracted forms. Navajo masks appear to be inspired by the Pueblo prototypes. [10] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... Moki redirects here. ... The Zuni (also spelled Zuñi) or Ashiwi are a Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples, most of whom live in the Pueblo of Zuñi on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico. ... The Navajo people (or Diné) of the Southwestern United States are currently the largest Native American tribe in North America, with an estimated tribal population of 300,000. ...


South and Central America

Aztec mask of Xiuhtecuhtli, c. 1500, of Mixtec-Aztec provenance
Aztec mask of Xiuhtecuhtli, c. 1500, of Mixtec-Aztec provenance

Distinctive styles of masks began to emerge in pre-Hispanic America about 1200BC, although there is evidence of far older mask forms. In the Andes masks were used to dress the faces of the dead. These were originally made of fabric but later burial masks were sometimes made of beaten copper or gold, and occasionally of clay. Image File history File links Aztec_mask_050910_170205. ... Image File history File links Aztec_mask_050910_170205. ... This article is about the mountain system in South America. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ...


For the Aztecs human skulls were prized as war trophies and skull masks were not uncommon. Masks were also used as part of court entertainments, possibly combining political with religious significance. The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Some trophies seen in the London Irish clubhouse at Sunbury in 2002. ...


In post-colonial Latin America pre-Columbian traditions merged with Christian rituals, and syncretic masquerades and ceremonies, such as All Souls/Day of the Dead developed, despite efforts of the Church to stamp out the indigenous traditions. Masks remain an important feature of popular carnivals and religious dances, such as The Dance of the Moors and Christians. Mexico, in particular, retains a great deal of creativity in the production of masks, encouraged by collectors. Wrestling matches, where it is common for the participants to wear masks, are very popular and many of the wrestlers can be considered folk heroes. [11] Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... All Souls can refer to: All Souls Day All Souls College, Oxford All Souls Unitarian Church in Tulsa, Oklahoma This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Day of the Dead (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see moor. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ...


Asia

India/Sri Lanka/Indo-China/Indonesia

Masked characters, usually divinities, are a central feature of Indian dramatic forms, many based on depicting the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. Countries that have had strong Indian cultural influences – Cambodia, Burma, Java, Thailand, Vietnam – have developed the Indian forms, combined with local myths, and developed their own characteristic styles. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... This article is about the Java island. ...


The masks* are usually highly exaggerated and formalised, and share an aesthetic with the carved images of monstrous heads that dominate the facades of Hindu and Buddhist temples. These faces or Kirtimukhas, 'Visages of Glory', are intended to ward off evil and are associated with the animal world as well as the divine. During ceremonies these visages are given active form in the great mask dramas of the South and South-eastern Asian region. [12] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


China

In China masks are thought to have originated in ancient religious ceremonies. Images of people wearing masks have been found in rock paintings along the Yangtze River. Later mask forms brings together myths and symbols from Shamanism and Buddhism.[13] The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings, sometimes described as a religion[1] or way of life that attempts to identify the causes of human suffering and offer various ways that are claimed to end, or ease suffering. ...


Shigong dance masks were used in shamanic rituals to thank the gods, while Nuo dance masks protected from bad spirits. Wedding masks were used to pray for good luck and a lasting marriage, and “Swallowing Animal” masks were associated with protecting the home and symbolised the “swallowing” of disaster. Opera masks were used in a basic 'Common' form of opera performed without a stage or backdrops. These led to colourful facial patterns that we see in today's Jingju (Beijing Opera). A female Beijing opera performer with traditional costume and makeup A male Beijing opera performer Beijing opera or Peking opera (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a form of Chinese opera which arose in the late 18th century and became fully developed and recognized by the mid-19th century. ...


Korea

See also: Korean mask

Korean masks have a long tradition going back at least 5000 years. ...

Japan

Japanese masks are part of a very old and highly sophisticated and stylized theatrical tradition. Although the roots are in prehistoric myths and cults they have developed into refined art forms. The oldest masks are the gigaku. The form no longer exists, and was probably a type of dance presentation. The bugaku developed from this – a complex dance-drama that used masks with moveable jaws.


The or noh mask evolved from the gigaku and bugaku and are acted entirely by men. The masks are worn throughout very long performances and are consequently very light. Kyōgen are short farces with their own masks. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ...


Eskimo cultures

See also: Masks among Eskimo peoples

Middle East

Golden masks excavated in Kalmakareh, Lorestan, Iran. First half of first Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.
Golden masks excavated in Kalmakareh, Lorestan, Iran. First half of first Millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.

Theatre in the Middle East, as elsewhere, was initially of a ritual nature, dramatising man’s relationship with nature, the gods, and other human beings. It grew out of sacred rites of myths and legends performed by priests and lay actors at fixed times and often in fixed locations. Folk theatre — mime, mask, puppetry, farce, juggling - had a ritual context in that it was performed at religious or rites of passage such as days of naming, circumcisions, and marriages. Over time some of these contextual ritual enactments became divorced from their religious meaning and they were performed throughout the year. Some 2500 years ago, kings and commoners alike were entertained by dance and mime accompanied by music where the dancers often wore masks, a vestige of an earlier era when such dances were enacted as religious rites. According to George Goyan, this practice evoked that of Roman funeral rites where masked actor-dancers represented the deceased with motions and gestures mimicking those of the deceased while singing the praise of his life (see Masks in Performance above).[14] Image File history File linksMetadata Masks_iran_ancient. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Masks_iran_ancient. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Europe

Fools Meeting or Parade, Messkirch, Germany
Fools Meeting or Parade, Messkirch, Germany

Masks are used throughout Europe, and are frequently integrated into regional folk celebrations and customs. Old masks are preserved and can be seen in museums and other collections, and much research has been undertaken into the historical origins of masks. Most probably represent nature spirits, and as a result many of the associated customs are seasonal. The original significance would have survived only until the introduction of Christianity which then incorporated many of the customs into its own traditions. In the process their meanings were also changed so, for example, old gods and goddesses were, literally, demonised and became devils. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1645 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1544 × 1645 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation). ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ...


Many of the masks and characters used in European festivals belong to the contrasting categories of the 'good', or 'idealised beauty', set against the 'ugly' or 'beastly' and grotesque. This is particularly true of the Germanic and Central European festivals. Another common type is the Fool, sometimes considered to be the synthesis of the two contrasting type of Handsome and Ugly. [15] A fool can refer to: Look up fool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The oldest representations of masks are animal masks, such as the cave paintings of Lascaux in the Dordogne in southern France. Such masks survive in the alpine regions of Austria and Switzerland, and may be connected with hunting or shamanism, and tend to be particularly associated with the New Year and Carnival festivals. For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Cave, or rock, paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to pre_historic times. ... Cave painting at Lascaux. ... Dordogne (Occitan: Dordonha) is a department in central France named after the Dordogne River. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ...

The golden mask

The debate about the meaning of these and other mask forms continues in Europe, where monsters, bears, wild men, harlequins, hobby horses and other fanciful characters appear in carnivals throughout the continent. It is generally accepted that the masks, noise, colour and clamour are meant to drive away the forces of darkness and winter, and open the way for the spirits of light and the coming of spring. [16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about monsters as a kind of legendary creature. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ... Wildman may refer to: Henry Wildman, Australian convict and prospector Larry Wild Man Fischer, a famous street singer Naomi Wildman, fictional character in the Star Trek universe who appeared on the television series Star Trek: Voyager Sir Lawrence (Larry) Wildman, fictional character in the film Wall Street Samantha Wildman, fictional... Harlequin may refer to: A figure from the commedia dellarte: see Arlecchino; The pattern common in the costume of the above figures. ... Look up hobby horse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the beginning of the new century, in 19th August 2004, the Bulgarian archeologist Georgi Kitov discovered a 673g golden mask of a Thracian king in the burial mound "Svetitsata" near Shipka, Central Bulgaria. It is a very fine piece of workmanship made out of massive 23к gold. Unlike other masks discovered in the Balkans (of which 3 are in Republic of Macedonia and two in Greece), it is now kept in the National Archaeological Museum in Sofia. It is considered to be the mask of the Thracian king Teres. Georgi Kitov (b. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... View from Shipka Shipka pass is a scenic mountain pass through the Stara Planina, or Balkan Mountains, in Bulgaria. ... Balkan redirects here. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Front view of the historic building of the National Archaeological Museum Side view The National Archaeological Museum (Bulgarian: , Natsionalen arheologicheski muzey) is an archaeological museum in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Teres I (reigned 475-445 BC) was the first king of the Odrysian state of Thrace. ...


Masks in theatre

Masks play a key part within world theatre traditions, particularly non-western theatre forms. They also continue to be a vital force within contemporary theatre, and their usage takes a variety of forms. Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ...


In many cultural traditions the masked performer is a central concept and is highly valued. In the western tradition it is sometimes considered a stylistic device which can be traced back to the Greeks and Romans. In some Greek masks the wide and open mouth of the mask contained a brass megaphone enabling the voice of the wearer to be projected into the large auditoria. In medieval Europe masks were used in mystery and miracle plays to portray allegorical creatures, and the performer representing God frequently wore a gold or gilt mask. During the Renaissance masques and ballet de cour developed - courtly masked entertainments that continued as part of ballet conventions until the late eighteenth century. The masked characters of the Commedia dell'Arte included the ancestors of the modern clown. In contemporary western theatre the mask is often used alongside puppetry to create a theatre which is essentially visual rather than verbal, and many of its practitioners have been visual artists. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Brazen redirects here. ... Mystery plays or miracle plays are one of the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The masque was a form of festive courtly entertainment which flourished in 16th and early 17th century Europe, though it was developed earlier in Italy. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Commedia redirects here. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... A puppeteer is a person who manipulates a puppet or marionette, either by the use of strings, wires or their hands, for a stage production or film. ...


Masks are an important part of many theatre forms throughout world cultures, and their usage in theatre has often developed from, or continues to be part of old, highly sophisticated, stylized theatrical traditions. See also Masks in ritual.


In Japan the or noh mask is the supreme achievement of Japanese mask-making. masks represent gods, men, women, madmen and devils, and each category has many sub-divisions. Kyōgen are short farces with their own masks, and accompany the tragic nō plays. Kabuki is the theatre of modern Japan, rooted in the older forms, but in this form masks are replaced by painted faces. [17] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kyogen (Japanese: 狂言 Kyōgen, literally mad words or wild speech) is a form of traditional Japanese theater. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ...


Contemporary theatre

Puppets found in the Bread & Puppet Museum in Glover, Vermont
Puppets found in the Bread & Puppet Museum in Glover, Vermont

Masks and puppets, were often incorporated into the theatre work of European avant-garde artists from the turn of the nineteenth century. Alfred Jarry, Pablo Picasso, Oskar Schlemmer and other artists of the Bauhaus School, as well as surrealists and Dadaists, experimented with theatre forms and masks in their work. Download high resolution version (800x719, 94 KB)Description: Photograph of puppets found in the Bread & Puppet Museum in Glover, Vermont Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 10 May 2003. ... Download high resolution version (800x719, 94 KB)Description: Photograph of puppets found in the Bread & Puppet Museum in Glover, Vermont Source: Photograph taken by Jared C. Benedict on 10 May 2003. ... A puppet is a representational object manipulated by a puppeteer. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... Alfred Jarry Alfred Jarry (September 8, 1873 – November 1, 1907) was a French writer born in Laval, Mayenne, France, not far from the border of Brittany; he was of Breton descent on his mothers side. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Oskar Schlemmer (September 4, 1888 – April 13, 1943) was a German painter, sculptor and designer associated with the Bauhaus school. ... For information about British rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... Dadaism or Dada is a post-World War I cultural movement in visual art as well as literature (mainly poetry), theatre and graphic design. ...


The modern effort to restore the mask to the stage derives from Edward Gordon Craig (1872-1966) who in A Note on Masks (1910) proposed the virtues of using masks over the naturalism of the actor. [18] Craig was highly influential, and his ideas were taken up by Brecht, Cocteau, Genet, Eugene O'Neill - and later by Arden, Grotowski and Brook and others who "attempted to restore a ritualistic if not actually religious significance to theatre". [19]. Edward Henry Gordon Craig (16 January 1872-29 July 1966), usually known as Gordon Craig, was a British actor, producer, director and scenic designer. ... For information on the German author, please see Bertolt Brecht. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, and filmmaker. ... Genet can refer to: Citizen Genêt (or Edmond-Charles Genêt) a French ambassador to the United States. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... John Arden is an English playwright born in 1930 (Barnsley/York). ... Jerzy Grotowski (August 11, 1933 - January 14, 1999) was a Polish theater director and a leading figure of theatrical avant garde of the 20th century. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ...


The first real sustained and developed use of masks in contemporary theatre can be traced back to the work of the San Francisco Mime Troupe, founded in 1959, and to Peter Schumann and his Bread and Puppet Theatre, which was established in New York in the early 1960’s. Schumann, born in Silesia in 1934, combined aspects of European festival masks with a highly distinctive American sensibility, and his strongly humanitarian and anti-war polemic has continued to exert an influence on the use of masks in theatre, especially on street-theatre.[20] Other US and Canadian companies, inspired by Bread and Puppet, developed including In the Heart of the Beast Puppet and Mask Theater of Minneapolis; Arm-of-the Sea Theatre from New York State; Snake Theater from California; and Shadowland Theatre of Toronto. These companies, and others, have a strong social agenda, and combine masks, music and puppetry to create a visual theatrical form. The San Francisco Mime Troupe is an award winning theatre of political satire, which performs free shows in various parks in the San Francisco Bay Area and around California. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Schumann (b. ... The Bread and Puppet Theatre is located in Glover, Vermont, in the Northeast Kingdom. ... This article is about the state. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... HOBT May Day Parade in Powderhorn Park In the Heart of the Beast Puppet and Mask Theatre (also known as Heart of the Beast or HOBT) is a puppet company from Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In Europe Schumann’s influence combined with the early avant-garde artists to encourage groups like Moving Picture Mime Show and Welfare State (both in the UK). Later groups, notably Horse and Bamboo Theatre (founded 1978) and Trestle Theatre (1981) developed the use of full-head masks to a sophisticated narrative level. Horse + Bamboo continue this work and remain influential. The practice of performing with masks is also studied by many performers, often derived from the Commedia dell'Arte traditions. The work of Jacques Lecoq has been particularly important in the revival of interest in this discipline. Horse and Bamboo Theatre or Horse + Bamboo Theatre is a British theatre company founded in 1978 by the Artistic Director, Bob Frith, that works internationally as well as within the UK and from its Centre in Waterfoot, Rossendale, Lancashire. ... Commedia redirects here. ... Jacques Lecoq (December 15, 1921 - January 19, 1999) was a French actor, mime and acting instructor. ...


Functional masks

Masks are also familiar as pieces of kit associated with practical functions, usually protective. There has been a proliferation of such masks recently but there is a long history of protective armour and even medical masks to ward off plague. The contrast with performance masks is not always clear-cut. Ritual and theatrical masks themselves can be considered to be practical, and protective masks in a sports context in particular are often designed to enhance the appearance of the wearer.


Medical

Some masks are used for medical purposes:

  • Oxygen mask, a piece of medical equipment that assists breathing
  • Surgical mask, a piece of medical equipment that helps to protect both the surgeon and patient from acquiring diseases from each other
  • Face shield, to protect a medical professional from bodily fluids
  • CPR mask or pocket mask, used to safely deliver rescue breaths during a cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest

Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ... A surgical mask is designed to be worn by health professionals during surgery and at other times to catch the bacteria shed from the wearers mouth and nose. ... Face shield refers to a variety of device used to protect a first aid rescuer during the delivery of oxygen in Rescue breathing or CPR. Category: ... A CPR-mask, with carrying case A CPR mask is a device used to deliver rescue breaths during a cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest safely. ...

Protective

Protective filter mask worn by NYPD officer
Protective filter mask worn by NYPD officer

Protective masks are pieces of kit or equipment worn on the head and face to afford protection to the wearer, and today usually have these functions: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The New York City Police Department (NYPD) , the largest police department in the United States, has primary responsibility for law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City. ...

  • Providing a supply of air or filtering the outside air.
  • Protecting the face against flying objects or dangerous environments, while allowing vision.

In Roman gladiatorial tournaments masks were sometimes used. From archaeological evidence it is clear that these were not only protective but also helped make the wearer appear more intimidating. In medieval Europe and in Japan soldiers and samurai wore similarly ferocious-looking protective armour, extending to face-masks. For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ...


In sport the protective mask will often have a secondary function to make the wearer appear more impressive as a competitor.


Occupational

  • Filter mask, a piece of safety equipment
  • Gas mask, a mask worn on the face to protect the body from airborne pollutants and toxic materials
  • Beaked masks containing herbs in the beak were worn in the Middle Ages by plague doctors to try to ward off the Black Death.
  • Fullface mask as part of self-contained breathing apparatus for divers and others; some let the wearer talk to others through a built-in communication device
  • Oxygen mask worn by high-altitude pilots, or used in medicine to deliver oxygen, anesthetic, or other gases to patients
  • Welding mask to protect the welder's face and eyes from the brightness and sparks created during welding

A half face particulate mask is generally worn to protect the wearer from dust and paint fumes A filter mask or particulate mask is a protective mask which usually covers the mouth and nose only. ... Belgian 1930s era L.702 model civilian mask. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... A diver in a pool wearing an AGA full face mask A diver wearing an Ocean Reef full face mask A full-face diving mask is a type of diving mask worn by SCUBA divers so that they can talk with the surface or other divers. ... // SCBA redirects here. ... Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ...

Sports

A softball catcher wearing a mask for protection
A softball catcher wearing a mask for protection
  • Fencing mask
  • Ice hockey goalkeeper's mask
  • Baseball catcher's mask
  • Balaclava, also known as a "ski mask", to protect the face against cold air
  • Diving mask, an item of diving equipment that allows scuba divers, free-divers, and snorkelers to see clearly underwater
  • Goalie mask, a mask worn by an ice or field hockey goaltender to protect the head from injury
  • Visor (ice hockey)
  • Paintball mask

An interesting example of a sports mask that confounds the protective function is the Wrestling mask, a mask most widely used in the Mexican/Latin lucha libre style of wrestling. In modern lucha libre, masks are colourfully designed to evoke the images of animals, gods, ancient heroes, and other archetypes. The mask is considered "sacred" to some degree, placing its role closer to the ritual and performance function.[21] Image File history File links Softball_Catcher. ... Image File history File links Softball_Catcher. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... This article is about the sport. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A diving mask Snorkeler wearing a soft silicone diving mask A diving mask is an item of diving equipment that allows scuba divers, free-divers, and snorkelers to see clearly underwater. ... The flaming skull mask of Miikka Kiprusoff 2005. ... A visor or shield in ice hockey is a device attached to the front of a hockey helmet to reduce potential of injury to the face. ... Wrestling masks are most widely used in the Mexican/Latin lucha libre style of wrestling. ... One of the most well known Lucha Libre wrestlers (luchadores), Rey Mysterio. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ...

The term mask may refer to Mask, an article of clothing or equipment worn on the face and covering it (at least largely) for various reasons. ...

Disguise

Masks are sometimes used to avoid recognition. In many jurisdictions it is an additional criminal offense to wear a mask while committing a crime; it is also often a crime to wear a mask at public assemblies and demonstrations. For instance, in Virginia, it is illegal for anyone over sixteen years of age to wear a mask in a public place.[22] In some areas of the United States, it is only illegal to wear a mask if there is intent to commit an illegal act.[23] Recognition of acquaintances From nearby, a human individual is mainly recognized by his or her face. ... For other uses, see Demonstration. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Masks are also used to prevent recognition whilst showing membership of a group: This article is about witnesses in law courts. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... In the common law legal system, an indictment is a formal charge of having committed a serious criminal offense. ... A black bloc is an affinity group, or cluster of affinity groups,[1] that comes together during some sort of protest, demonstration, or other event involving class struggle, anti-capitalism, or anti-globalization. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... A woman wears a bandanna on her head. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Use by penitents of masks in ceremonies to disguise their identity in order to make the act of penitence more selfless. The Semana Santa parades throughout Spain and in Hispanic/Catholic countries throughout the world are examples of this, with their cone shaped masks.
  • Use by vigilante groups
  • The cone-shaped mask in particular is identified with the Ku Klux Klan in a self-conscious effort to combine the hiding of personal identity with the promotion of a powerful and intimidating image.

Holy Week (Sp. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... For other uses, see Vigilante (disambiguation). ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...

Punitive

Masks are sometimes used to punish the wearer either by signalling their humiliation or causing direct suffering:

  • A "shameful" mask (Schandmaske in German) is devised for public humiliation; a popular reduced form are donkey ears for a bad ('dumb') pupil or student
  • Particularly uncomfortable types, such as an iron mask, are fit as devices for torture or corporal punishment
  • Masks were used to alienate and silence prisoners in Australian jails in the late 19th century. They were made of white cloth and covered the face, leaving only the eyes visible.

For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain and suffering intended to change a persons behavior or to punish them. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Fashion

Decorative masks may be worn as part of a costume outside of ritual or ceremonial functions. This is often described as a masque, and relates closely to carnival styles. For example, attendants of a costume party will sometimes wear masks as part of their costumes. Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ...

  • Wrestling masks are used most widely in Mexican and Japanese wrestling. A wrestler's mask is usually related to a wrestler's persona (for example, a wrestler known as 'The Panda' might wear a mask with a panda's facial markings). Often, wrestlers will put their masks on the line against other wrestlers' masks, titles or an opponent's hair. While in Mexico and Japan, masks are a sign of tradition, they are generally considered by many in the United States to be a deathblow to a wrestler's character. Very few masked wrestlers have succeeded in becoming popular and generally are considered as jobbers. The belief is that fans want to see a face to empathize with and will only get behind a wrestler that shows it.

Wrestling masks are most widely used in the Mexican/Latin lucha libre style of wrestling. ... Persona literally means mask , although it does not usually refer to a literal mask but to the social masks all humans supposedly wear. ... A job is professional wrestling slang referring to a performer who loses a match. ...

Other types

Life mask of Abraham Lincoln.
Life mask of Abraham Lincoln.
  • A Death mask is a mask either cast from or applied to the face of a recently deceased person.
  • A "life mask" is a plaster cast of a face, used as a model for making a painting or sculpture.
  • A "buccal mask" is a mask that covers only the cheeks (hence the adjective "buccal") and mouth.
  • A "facial" (short for facial mask) is a temporary mask, not solid, used in cosmetics or therapy for skin treatment.

Image File history File links Abraham_Lincoln_life_mask. ... Image File history File links Abraham_Lincoln_life_mask. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For an episode of the television series Rome, see Death Mask (Rome). ... This article is about the building material. ... Buccal can refer to: The adjective form of cheek The buccal index The buccal smear The buccal artery, also known as the Buccinator artery Buccal nerve The outer surface of a tooth Dental caries Category: ... Facials may include the use of a facial mask. ...

References

  1. ^ The Living Tradition of Yup'ik Masks; Anne Feinup-Riordan; University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1996; ISBN 10-0295975016
  2. ^ Ritual, Masks, and Sacrifice; Subhash Kak, Studies in Humanities and Social Services vol.11, Indian Institute of Advance Study, Shimla 2004.
  3. ^ Masques du Monde M.Revelard/G. Kostadonova pub. La Renaissance du Livre 2000 Tournai Belgium ISBN 2-8046-0413-6
  4. ^ Masks:Their Meaning and Function: Andreas Lommel pub. Ferndale Editions London orig. Atlantis Verlag Zurich 1970 - introduction, after Himmelheber Afrikanische Masken ISBN 0-905746-11-2
  5. ^ http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~bcr/African_Mask_Faces.html
  6. ^ Bortolot, Alexander Ives. "Idia: The First Queen Mother of Benin". In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2003. Retrieved 25 March 2007.
  7. ^ http://www.ohoh.essortment.com/africamasks_rnqe.htm
  8. ^ Masks:Their Meaning and Function/Andreas Lommel pub. Ferndale Editions London 1970/Oceania:Melanesia, Polynesia, Australia
  9. ^ Where the Masks Still Dance: New Guinea; Chris Rainier and Meg Taylor; Bulfinch Press/Little, Brown & Co., 1996 ISBN: 0821222619
  10. ^ American Indian Art/Norman Feder pub. Harry N. Abrams New York 1973 Lib. of Congress Cat. Card 73-4857
  11. ^ Masks:Their Meaning and Function Andreas Lommel pub. Ferndale Editions London 1970/South America/Central America
  12. ^ Masked Performance: John Emigh pub. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press 1996 ISBN 0-8122-1366-X
  13. ^ Masked Performance: John Emigh pub. Univ. of Pennsylvania Press 1996 ISBN 0-8122-1366-X
  14. ^ The History of Theater in Iran/Willem Floor: MAGE 2005/ISBN 0-934211-29-9
  15. ^ Masks: the Art of Expression edit. John Mack/pub. British Museum 1994 ISBN 0-7141-2507-5/'The Other Within: Masks and masquerades in Europe' Cesayo dogre Poppi
  16. ^ Masks:Their Meaning and Function Andreas Lommel pub. Ferndale Editions London 1970/Europe/Conclusion
  17. ^ Masks:Their Meaning and Function Andreas Lommel pub. Ferndale Editions London 1970/Japan
  18. ^ The Theatre of Edward Gordon Craig: Bablet, pub. Eyre Methuen, London 1981 ISBN 10:0413-4788-07
  19. ^ Masks in Modern Drama: Susan Harris Smith, Univ. of California Press 1984 ISBN 0-520-05095-9
  20. ^ American Alternative Theatre : Theodore Shank pub. Macmillan Modern Dramatists London 1982 ISBN 0-333-28883-1
  21. ^ Who Was That Masked Man? - Tempo
  22. ^ Code of Virginia, § 18.2-422
  23. ^ , § See Statutes 876.12-876.155

Subhash Kak (सुभाष काक) (born March 26, 1947, Srinagar, Kashmir) is Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor in the Asian Studies and Cognitive Science Programs at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. ... Title page to the Code of 1819, formally titled The Revised Code of the Laws of Virginia The Code of Virginia is the statutory law of the U.S. state of Virginia, and consists of the codified legislation of the Virginia General Assembly. ...

Further reading

  • Burch, Ernest S. (junior); Forman, Werner (1988). The Eskimos. Norman, Oklahoma 73018, USA: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2126-2. 
  • Hessel, Ingo; Hessel, Dieter (1998). Inuit Art. An introduction, foreword by George Swinton, 46 Bloomsbury Street, London WCIB 3QQ: British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-2545-8. 
  • Kleivan, Inge; B. Sonne (1985). Eskimos: Greenland and Canada, Iconography of religions, section VIII, "Arctic Peoples", fascicle 2. Leiden, The Netherlands: Institute of Religious Iconography • State University Groningen. E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07160-1. 
  • Mauss, Marcel [c1950] (1979). Seasonal variations of the Eskimo: a study in social morphology, in collab. with Henri Beuchat; translated, with a foreword, by James J. Fox, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0415330351. 
  • Oosten, Jarich G. (1997). "Cosmological Cycles and the Constituents of the Person", in S. A. Mousalimas: Arctic Ecology and Identity, ISTOR Books 8. Budapest • Los Angeles: Akadémiai Kiadó • International Society for Trans-Oceanic Research, 85–101. ISBN 963 05 6629 X. 
  • Rasmussen, Knud (1926). Thulefahrt. Frankfurt am Main: Frankurter Societăts-Druckerei. 
  • Rasmussen, Knud (1965). Thulei utazás, translated by Detre, Zsuzsa, Világjárók (in Hungarian), Budapest: Gondolat.  Hungarian translation of Rasmussen 1926.
  • Smith, Susan Valeria Harris, "Masks in Modern Drama", Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.
  • Huteson, Pamela Rae, "Transformation Masks", Blaine 2007 www.hancockhouse.com ISBN 088839635X
  • Wilsher, Toby, "The Mask Handbook - A Practical Guide", Routledge 2007, www.routledge.com

Marcel Mauss (May 10, 1872 – February 10, 1950) was a French sociologist best known for his role in elaborating on and securing the legacy of his uncle Émile Durkheim and the Année Sociologique. ... Knud Johan Victor Rasmussen (June 7, 1879–December 21, 1933) was a Greenlandic polar explorer and anthropologist. ...

External links

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