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Encyclopedia > Masculine psychology
Robert A. Johnson's He: Understanding Masculine Psychology

Masculine psychology is a term sometimes used to describe and categorize issues concerning the gender related psychology of male human identity, as well as the issues that males confront during their lives. One stream emphasises gender differences and has a scientific and empirical approach, while the other, more therapeutic in orientation, is more closely aligned to the psychoanalytic tradition. It also relates to concepts such as masculinity and machismo. Image File history File links Masculinepsychology. ... Image File history File links Masculinepsychology. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... The shield and spear of the Roman God Mars are often used to represent the male sex In heterogamous species, male is the sex of an organism, or of a part of an organism, which typically produces smaller, mobile gametes (spermatozoa) that are able to fertilise female gametes (ova). ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A gender difference is a disparity between male and female humans. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...

Contents

Born of the female body

Jungian analysts Guy Corneau and Eugene Monick argue that the establishment and maintenance of the male identity is more delicate and fraught with complication than that of the establishment and maintenance of the female identity. Such psychologists suggest that this may be because males are born of the female body, and thus are born from a body that is a different gender from themselves. Females, on the other hand, are born from a body that is the same gender as their own. Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ...

A woman simply is, but a man must become. Masculinity is risky and elusive. It is achieved by a revolt from woman, and it is confirmed only by other men.[1]

Camille Paglia has commented that she believes that women are born, but men must "become". In other words, masculinity is not something that is granted by birth but is something that must be earned in adult life. Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947[1] in Endicott, New York) is an American social critic, intellectual, author and teacher. ...


Role of the father

See also: Sociology of fatherhood

Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung argued that the father is very important to the male child's development of identity. In his book Absent Fathers, Lost Sons [2] Canadian Jungian analyst Guy Corneau writes that the presence of the father's body during the son's developmental phases is integral in the son developing a positive sense of self as a male. Corneau also argues that if the son does not develop positively towards the father's male body, then the son runs the risk of developing negatively towards all bodies. Sigmund Freud argued that in the son's mind, the father's body represents the law, and that the role of the father's body is to break the attachment the son feels to the mother and by extension his own anima. The Sociology of fatherhood is a subbranch of sociology which studies gender role in society, with particular reference to the parental role of the father. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition “Karl Jung” redirects here. ... Jungian psychology refers to a school of psychology originating in the ideas of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and advanced by many other thinkers who followed in his tradition. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Anima, in Jungian psychology: 1. ...


Freudian analysts claim that all sons feel they are in competition with their father and often feel in a battle against the father. (Sigmund Freud referred to this as Oedipus Complex.) Freudian psychologists claim that the risk the son runs is that in some cases it is more difficult to win the battle against the father than to lose the battle against the father. This is because a common result of winning the battle against the father is that the son suffers tremendous guilt. Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


French psychoanalyst Annette Fréjaville has presented her thesis that all men experience what she terms "primary homosexuality". She argues that primary homosexuality takes place very early in a son's life and consists of a "love story" between the son and father. This "love story" consists of idealizations by the son of the father in which the son expresses an interest in his father and a desire to become what his father represents to him, e.g., "When I grow up I'm going to be like daddy." Fréjaville theorized that such recognition of similarity is the basis of all identification, and that such idealization and identification provides the son with a firm grounding in his own masculinity. [3] E.G. is an Australian only release EP from New Zealand four piece Goodshirt. ...


Influence on Abrahamic religions

The Abrahamic religions are the most influential religions in the western world. Often because of translation and grammar, references to God use the masculine pronoun "he," and in other ways refer to God as male. In Judaism, Christianity and Islam, "father" "lord," and other words often refer to God. In Judaism as well as Islam, God is genderless. In addition, all three religions are largely founded by males, and for these reasons some scholars and psychologists have theorized that ultimately the Abrahamic religions dramatize important themes in a man's relationship with his father. The Abrahamic religions are therefore deeply influenced by masculine psychology. map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Dharmic (yellow) religions in each country. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Father with child For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ... A Lord (Laird in some Scottish contexts) is a male who has power and authority. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


In his book Moses and Monotheism, Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, presents his thesis that Judaism is the religion of the father and Christianity is the religion of the son. adfasd baojas oad Moses and Monotheism is a book by Sigmund Freud. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Literature

The study of masculine psychology has has brought about the publication of several books.


Eugene Monick

Cover of Eugene Monick's Phallos: Sacred Image of the Masculine
Cover of Eugene Monick's Phallos: Sacred Image of the Masculine

Eugene Monick PhD. is a Jungian Analyst practicing in Scranton, Pennsylvannia, and New York City. He is a graduate of the Virginia (Episcopal) Theological Seminary. He received his doctorate from the Union Graduate School, and his Diploma in Analytical Psychology from the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich. Mr. Monick has published three books on masculine psychology. Image File history File links Phallos. ... Image File history File links Phallos. ... Carl Gustav Jung Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of the neopsychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ...


In his books Phallos: Sacred Image of the Masculine (ISBN 0-919123-26-0), Castration and Male Rage (ISBN 0-919123-51-1), and Potency: Masculine Aggression as a Path to the Soul (ISBN 1-894574-15-X), Mr. Monick correlates male sexuality and spirituality, saying that "phallos" (the erect penis) is something of an existential God-image for men. He also presents his thesis that there is a difference between masculinity and patriarchy. The author also argues that there is a deep need within men to participate in a fraternity with men and to have their maleness recognized by other men, but that our society often does not take this into account. The author claims that what usually results is that these needs become frustrated and manifest themselves in often anti-social behavior and activities, such as hazing rituals. This article is about the symbol of the erect penis. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ... In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. ... Hazing is an often ritualistic test, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ...


The author notes that it is puzzling that we live in what is largely considered a male-dominated society, and yet very little work has been done to understand the archetypal basis of masculinity. The author suggests that this may be due to the assumption of male superiority, which he suggests is founded on the belief that one should not question that which is deemed to be right and superior. Mr. Monick writes that many of the ideas of this second book are founded on the ideas set forth in his first book. Since that first work designates phallos as an "existential god-image" for men, Mr. Monick writes that the suggestion of castration, whether symbolic or literal, is highly traumatic for males. Mr. Monick suggests that much of the anger expressed by men is in some ways related to their sense of castration. is the third installment in what Mr. Monick has referred to as the "Phallos Trilogy". In this volume, Mr. Monick argues that the "collapse of patriarchy — that is, the social dominance of males as an assumed cultural given — is on our doorstep if not already in the house". Archetype is defined as the first original model of which all other similar persons, objects, or concepts are merely derivative, copied, patterned, or emulated. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Patriarchy For other uses, see Patriarchy (disambiguation). ...


Sam Keen

In Sam Keen's is author of the book Fire in the Belly: On Being a Man.


Susan Faludi

Susan Faludi, a noted feminist author, published Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man in 1999. In this book she claims that in the 20th Century men suffered from the breakdown of patriarchal structures. Susan C. Faludi (born April 18, 1959) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author of two well-known books: Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women (1992; ISBN 0-385-42507-4 ) and Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man (1999). ...


Homophobia

See also: Gay panic defense and Violence

Issues of homophobia and gay bashing are of relevance to the study of masculine psychology. Every year, men, such as Matthew Shepard, die as a result of gay bashing.[4] The victims of gay bashing attacks are most often self-identified homosexual males,[5] or those who display what are commonly perceived as effeminate behaviour or mannerisms, which are, when seen in males, often associated with homosexuality. Self-identified heterosexual males are usually the perpetrators of gay bashing attacks.[6][7][8] Sigmund Freud presented the thesis that everyone is at some level bisexual [9], and Alfred Kinsey conducted research revealing that as many as 37% of American males had engaged in homosexual activity. [10] The French-Canadian psychologist Guy Corneau says that despite this attitudes toward homosexuality have remained hostile. Corneau suggests that Kinsey's research may have even exacerbated homophobia in our society. [11] Gay panic defense is a term used to describe a rare but high-profile legal defense against charges of assault or murder. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Homophobia is the fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... Matthew Shepard Matthew Wayne Shepard (December 1, 1976 – October 12, 1998) was an American student at the University of Wyoming, who was attacked by Russell Henderson and Aaron McKinney near Laramie, Wyoming, on the night of October 6 – 7, 1998 in what was classed by many as a homophobic incident. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... In Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ... Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956), was an American biologist and professor of entomology and zoology who in 1947 founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University Bloomington, now called the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction. ...


Another example of homophobia in Western society can be found in the different genders' different comfort levels when addressing the topic of attractiveness of members of their own gender. Most heterosexual females feel comfortable to discuss the attractiveness of another member of their own gender. In such instances, the heterosexual woman’s sexual orientation would not likely be brought into question. Most heterosexual males, however, are uncomfortable with the idea of appraising the attractiveness of other members of their own gender. In Western societies, a man who admits to seeing attractiveness in another male may be perceived as a latent homosexual.[citation needed]. Latent homosexuality is an erotic inclination toward members of the same sex which is not consciously experienced or expressed in overt action. ...

Michelangelo's David.
Michelangelo's David.

Download high resolution version (500x711, 63 KB)Subject: David by Michelangelo Location: Accademia Gallery, Florence Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (500x711, 63 KB)Subject: David by Michelangelo Location: Accademia Gallery, Florence Source: [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Historical perspectives

Among artists and scientists during the Renaissance, it was the prevailing belief that the study of the male form was in itself a study of God. Michelangelo's David is based upon this artistic discipline, which is known as disegno. Under this discipline, sculpture is considered to be the finest form of art because it mimics divine creation. Because Michelangelo adhered to the concepts of disegno, he worked under the premise that the image of David was already in the block of stone he was working on—in much the same way as the human soul is thought by some to be found within the physical body. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Michelangelos David, finished by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1504 (started in 1501) is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture and one of Michelangelos two greatest works of sculpture, along with the Pietà. David portrays the Biblical David at the moment that he decides to engage Goliath. ... Disegno is the design, usually in the form of a drawing, that the artist had in mind before beginning to carve or paint their work. ... Divinity has a number of related uses in the field of religious belief and study. ... Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564), commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet and engineer. ... The soul, acording to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self-aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ...


Sports

Main article: Sport psychology

Competitive sports are heavily influenced by masculine psychology. Though females do play sports, culturally male athletes are often accorded more attention and respect than their female counterparts. In professional sports, male sports leagues flourish while female sports often receive poor attendance at games and are often forced to close as a result. The Modern Olympics are based on the Ancient Olympic Games of Greece. In the ancient Greecian games, women were not only not allowed to compete in the games—they were not even allowed to attend the Olympic games. Sports terminology has been transmuted into common day slang, often with sexual connotation. For example, it is common for males to refer to "scoring" with a woman. This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... -1... In professional sports, athletes receive payment for their performance, as opposed to amateur sports and college sports where they do not. ... For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... One subject often used as a metaphor for physical intimacy, especially to describe the level of intimacy achieved in intimate encounters or relationships, is the game of baseball. ...


References

  1. ^ Camille Paglia as quoted on Masculine Virtues site.
  2. ^ "Absent Fathers, Lost Sons" listing (ISBN 0-87773-603-0)
  3. ^ Annette Fréjaville as quoted in "Absent Fathers, Lost Sons"
  4. ^ Gay Bashing Retrieved June 5, 2006
  5. ^ Violence against gays: "61% of these attacks were against gay men, 14% against lesbians, 2% against heterosexuals and 1% against bisexuals, while attacks against GLB people at large made up 20%." Retrieved June 5, 2006
  6. ^ Violence against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and the transgendered#Statistics
  7. ^ Bureau of Justice Statistics Retrieved June 9, 2006
  8. ^ Homicide trends in the U.S. Trends by gender Retrieved June 9, 2006
  9. ^ Storr, Anthony. Freud: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, USA; New edition (April 9, 2001) (ISBN 0-19285-455-0) Page 152: "Freud asserted that everyone is bisexual at some level."
  10. ^ Kinsey. Sexual Behaviour in the Human Male p. 656
  11. ^ Guy Corneau. Absent Fathers, Lost Sons: The Search for Masculine Identity (ISBN 0-87773-603-0). Page 65. "It is depressing to realize that more than forty years after the publication of the Kinsey Report, attitudes toward homosexuality have remained so hostile, despite the fact (or could it be because of the fact) that, as Kinsey's research showed, 37 percent of the American male population has engaged in homosexual behavior to ejaculation after the age of puberty?"

The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... The Death of Orpheus In Albrecht Dürers 1494 drawing, the banner hung in the tree reads: Orfeus der erst puseran (Orpheus, the first sodomite). The word puseran(t) derives from the Latin bulgarus from which come also the terms bugger in English and bougre in French. ... The Death of Orpheus In Albrecht Dürers 1494 drawing, the banner hung in the tree reads: Orfeus der erst puseran (Orpheus, the first sodomite). The word puseran(t) derives from the Latin bulgarus from which come also the terms bugger in English and bougre in French. ... The Kinsey Reports are two books on human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), by Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy and others. ...

See also

The Official Website of Animus - Art Rock Group According to Carl Jung, the animus is the masculine side of a womans personal unconscious. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The mens movement is a social movement that includes a number of philosophies and organizations that seek to support men, change the male gender role and improve mens rights in regard to marriage and child access and victims of Domestic Violence. ... Metrosexual is a word describing men who has a strong concern for their aesthetic appearance, and spend a substantial amount of time and money on their images and lifestyles. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is a number of ideologies found in the streams of the mens movement. ... Mythopoetic is a neologism from the words myth and poetry. ... Mens studies - also sometimes called masculinity studies - is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to topics concerning men, gender, and politics. ... The Cerne Abbas giant is a hill figure of a giant naked man on a hillside near the village of Cerne Abbas to the north of Dorchester in Dorset, England. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Masculinity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2758 words)
Masculinity is sometimes used as a synonym for manhood.
Masculinity is a gender role associated with male humans and an indicator of social status much as wealth, race or social class.
Masculinity is associated more commonly with adult men rather than younger boys as a key characteristic of social persona.
Analytical Psychology - Jung (7070 words)
The animus is the corresponding representative of the masculine contrasexual elements in the psychology of women.
This primitive state of participation mystique is also evident in the phenomena of mob psychology in which individual consciousness and responsibility are temporarily eclipsed by identification with a collective dynamism.
Masculine and feminine elements are not yet clearly differentiated so that the great mother will still be undifferentiated as to sex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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