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Encyclopedia > Mashhad
Mashhad
مشهد
Imam Reza A.S. shrine
Mashhad (Iran)
Mashhad
Location of Masshad in Iran
Coordinates: 36°18′N 59°36′E / 36.3, 59.6
Mashhad 818 AD (Martyrdom Of Imam Reza)
Government
 - Mayor Saeed-Hashem Hashemy
Area
 - City 27,478 km² (10,609.3 sq mi)
Elevation 985 m (3,232 ft)
Population (02/10/2005)
 - City 2,247,996
 - Density 82/km² (212.4/sq mi)
 - Urban about 562,000
 - Metro about 1,686,000
  Over 12 million pilgrims and tourists per year
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 - Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3:30)
Website: http://www.Mashhad.ir

Coordinates: 36°18′″N, 59°36′″E Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links Imam_Ali_Reza. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x849, 47 KB) Summary Blank locator map (orthographic projection) of Iran By Kaveh General SVG version: Sources Map of Iran - CIA - 2005 Provinces of Iran Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Iran Standard Time (IRST) is the time zone used in Iran. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


Mashhad (Persian: مشهد, literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. It is located 850 kilometers (500 miles) east of Tehran, at the center of the Razavi Khorasan Province. Its population is 2,387,734 people (2006).[1] Farsi redirects here. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Khorasan (in Persian: خراسان) is a province located in northeastern Iran. ...

Contents

Geography and demographics

Mashhad from space, January 2003
Mashhad from space, January 2003

The city is located at 36.20º latitude and 59.35º east longitude, in the valley of the Kashaf River near Turkmenistan, between the two mountain ranges of Binalood and Hezar-masjed. The city benefits from the proximity of the mountains, having very cold winters, pleasant springs, mild summers, and beautiful autumns. It is only about 250 km (156 miles) from Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. Image File history File links Mashhad, Iran - January 2003 image description here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Mashhad, Iran - January 2003 image description here File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ...


Greater Mashhad or Metropolitan Mashhad is composed of four municipalities 1)City of Mashhad which is further divided into 11 administration districts 2)Municipality of Torghabeh 3)Municipality of Razaviyeh and 4) Municipality of Ahmadabad. In the past, Greater Mashhad also included Chenaran, Fariman and Kalat-e-Naderi. However these three regions have been promoted to Shahrestan a major administrative center of an Iranian province. A geographical political division in Iran. ...


Mashhad has a population of almost 3 million whose population consists mainly of people of Iranian descent. There are also over 20 million pilgrims who visit the city every year.


History and notable events

See also: Astan Quds Razavi
Imam Reza A.S. shrine, center of activity in Mashhad.
Imam Reza A.S. shrine, center of activity in Mashhad.
Molla Heydar mosque, a fine example of 19th century local Iranian architecture.
Molla Heydar mosque, a fine example of 19th century local Iranian architecture.

In the beginning of the 9th century(3th century AH) Mashhad was a small village called Sanabad situated 24km away from Tus. There was a summer palace of "Hamid ibn Qahtabi", the governor of Khorasan. In 808 when Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph, was passing through there to settle down the insurrection of "Rafi ibn Leith" in Transoxania, he became ill and dead. He was buried under the palace of Hamid ibn Qahtabi. Several years later in 818 Imam Reza was martyred by Al-Ma'mun and was buried beside the grave of Harun. [1] Astan Quds Razavi(Persian: refer to the holy shrine of Imam Reza, the and the administrative organization which manage it and institutions belonged to this organization. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mashad_imam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mashad_imam. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (742x1106, 920 KB) Summary I took this image with a Fuji 200 slide film camera. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (742x1106, 920 KB) Summary I took this image with a Fuji 200 slide film camera. ... Iranian architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Events The Abbasid capital is moved north from Baghdad to Samarra. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Events Bishop Theodulf of Orléans is deposed and imprisoned after getting involved in a conspiracy of Bernard, king of Italy, against Louis the Pious Births Deaths May 26 - Ali ar-Rida, Shia Imam Categories: 818 ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ...


After this event this place was called as Mashhad al-Rida (the place of martyrdom of Ali al-Rida). Shias and sunnis started visiting there for pilgrimage of his grave. By the end of the 9th century a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and Bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times. [2] Imām ˤAlÄ« ibn-MÅ«sā ar-Riđā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the eighth Shīˤa Imām. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Ziarat is a town in Ziarat District, Pakistan. ... A bazaar is a market, often covered, typically found in areas of Muslim culture. ...


Now Mashhad is notably known as the resting place of the Imam Reza (Ali ibn Musa al-Rida). A shrine was later built there to commemorate the Imam, which in turn gave rise to increasing demographical development. Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ...


It was not considered a great city until Mongol raids i 1220 which caused the destruction of many large cities in the Greater Khorasan territories, leaving Mashhad relatively intact. Thus the survivors of the massacres migrated to Mashhad. Later on, during the Shahrokh era, it became one of the main cities of the Timurid dynasty. In 1418 his wife Goharshad funded the construction of an outstanding mosque beside the shrine, which is known as Goharshad Mosque.[3] The mosque remains relatively intact to this date, its great size an indicator to the status the city held in the 15th century. Mongol cavalry archery From Rashid al-Dins Universal History. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Shah Rukh ( Shah Rokh, Shahrokh ) is the name of many princes. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia and parts of modern Iran and modern Turkey, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Akhangan tomb, where Gohar-Taj is buried. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The interior of Goharshad Mosque exhibits the superb work of Persian craftsmen. ...


Shah Ismail I, founder of the Safavid dynasty, conquered Mashhad after the death of Husayn Bayqarah and the decline of the Timurid dynasty. Mashhad was later captured by the Uzbeks during the reign of Shah Abbas I, only to be retaken by the Shah Abbas in the year of 1597 after a long and severe struggle, defeating the Uzbeks in a great battle near Herat as well as managing to drive them beyond the Oxus River. Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid Dynasty of Iran pictured at battle against Abul-khayr Khan in a scene from the Tarikh-i alam-aray-i Shāh Ismāil Abul-Mozaffar bin Sheikh Haydar bin Sheikh Junayd SafawÄ« (Persian: - Azerbaijani: ) (July 17, 1487 - May 23, 1524), Shah... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Husayn Bayqarah (1438 - May 4, 1506), was a Timurid ruler of Herat from 1469 to his death, with a brief interruption in 1470. ... Timurid Dynasty at its Greatest Extent The Timurids were a Central Asian Sunni Muslim Turco-Mongol dynasty whose empire included the whole of Central Asia and parts of modern Iran and modern Turkey, as well as large parts of Mesopotamia and Caucasus. ... Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ...


Shah Abbas I wanted to encourage Iranians to go to Mashhad for pilgrimage. he himself is known to have walked from Isfahan to Mashhad. During the Safavid era Mashhad gained even more religious recognition, becoming the most important city of the Greater Khorasan as several Madrasah and other structures were built beside the shrine of the Imam Reza. Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


Besides its religious significance, Mashhad has played an important political role as well. It saw its greatest glory under Nadir Shah, ruler of Iran from 1736 to 1747 and also a great benefactor of the shrine of the Imam Reza, making the city his capital. It remained the capital of the Afsharid dynasty until Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar conquered the then larger region of Khorasan in 1796. Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ... Agha Muhammad Khan (1742-1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire...


In 1912, the sanctuary of the Imam Reza was bombed by the Russian forces, causing widespread and persisting resentment in the Shiite Muslim world.


On June 20, 1994, an explosion from a bomb occurred in a prayer hall of the shrine of the Imam Reza[4] The bomb that killed at least 25 people on June 20 in Mashhad exploded at Ashura.[5] Mehdi Nahvi, a member of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (MKO), an Iraqi-based opposition group, claimed responsibility. The MKO stated that the bombing was carried out to commemorate the anniversary of the group's founding on June 20, 1981.[citation needed] Although government blamed the Mujahedin-e-Khalq in a TV show to avoid sectarian conflict between Shia and Sunni[citation needed], the Pakistani daily "News" of March 27, 1995 reported, "Pakistani investigators have identified a 24-year-old religious fanatic Abdul Shakoor residing in Lyari in Karachi, as an important Pakistani associate of Ramzi Yousef. Abdul Shakoor had intimate contacts with Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and was responsible for the June 20, 1994, massive bomb explosion at the shrine Imam Ali Reza in Mashhad."[6] is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ... “MKO” redirects here. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ... Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef) (Arabic: رمزي يوسف ), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim (Arabic: عبد الباسط كريم) and also known by dozens of aliases,[1] is a Kuwaiti of Pakistani descent who was one of the planners of the 1993 World Trade Center... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


Though primarily a Muslim city, Mashhad has harbored a number of religious minorities over the centuries. Among these were Jews, who in 1839 were forcibly converted to Islam. However, in truth they lived a double life: outwardly they conformed to Islamic ways, and were known as "Jadid al-Islam" or "New Muslims," but secretly they preserved a Jewish identity and Jewish traditions. [7] The Baha'i Faith has a history of victory and religious persecutions in this city. The latest was the executions of two Baha'is in 1998[citation needed]. The Allahdād incident (literally, God gave or Gods gift) refers to the mob attack of the Jews of Mashhad in the spring of 1839. ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Current religious situation

Shrine of Imam Ali Reza in Mashad, Iran
Shrine of Imam Ali Reza in Mashad, Iran

Today the holy shrine and its museum hold one of the most extensive cultural and artistic treasuries of Iran, in particular manuscript books and paintings. Several important theological schools are associated with the shrine of the Eighth Imam. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 837 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: IA Source: Taken at the shrine of Imam Ali Reza in Mashad, Iran, in August, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 837 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: IA Source: Taken at the shrine of Imam Ali Reza in Mashad, Iran, in August, 2005. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


As a city of great religious significance, it is also a place of pilgrimage. It is said that the rich go to Mecca but the poor journey to Mashhad. Thus, even as those who complete the pilgrimage to Mecca receive the title of Haji, those who make the pilgrimage to Mashhad – and especially to the Imam Reza shrine – are known as Mashtee, a term employed also of its inhabitants. It is thought that over 20 million Muslims a year make the pilgrimage to Mashhad. This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


Culture

Relief in Tus depicting popular stories of Persian mythology, from the book of Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.
Relief in Tus depicting popular stories of Persian mythology, from the book of Shahnameh of Ferdowsi.
Cutting and grinding turquoise in Meshed, Iran. 1973.
Cutting and grinding turquoise in Meshed, Iran. 1973.

Long a center of secular as well as of religious learning, Mashhad has been a center for the arts and for the sciences. The large Ferdowsi University of Mashad, named after the great Iranian poet, is located here. The Madrassa of Ayatollah Al-Khoei, originally built in the seventeenth century and recently replaced with modern facilities, is the city’s foremost traditional centre for religious learning. The Razavi University of Islamic Sciences, founded in 1984, stands at the centre of town, within the shrine complex. The prestige of traditional religious education at Mashhad attracts students, known as talaban, internationally. Image File history File links Tus_shahnameh. ... Image File history File links Tus_shahnameh. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... The beliefs and practices of the culturally and linguistically related group of ancient peoples who inhabited the Iranian Plateau and its borderlands, as well as areas of Central Asia from the Black Sea to Khotan (modern Ho-tien, China), form Persian mythology. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,752 × 1,140 pixels, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,752 × 1,140 pixels, file size: 123 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Turquoise (disambiguation). ... Ferdowsi University of Mashad is a large state university in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. ... A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Abul-Qassim al-Khoei (November 19, 1899 – August 8, 1992) was one of the most influential Shia Islamic scholars (marja), and the predecessor to Grand Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Al-Husayni Al-Sistani. ...


Mashhad is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan-e Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries. The Astan-e Quds Razavi Museum, which is part of the Astan-e Quds Razavi Complex, is home to over 70,000 rare manuscripts from various historical eras. There are some six million historical documents in the foundation’s central library. The Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi is a large library in Mashad, Iran. ...


In 1569 (977 H), `Imad al-Din Mas`ud Shirazi, a physician at the Mashhad hospital, wrote the earliest Islamic treatise on syphilis, one influenced by European medical thought.


Kashmar rug is a type of Persian rug indigenous to this region. Kashmar (Persian:کاشمر)is a city in Khorasan state and south of Mashad city. ... A traditional craftsman mending a rug in Isfahan. ...


Attractions

Tomb of Nadir Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad.
Tomb of Nadir Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad.
Hotel Homa in Mashhad.

The second largest holy city in the world, Mashhad attracts more than 20 million tourists and pilgrims every year, many of whom come to pay homage to the tomb of Imam Reza (the eighth Shi'ite Imam). It has been a magnet for travellers since medieval times, when the famous world traveller Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta visited the town. Nader Shah Afshar, is buried here in Mash-had Iran. ... Nader Shah Afshar, is buried here in Mash-had Iran. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 - 1377) was a Moroccan Berber traveller and explorer. ...


Apart from a number of beautiful large parks and the tombs of historical celebrities in nearby Tus and Neyshabour, the tomb of Nadir Shah and Kooh Sangi park and mellat park that have modern attractions for children such as the biggest ferris wheel or fanfar (چرخ و فلک) in iran and Koohestan park e shadi complex that includes a zoo, where many wild animals are kept and which attracts many visitors to Mashhad. It is also home to the Mashhad Airbase (formerly Imam Reza airbase), jointly a military installation housing Mirage aircraft, and a civilian international airport. Tomb of Omar Khayyam, Neishabur Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Kooh Sangi Kooh-Sangi has been one of the most popular parks in Mashhad, Iran. ... A Ferris wheel on the boardwalk in Ocean City, New Jersey, USA. A Ferris wheel (or, more commonly in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [UK], big wheel) is a nonbuilding structure consisting of an upright wheel with passenger gondolas suspended from the rim. ...


Some points of interest lie outside the city: the tomb of Khajeh Morad, along the road to Tehran; the tomb of Khajeh Rabi' located 6 kilometers north of the city where there are some inscriptions by the renowned Safavid calligrapher Reza Abbasi; and the tomb of Khajeh Abasalt, a distance of 20 kilometers from Mashhad along the road to Neishabur. (The three were all disciples of Imam Reza). For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... Reza Abbasi, in full Aqa Reza Reza-e abbasi, sometimes known as Reza (1565 - 1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan school, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I. Princely Youth and Dervish by Reza Abbasi, ca. ... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Imam Ali ar Rida (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the Eighth Shia Imam. ...


Among the other sights are the tomb of the great poet Ferdowsi in Tus, 24 kilometers distance, and the summer resorts at Torghabeh, Torogh, Akhlamad, Zoshk, and Shandiz. Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Akhlamad is a village located 60km west of mashhad and has a very famous waterfal and cool weather in sumers. ...


The Shah Public Bath, built during the Safavid era in 1648, is an outstanding example of the architecture of that period. It was recently restored, and is to be turned into a museum.


Transportation

Traffic in one of Mashhad's highways.
Traffic in one of Mashhad's highways.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Airport

Mashhad is served by the Mashhad International Airport which handles domestic flights to Iranian cities and international flights, mostly to Asia. Mashhad International Airport or Shahid Hashemi Nejad Airport (IATA: MHD, ICAO: OIMM) is located in Mashhad, Khorasan, Iran. ...


Metro

The Mashhad Urban Railway Corporation (MURCO) is constructing a metro system for the city of Mashhad. It is planned to be finished by 2008.


Rail

Mashhad is connected via rail to two major rail terminals: Tehran and Sarakhs at the Turkmen border. Some freight trians continue from Sarakhs towards Uzbekistan and even to Almaty, but have to change bogies because of the difference in Rail gauge. A third connection to Bandar Abbas has been projected, but has not yet been completed. Rail services are operated by Raja Trains. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Sarakhs is a city located in the northeastern part of the province of Khorassan, Iran. ... Map showing Almatys location in Kazakhstan Almaty Orthodox church Mosque Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Vernyj, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,185,900 (2004) (8% of the population of Kazakhstan) citizens. ... The dominant rail gauge in each country shown Rail gauge is the distance between the inner sides of the two parallel rails that make up a railway track. ... Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran | Coastal cities ...


Shopping

The Almas-e-Shargh Shopping Center
The Almas-e-Shargh Shopping Center

The major shopping precincts are: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • Almas-e-Shargh Shopping Center
  • Vesal Complex (under construction)
  • Zist-e-Khavar Shopping Center
  • Proma Shopping Center
  • Jennat Street Mall
  • International Bazaar Shopping Complex
  • Bazaar Reza
  • Bazaar Markazi

Consulates

Flag Country Address
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan Imam Khomeini Avenue Doshahid Street Sevom Isfand Sq. Mashad Iran

Tel: +98-511-8544829, +98-511-8597552 Fax:+98-511-8544404,E-mail: [email protected] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Flag of Iraq Iraq
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Rahnemai Street 10, 41 h. Mashad Iran

Tel:+98-511-8417716 Fax: +98-511 8401293 E-mail: [email protected] Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ...

Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan No.209,next to Gas station,Abkooh Ave. 91839 Mashhad Iran

Tel:+98-511-6040364 Image File history File links Flag_of_Kyrgyzstan. ...

Flag of Pakistan Pakistan Khyaban-e-Imam Khomeini Opposite Bagh-e- Milli P.O. Box No.91375-1733 Mashad Iran

Tel:+98-511-2229845 Fax:+98-511-2227045 E-mail: [email protected] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan Darvazeh Quchan Sq. 91379 Mashhad Iran

Tel:+98-511-7275480 Fax:+98-511-7275480 Image File history File links Flag_of_Tajikistan. ...

Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan No.34,Konsoolgari Alley,10th Day Sq. 91386 Mashhad Iran

Tel:+98-511-8547066 Fax:+98-511-8547073 Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ...

Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia No. 4 - Molavi St. Sajjad Blvd. Mashad Iran

Tel:+98-511-6076276,+98-511-6076279 Fax:+98-511-6076273,+98-511-6076278 Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ...

Colleges and universities

  • Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM)
  • Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
  • Islamic Azad University of Mashhad
  • Payame Noor University of Mashhad
  • Comprehensive University of Applied and Practical Sciences, Khorasan
  • Imam Reza (P.B.U.H.) University
  • Razavi University of Islamic Sciences
  • Sadjad Institute of Higher Education
  • Khayyam Institute of Higher Education
  • Samen Institute of Higher Education

Mashhad University, located in the city of Mashhad, is one of Irans best universities, comparable to the University of Tehran. ... Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) is a medical school in Iran. ... Islamic Azad University of Mashhad (IAUM) is a university in Mashhad, RK, Iran. ...

Mashhad as capital of Persia and Independent Khorasan

The following Shahanshahs had Mashhad as their capital:
Kiyanid Dynasty Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ...

  • Malek Mahmoud Sistani 1722-1726

Afsharid dynasty Afsharid Dynasty (1723-1735) Bronze statue of Nader Shah, by Master Sadighi. ...

Safavid Dynasty Nadir Shah’s portrait from the collection of Smithsonian Institute Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه) (Nadir Qoli Beg (Persian: نادر قلی بیگ), also Tahmasp-Qoli Khan (Persian: تهماسپ قلی خان) also Nadir Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار) ) (October 22, 1688 - June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the short-lived Turkic Afsharid... Adil Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was Shah of Persia from 1747 until 1748. ... Ebrahim Shah Afshar (? - 1748) was king of Persia from July to september of 1748. ... Shahrokh (Persian: شاهرخ) was the son of Nadir Shah and took over control of Khorasan after his fathers death in 1747. ... Nadir Mirza Afshar was great-grandson of Nadir Shah the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ) were an Iranian Shia dynasty of mixed Azerbaijani[1] and Kurdish[2] origins which ruled Iran from 1501/1502 to 1722. ...

  • Soleyman II 1750

Autonomous Government of Khorasan // Established: 2 April 1921 Dissolved: 6 October 1921 Capital: Mashhad, Khorasan Major Administrative Towns: Neishabour, Quchan, Bojnourd, Sabzevar, Torbat-e Heydarieh, Torbat-e-Jam, Tabas, Birjand Type of Government: Military, Secular, Nationalist Population: N/A Area: 388,332 sq km(150,000 sq miles) consisted of current Iranian provinces: Razavi...

Colonel Pesian at the height of his power. ...

Famous people from Mashhad

Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... Mehdi Akhavan-Sales (also -Saless) (مهدی اخ&#امید) was a prominent Persian poet. ... Bahars tomb in Darband, Shemiran, Tehran. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Shajarian at a concert in London This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Anousheh Ansari (Persian: , born 12 September 1966) is the Iranian-American co-founder and chairman of Prodea Systems, Inc and a spaceflight participant with the Russian space program. ... Mahdi Bemani Naeini (also spelt Mehdi Bemani, Mehdi Bemani Naeini, Persian: , born October 3, 1968) is an Iranian film director, cinematographer, TV cameraman and photographer. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Great Neck is a village located in Nassau County, New York in the USA. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 9,538. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This is about the Italian city of Milan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Najaf (Arabic: ‎; BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Shrine of Karbala Karbala (Arabic: ‎ ; BGN: Karbalā’; also spelled Kerbala, Kerbela, Karbila) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Kazimain or Al-Kazimiyah is a town located in Iraq that is now a neighborhood of Baghdad, located in the northern area of the city about 5 km from the center of the city. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , Time Zone : (GMT+01) Western Europe / Paris Standard Time - summer: (GMT+02) Western Europe / Paris Daylight Saving Time General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...   (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور, pronounced ) is the capital of the province of Punjab and is the second largest city in Pakistan after Karachi. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Pula (Latin Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola; Italian Pola (the city has an official Croatian-Italian bilingualism [1]); Istriot Pula, German Polei) is the largest city in Istria, situated at the southern tip of the peninsula, with a population of 62,080 (2006). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 12-13
  2. ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 13-16
  3. ^ Zabeth (1999) pp. 14-15
  4. ^ ABC Evening News for Monday, Jun 20, 1994
  5. ^ Explosive circles: Iran. (Mashhad bombing)
  6. ^ SIPAH-E-SAHABA PAKISTAN, LASHKAR-E-JHANGVI, BIN LADEN & RAMZI YOUSEF
  7. ^ Patai, Raphael (1997). Jadid al-Islam: The Jewish "New Muslims" of Meshhed. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2652-8. 
  8. ^ (3 October 2006). "Mashad-Kuala Lumpur Become Sister cities".Kuala Lumpur News

is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Zabeth, Hyder Reza (1999). Landmarks of Mashhad. Alhoda UK. ISBN 9644442210. 

See also

The Allahdād incident (literally, God gave or Gods gift) refers to the mob attack of the Jews of Mashhad in the spring of 1839. ... The Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi is a large library in Mashad, Iran. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mashhad
  • City of Mashhad Official website (in Persian)
  • e-Mashhad Mashhad Portal Official website (in Persian)
  • Mashhad
  • Mashhad
  • Mashhad
  • Imam Reza Network
  • 3D Holy Shrine of Imam Reza
  • ArchNet,Imam Reza Shrine Complex
  • E-pilgrimage: Imam Reza Calling You!
  • [http://www.worldtrek.org/odyssey/mideast/040500/040500monmashhad.html The Holiest of Shrines: The Astan Quds Razavi

April 5, 2000; Report of an American tourist] Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
  • Islamic Azad University of Mashhad
  • Population estimates for Mashhad, Iran, 1950-2015

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mashhad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1297 words)
Mashhad is also home to one of the oldest libraries of the Middle-East called the Central Library of Astan-e Quds Razavi with a history of over six centuries.
In 1998 and again in 2003 Mashhad was the scene of tensions during student unrests echoing similar tensions in Tehran.
In the summer of 2005 Mashhad became a locus of contention in the western media as an Islamic court enforcing Sharia law ordered two teens to be put to death on charges related to homosexual behavior, an action also criticized in some Iranian media as against regulations prohibiting the execution of minors.
Iranian Cities: Mashhad (571 words)
Mashhad is located 850 kilometers North East of Tehran and has population of over 2 million.
Mashhad is a tourist city with many hotels of various categories as well as a great number of guesthouses for the pilgrims who come to this city from the other parts of the country everyday by tens of flights, trains and buses.
Among the other sights are the tomb of the great poet Ferdowsi in Tous, 24 kilometers away from Mashhad; and the summer resorts at Torghabeh, Torogh, Akhlomod, Zoshk and Shandiz.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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