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Encyclopedia > Maryland in the Civil War

See also: American Civil War and Origins of the American Civil War The Civil War is by far the most common term for this conflict; see Naming the American Civil War. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ...

Contents


Maryland's sympathies

8th Massachusetts regiment repairing Railroad bridges from Annapolis to Washington destroyed with the support of Maryland political leaders.
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8th Massachusetts regiment repairing Railroad bridges from Annapolis to Washington destroyed with the support of Maryland political leaders.

Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the North and South. However, in the lead up to the American Civil War, it became clear that the state was more sympathetic to the South than to the North. After John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia (now in West Virginia), citizens began forming local militias. Of its 1860 population of 687,000, about 85,000 men joined the Union and about 25,000 fought for the Confederacy. Southern and Eastern Maryland were especially close to the South while Northern and Western areas of the state had stronger economic ties to the North. Image File history File links Balt. ... Image File history File links Balt. ... In this map:  Union states  Union territories  The border states  Bleeding Kansas, the more contentious of the Kansas-Nebraska Act states stood in the path of the border states  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland... The Northern states. ... The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... The Civil War is by far the most common term for this conflict; see Naming the American Civil War. ... John Browns Oath Engraving from daguerreotype by Augustus Washington, ca. ... Harpers Ferry is a town located in Jefferson County, West Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


The first bloodshed of the Civil War occurred in Baltimore involving the Massachusetts troops that were fired on while marching between railroad stations on April 19, 1861. After that, Baltimore Mayor George William Brown, Marshal George P. Kane, and former Governor Enoch Louis Lowe requested that Maryland Governor Thomas H. Hicks, a slave owner from the Eastern Shore, burn the railroad bridges and cut the telegraph lines leading to Baltimore to prevent further troops from entering the state. Hicks reportedly approved this proposal. These actions were addressed in the famous Supreme Court case of Ex parte Merryman. George William Brown was the mayor of Baltimore, Maryland from 1860 to 1861. ... Enoch Louis Lowe (August 10, 1820 – August 23, 1892) served as Governor of the state of Maryland in the United States from 1851 to 1854. ... Thomas Hicks Thomas Holliday Hicks (b. ... The Eastern Shore of Maryland is composed of the states nine counties east of Chesapeake Bay. ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged. ... Ex parte Merryman, (1861), is a well-known U.S. federal court case which arose out of the American Civil War. ...

Governor Hicks prevented Maryland from seceding in 1861.
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Governor Hicks prevented Maryland from seceding in 1861.

However, despite considerable popular support for the cause of the Confederate States of America, Maryland did not secede during the United States Civil War. This was due to Abraham Lincoln's strong hand suppressing violence and dissent in Maryland and the belated assistance of Governor Hicks who eventually worked with the federal government to stop further violence and prevent the state from seceding. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x2233, 250 KB) Description Thomas Holliday Hicks, former Governor and Senator from Maryland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x2233, 250 KB) Description Thomas Holliday Hicks, former Governor and Senator from Maryland. ... Thomas Hicks Thomas Holliday Hicks (b. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the northern states, popularly referred to as the U.S., the Union, the North, or the Yankees; and the seceding southern states, commonly referred to as the Confederate States of America, the CSA, the Confederacy... It has been suggested that Abraham Lincoln in popular culture be merged into this article or section. ...


Many Marylanders sympathetic to the South easily crossed the Potomac River to join and fight for the Confederacy. Exiles organized a "Maryland Line" in the Army of Northern Virginia which consisted of one infantry regiment, one infantry battalion, two cavalry battalions and four battalions of artillery. According to the best extant records, up to 25,000 Marylanders escaped south to fight for the Confederacy while about 60,000 Maryland men served in all branches of the Union military. However, of those Union troops signed up largely because they were promised home garrison duty. The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


Because Maryland remained in the Union it was not included under the Emancipation Proclamation. A constitutional convention was held during 1864 that culminated in the passage of a new state constitution (see below) on November 1 of that year. Article 24 of that document outlawed the practice of slavery. The right to vote was not extended to non-white males until the Maryland Constitution of 1867, which is still in effect today. The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential order in 1863 that freed most (but not all) of the slaves in the United States. ... The Great Seal of Maryland The Maryland Constitution of 1864 was the third of the four constitutions which have governed the U.S. state of Maryland. ... The Great Seal of Maryland. ... The current Maryland Constitution, which was ratified by the people of the state on September 18, 1867, forms the basic law for the U.S. state of Maryland. ...


Baltimore Riot of 1861 and aftermath

An artist's rendering of Baltimore on April 19, 1861

Main article: Baltimore riot of 1861 Artist rendering of the 1861 riot in Baltimore This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Baltimore on April 19, 1861 The Baltimore riot of 1861 (also called the Pratt Street Riot and the Pratt Street Massacre) was an incident that took place on April 19, 1861 in Baltimore, Maryland between Confederate sympathizers and infantrymen of the United States Army. ...


The first bloodshed of the Civil War occurred in Maryland. Concerned about the Confederates capturing the capital, Washington, D.C., President Lincoln ordered troops to defend the city. They were transported by rail to Baltimore, where they had to disembark, march through the city, and board another train to continue their journey south to Washington. As one Massachusetts regiment was transferred between stations on April 19, a mob of secessionists and Southern sympathizers attacked the train cars and block the route. The mob began throwing stones and bricks at the troops. Panicked by the situation, several soldiers fired into the mob, and chaos immediately ensued as a giant brawl began between fleeing soldiers, the violent mob, and the Baltimore police who tried to suppress the violence. Four soldiers and twelve civilians were killed in the riot. This event inspired James Ryder Randall to write a poem which would be put to music and eventually become the state song, "Maryland, My Maryland". Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... James Ryder Randall (born January 1, 1839 at Baltimore, Maryland, United States; died January 15, 1908 in Augusta, Georgia) was a journalist and poet. ... Each state in the United States (except New Jersey) has a state song, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... Maryland, My Maryland is the official state song of Maryland. ...


After the April 19th rioting, some small skirmishes continued in Baltimore for the next month, but a sense of normalcy returned as the city was cleaned up. Mayor George William Brown and Maryland Governor Thomas Hicks implored President Lincoln to reroute troops around Baltimore city and through Annapolis to avoid further confrontations. On the evening of April 20th Hicks also authorized Brown to dispatch the Maryland state militia for the purpose of disabling the railroad bridges into the city - an act he would later deny. One of the militia captains was John Merryman, who was arrested without a writ of habeas corpus one month later, sparking the case of Ex parte Merryman. George William Brown was the mayor of Baltimore, Maryland from 1860 to 1861. ... This article is about Thomas Hicks, the athlete. ... City nickname: Americas Sailing Capital Location in the state of Maryland Founded 1649 Mayor Ellen O. Moyer (Dem) Area  - Total  - Water 19. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... John Merryman (August 9, 1824 – November 15, 1884) Merryman was the plaintiff in the best known habeas corpus case of the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ... Ex parte Merryman, (1861), is a well-known U.S. federal court case which arose out of the American Civil War. ...


Lincoln complied with the request to reroute troops to Annapolis at first. However, on May 13, the Union army entered Baltimore, occupied the city and declared martial law, to prevent all further incidents. The mayor, city council, and police commissioner, who were pro-South and seemingly incompetent at maintaining order in the situation, were arrested and imprisoned at Fort McHenry. Meanwhile, the states of Arkansas and Tennessee, seeing how federal troops acted in the pro-South Union state on April 19, seceded on May 6. May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... Fort McHenry, in Baltimore, Maryland, is a star fort best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it successfully defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy in Chesapeake Bay. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,732 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ...


After the occupation of the city, Union troops were garrisoned throughout the state. Several members of the Maryland legislature were arrested (which was days from approving secession), and the state was placed under federal martial law. The Maryland General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland. ...


These issues were all brought up by the constitution which the state adopted in 1864. The document, which replaced the Maryland Constitution of 1851 was largely the product of Unionists who temporarily had control of the state and was designed to reduce the influence of Southern sympathizers, who had almost caused the state to secede in 1861. The document emancipated the state's slaves (who were not covered by the Emancipation Proclamation), disenfranchised southern sympathizers, and reapportioned the General Assembly based upon white inhabitants. This last provision diminished the power of the small counties where the majority of the state's large former slave population lived. The Great Seal of Maryland The Maryland Constitution of 1864 was the third of the four constitutions which have governed the U.S. state of Maryland. ... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... This French poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential order in 1863 that freed most (but not all) of the slaves in the United States. ... The Maryland General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Maryland. ...


The constitution was submitted to the people for ratification on October 13, 1864 and it was narrowly approved by a vote of 30,174 to 29,799 (50.31% to 49.69%). This was a very controversial result, given the state's Confederate ties and sympathies. Those voting at their usual polling places were opposed to the Constitution by 29,536 to 27,541. However, it secured ratification after the soldiers' votes were tallied. Soldiers from Maryland serving in the Union Army were overwhelmingly in favor (2,633 to 263). Of course, the state's soldiers who fought for the Confederacy, who would have overwhelmingly opposed it, could not vote in the referendum. Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For other meanings of confederate and confederacy, see confederacy (disambiguation) National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Largest...


While the constitution emancipated the state's slaves, this did not mean equality for them, in part because the franchise was restricted to "white" males. Additionally, the Maryland legislature refused to ratify both the 14th Amendment, which conferred citizenship rights on former slaves, and the 15th Amendment, which gave the vote to African Americans. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. ... Contemporary drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution grants voting rights regardless of race. ...


The war on Maryland soil

See also: American Civil War: Eastern Theater 1861-1863 The Civil War is by far the most common term for this conflict; see Naming the American Civil War. ...

Battle of Antietam by Kurz and Allison.

In the Civil War the largest and most significant battle fought in the state was the Battle of Antietam, fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg. The battle was the culmination of Robert E. Lee's Maryland Campaign, which aimed to secure new supplies; recruit fresh men from among the considerable pockets of Confederate sympathies in Maryland; and to impact public opinion in the North. With those goals, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, consisting of about 40,000 men, had entered Maryland following their recent victory at Second Bull Run. Image File history File links Battle_of_Antietam. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Antietam. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ... For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, was a series of battles fought in September, 1862—Robert E. Lees first invasion of the North—during the American Civil War. ... Second Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date August 28–30, 1862 Place Prince William County Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Manassas, known as the Second Battle of Bull Run in the North, was a battle during the American Civil War. ...


While Major General George B. McClellan's 87,000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, a Union soldier discovered a mislaid copy of the detailed battle plans of Lee's army. The order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically (to Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and Hagerstown, Maryland), thus making each subject to isolation and defeat in detail if McClellan could move quickly enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and position his forces based on it, thus endangering a golden opportunity to defeat Lee decisively. George McClellan George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Map of the division of the states during the Civil War. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... Motto: Nickname: Map Political Statistics Founded Incorporated County Washington County Borough {{{borough}}} Parrish {{{parrish}}} Mayor vacant Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Water 27. ...

Dead Confederate soldiers from Starke's Louisiana Brigade, on the Hagerstown Turnpike, north of the Dunker Church.
Dead Confederate soldiers from Starke's Louisiana Brigade, on the Hagerstown Turnpike, north of the Dunker Church.

The armies met near of the town of Sharpsburg by the Antietam Creek. Although McClellan arrived in the area on September 16, his trademark caution delayed his attack on Lee, which gave the Confederates more time to prepare defensive positions and allowed Longstreet's corps to arrive from Hagerstown and Jackson's corps, minus A.P. Hill's division, to arrive from Harpers Ferry. McClellan's two-to-one advantage in the battle was almost completely nullified by a lack of coordination and concentration of Union forces, which allowed Lee to shift his defensive forces to parry each thrust. Download high resolution version (1024x611, 211 KB)Stereoview of the field at Antietam, American Civil War. ... Download high resolution version (1024x611, 211 KB)Stereoview of the field at Antietam, American Civil War. ... Burnside Bridge traversing Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland, site of heavy combat during the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862 Antietam Creek is a tributary of the Potomac River located in south central Pennsylvania and western Maryland in the United States. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ...


Although a tactical draw, the Battle of Antietam is considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war because it forced the end of Lee's invasion of the North and it allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect on January 1, 1863. Although Lincoln had intended to do so earlier, he was advised by his Cabinet to make this announcement after a Union victory to avoid the perception that it was issued out of desperation. The winning of the Battle of Antietam also may have dissuaded the governments of France and Great Britain from recognizing the Confederacy; some suspected they were planning to do so in the aftermath of another Union defeat. There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ...


See also

  • Category:Maryland in the Civil War
American Civil War Portal

 
 

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