FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Maryland Campaign
Confederate dead at Antietam
Confederate dead at Antietam
Maryland Campaign
South MountainHarpers FerryAntietamShepherdstown

The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. Confederate General Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North was repulsed by Major General George B. McClellan and the Army of the Potomac, who moved to intercept Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia and eventually attacked it near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The resulting Battle of Antietam was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (855x687, 115 KB) Library of Congress Civil War collection. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (855x687, 115 KB) Library of Congress Civil War collection. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Ambrose Burnside William B. Franklin Robert E. Lee Strength 28,000 18,000 Casualties 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, 75 missing) 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, 800 missing) The Battle of South Mountain (known... Battle of Harpers Ferry Conflict American Civil War Date September 12-15, 1862 Place Jefferson County Result Confederate victory The Battle of Harpers Ferry was fought during the American Civil War on September 12–15, 1862. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Battle of Shepherdstown Conflict American Civil War Date September 19-20, 1862 Place Jefferson County, West Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Shepherdstown, also known as the Battle of Botelers Ford, took place from September 19-20, 1862 in Jefferson County, West Virginia as part of the Maryland... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career U.S. Army officer and the most celebrated general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ...

Contents

Background and initial movements

The year 1862 started out well for Union forces in the Eastern Theater. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac had invaded the Virginia Peninsula during the Peninsula Campaign and by June stood only a few miles outside the Confederate capital at Richmond. But, when Robert E. Lee assumed command of the Army of Northern Virginia on June 1, 1862, fortunes reversed. Lee fought McClellan aggressively in the Seven Days Battles; McClellan lost his nerve, and his army retreated down the Peninsula. Lee then conducted the Northern Virginia Campaign in which he outmaneuvered and defeated John Pope and his Army of Virginia, most significantly at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Lee's Maryland Campaign can be considered the concluding part of a logically connected, three-campaign, summer offensive blitz against Federal forces in the Eastern Theater. In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... The Virginia Peninsula is a peninsula in southeast Virginia, bounded by the York River, James River, Hampton Roads and Chesapeake Bay. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... Nickname: River City, Cap City, R-V-A Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (D) Area    - City 62. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Lee and McClellan of the Seven Days The Seven Days Battles was a series of six major battles over the seven days from June 25 to July 1, 1862, near Richmond, Virginia, in the American Civil War. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders John Pope Robert E. Lee Thomas J. Jackson Strength 63,000 54,000 Casualties 1,747 killed 8,452 wounded 4,263 captured/missing 1,553 killed 7,812 wounded 109 captured/missing The Second Battle of Bull Run, or...


The Confederates had suffered significant manpower losses in the wake of the summer campaigns. Nevertheless, Lee decided his army was ready for a great challenge: an invasion of the North. His goal was to reach the major Northern states of Maryland and Pennsylvania, and cut off the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad line that supplied Washington, D.C. His movements would threaten Washington and Baltimore, so as to "annoy and harass the enemy."[1] Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad or B&O was a 19th century railroad which operated in the east coast of the United States and was the first railroad to offer commercial transportation of both people and freight. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more, Balmerr,Bodymore, Murderland Motto: The Greatest City in America (formerly The City That Reads; Get In On It is not the citys motto, but rather the advertising slogan of the Baltimore Area Convention and Visitors Association; BELIEVE is not the...


Several motives led to Lee's decision to launch an invasion. First, he needed to supply his army and knew the farms of the North had been untouched by war, unlike those in Virginia. Moving the war northward would relieve pressure on Virginia. Second was the issue of Northern morale. Lee knew the Confederacy did not have to win the war by defeating the North militarily; it merely needed to make the Northern populace and government unwilling to continue the fight. With the Congressional elections of 1862 approaching in November, Lee believed that an invading army playing havoc inside the North could tip the balance of Congress to the Democratic Party, which might force Abraham Lincoln to negotiate an end to the war. He told Confederate President Jefferson Davis in a letter of September 3 that the enemy was "much weakened and demoralized."[2] The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America, which seceded from the United States. ... Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808–December 6, 1889) was an American statesman and advocate for American slavery and for States Rights. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


There were secondary reasons as well. The Confederate invasion might be able to incite an uprising in Maryland, especially given that it was a slave-holding state and many of its citizens held a sympathetic stance toward the South. Some Confederate politicians, including Jefferson Davis, believed the prospect of foreign recognition for the Confederacy would be made stronger by a military victory on Northern soil, but there is no evidence that Lee thought the South should base its military plans on this possibility. Nevertheless, the news of the victory at Second Bull Run and the start of Lee's invasion caused considerable diplomatic activity between the Confederate States and France and England.[3] Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ...

Maryland Campaign, actions September 3 to September 15, 1862 ██ Confederate ██ Union

On September 3, just two days after the Battle of Chantilly, Lee wrote to President Davis that he had decided to cross into Maryland unless the president objected. On the same day, Lee began shifting his army north and west from Chantilly towards Leesburg, Virginia. On September 4, advance elements of the Army of Northern Virginia crossed the Potomac River over two fords near Leesburg. The main body of the army advanced into Frederick, Maryland, on September 7. The 55,000-man army[4] had been reinforced by troops who had been defending Richmond—the divisions of Maj. Gens. D.H. Hill and Lafayette McLaws and two brigades under Brig. Gen. John G. Walker—but they merely made up for the 9,000 men lost at Bull Run and Chantilly.[5] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1502x1700, 527 KB)Map of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War, actions Sept. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1502x1700, 527 KB)Map of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War, actions Sept. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Chantilly or Ox Hill took place on September 1, 1862, in Fairfax County, Virginia, as the concluding battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Leesburg is a town located in Loudoun County, Virginia, United States of America. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: Country United States State Maryland County Frederick Founded 1745 Mayor Brian Artusio (R) Board of Alderman Marcia Hall (D) Alan E. Imhoff (R) David P. Koontz (D) Donna K. Ramsburg (D) C. Paul Smith (R) Area    - City 52. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Confederate General John George Walker John George Walker (July 22, 1821 – July 20, 1893[1]) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


Lee's invasion coincided with another strategic offensive by the Confederacy. Generals Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith had simultaneously launched invasions of Kentucky.[6] Jefferson Davis sent to all three generals a draft public proclamation, with blank spaces available for them to insert the name of whatever state their invading forces might reach. Davis wrote to explain to the public (and, indirectly, the European Powers) why the South seemed to be changing its strategy. Until this point, the Confederacy had claimed it was the victim of aggression and was merely defending itself against "foreign invasion." Davis explained that the Confederacy was still waging a war of self-defense. He wrote there was "no design of conquest," and that the invasions were only an aggressive effort to force the Lincoln government to let the South go in peace. "We are driven to protect our own country by transferring the seat of war to that of an enemy who pursues us with a relentless and apparently aimless hostility." Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


Davis's draft proclamation did not reach his generals until after they had issued proclamations of their own. They stressed that they had come as liberators, not conquerors, to these border states, but they did not address the larger issue of the Confederate strategy shift as Davis had desired.[7] Lee's proclamation announced to the people of Maryland that his army had come "with the deepest sympathy [for] the wrongs that have been inflicted upon the citizens of the commonwealth allied to the States of the South by the strongest social, political, and commercial ties ... to aid you in throwing off this foreign yoke, to enable you again to enjoy the inalienable rights of freemen."[8] In this map:  Union states  Union territories  The border states  Kansas, which entered the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories The term border states refers to five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and western Virginia that...


News of the invasion caused panic in the North, and Lincoln was forced to take quick action. George B. McClellan had been in military limbo since returning from the Peninsula, but Lincoln restored him to command of all forces around Washington and directed him to deal with Lee.


Dividing Lee's army

Lee divided his army as it moved into Maryland. After receiving intelligence of militia activity in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, Lee sent Maj. Gen. James Longstreet to Boonsboro and then to Hagerstown. (The intelligence overstated the threat since only 20 militiamen were in Chambersburg at the time.)[9] Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson was ordered to seize the Union arsenal at Harpers Ferry. This left only the thinly spread cavalry of Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and the division of Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill to guard the army's rear at South Mountain. Chambersburg is a borough located in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... Boonsboro is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ... Nickname: The Hub City Location in Maryland Coordinates: County Washington Incorporated 1813 Mayor Robert E. Bruchey II Area    - City 27. ... Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson January 21[1], 1824 – May 10, 1863) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... South Mountain is a long mountain ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains. ...


The specific reason Lee chose this risky strategy of splitting his army to capture Harpers Ferry is not known. One possibility is that he knew it commanded his supply lines through the Shenandoah Valley. Before he entered Maryland he had assumed that the Federal garrisons at Winchester, Martinsburg, and Harpers Ferry would be cut off and abandoned without firing a shot (and, in fact, both Winchester and Martinsburg were evacuated).[10] Another possibility is that it was simply a tempting target with many vital supplies but virtually indefensible.[9] McClellan requested permission from Washington to evacuate Harpers Ferry and attach its garrison to his army, but his request was refused. Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Founded 1802 Mayor Elizabeth Minor Area    - City 24. ... Martinsburg is a city located in Berkeley County, West Virginia. ...


Reactions to invasion

Lee's invasion was fraught with difficulties from the beginning. The Confederate Army's numerical strength suffered in the wake of straggling and desertion. Although he started from Chantilly with 55,000 men, within 10 days this number had diminished to 45,000.[11] Some troops refused to cross the Potomac River because an invasion of Union territory violated their beliefs that they were fighting only to defend their states from Northern aggression. Countless others became ill with diarrhea after eating unripe "green corn" from the Maryland fields or fell out because their shoeless feet were bloodied on hard-surfaced Northern roads.[12] Lee ordered his commanders to deal harshly with stragglers, whom he considered cowards "who desert their comrades in peril" and were therefore "unworthy members of an army that has immortalized itself" in its recent campaigns.[11] Diarrhea or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8...


Upon entering Maryland, the Confederates found little support; rather, they were met with reactions that ranged from mere curiosity or a cool lack of enthusiasm to hostility. Robert E. Lee was disappointed at the state's resistance, a condition that he had not anticipated. Although Maryland was a slaveholding state, Confederate sympathies were centered primarily in the eastern portions of the state, around Baltimore, and Lee's invasion began in the west. Furthermore, many of the fiercely pro-Southern Marylanders had already traveled south at the beginning of the war to join the Confederate Army in Virginia. Only a "few score" of men joined Lee's columns in Maryland.[13]


Maryland and Pennsylvania rose to arms. Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin called for 50,000 militia to turn out, and he nominated Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds, a native Pennsylvanian, to command them. (This caused considerable frustration to McClellan and Reynolds's corps commander, Joe Hooker, but Henry Halleck ordered Reynolds to serve under Curtin and told Hooker to find a new division commander.) As far north as Wilkes-Barre, church and courthouse bells rang out, calling men to drill.[14] Baltimore had been regarded from the early days of the war as a hotbed of secession, waiting only for the appearance of the Confederate Army to revolt. But the reaction to Lee's invasion was considerable alarm. Crowds milled in the street outside newspaper offices waiting for the latest bulletins, and the sale of liquor was halted to restrain the excitable. The public stocked up on food and other essentials, fearing a siege. Philadelphia was also panicked, despite being over 150 miles (240 km) from Hagerstown and in no immediate danger.[15] This is a list of Governors of Pennsylvania. ... Andrew Gregg Curtin (April 22, 1817 – October 7, 1894) was a U.S. lawyer and politician who served as Governor of Pennsylvania during the American Civil War. ... Maj. ... Nickname: The Diamond City Motto: Pattern After Us Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Luzerne Founded Incorporated  Borough  City 1769  1806  1871 Mayor Thomas M. Leighton (D) Area    - City 18. ... A siege is a military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D...


McClellan's pursuit

McClellan moved out of Washington with his 87,000-man army[16] in a lethargic pursuit. He was a naturally cautious general and assumed he would be facing over 120,000 Confederates. He also was maintaining running arguments with the government in Washington, demanding that the forces defending the capital city report to him.[17] The Army of the Potomac reached Frederick on September 13. There, Union soldiers discovered a mislaid copy of the detailed campaign plans of Lee's army—Special Order 191—wrapped around three cigars. The order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically, thus making each subject to isolation and defeat in detail. McClellan waited 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence. His delay almost squandered the opportunity to destroy Lee's army. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On the night of September 13, the Army of the Potomac moved toward South Mountain, with Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside's wing of the army (the I Corps and IX Corps) directed to Turner's Gap, and Maj. Gen. William B. Franklin's (V Corps and Maj. Gen. Darius N. Couch's division of the IV Corps) to Crampton's Gap. South Mountain is the name given to the continuation of the Blue Ridge Mountains after they enter Maryland. It is a natural obstacle that separates the Shenandoah Valley and Cumberland Valley from the eastern part of Maryland. Crossing the passes of South Mountain was the only way to reach Lee's army. September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... Portrait of Ambrose Burnside by Mathew Brady, ca. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... IX Corps (Ninth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. ... Major General William B. Franklin William Buel Franklin (February 27, 1823 – March 8, 1903) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... Darius N. Couch Darius Nash Couch (July 23, 1822 – February 12, 1897) was a United States Army officer, naturalist, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... There were two corps of the Union Army called IV Corps during the American Civil War. ... Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... Cumberland Valley Township is a township located in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. ...


Lee, seeing McClellan's uncharacteristic aggressive actions, and learning through a Confederate sympathizer that his order had been compromised, quickly moved to concentrate his army. He chose not to abandon his invasion and return to Virginia yet, because Jackson had not completed the capture of Harpers Ferry. Instead, he chose to make a stand at Sharpsburg, Maryland. In the meantime, elements of the Army of Northern Virginia waited in defense of the passes of South Mountain. Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ...


Battles

There were four significant battles fought during the Maryland Campaign:

Battle of Harpers Ferry (September 12September 15, 1862)
Learning that the garrison of the Federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry had not retreated after his incursion into Maryland, Lee decided to surround the force and capture it, thereby removing a threat to his supply lines. He divided his army into four columns, three of which under Jackson's command converged upon and invested Harpers Ferry. On September 15, Confederate artillery was placed on the heights overlooking the town, which had not been properly fortified by Union commander Colonel Dixon S. Miles. The Confederates bombarded the garrison from all sides and were preparing an infantry assault when Miles surrendered the garrison of more than 12,000 men. Miles was mortally wounded by one of the last salvos fired. Jackson took possession of Harpers Ferry, then led most of his soldiers to join Lee at Sharpsburg, leaving Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's division to complete the occupation of the town.
Battle of South Mountain (September 14)
Pitched battles were fought for possession of the South Mountain passes: Crampton's, Turner's, and Fox's Gaps. Maj. Gen. D.H. Hill defended Turner's and Fox's Gaps against Burnside. To the south, Maj. Gen. Lafayette McLaws defended Crampton's Gap against Franklin. Franklin was able to break through at Crampton's gap, but the Confederates were able to hold Turner's and Fox's, if only precariously. Lee realize the futility of his position against the numerically superior Union forces, and he ordered his troops to Sharpsburg. McClellan was then theoretically in a position to destroy Lee's army before it could concentrate. McClellan's limited activity on September 15 after his victory at South Mountain, however, condemned the garrison at Harpers Ferry to capture and gave Lee time to unite his scattered divisions at Sharpsburg.
Battle of Antietam (September 17)
On September 16, McClellan confronted Lee near Sharpsburg, defending a line to the west of Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's I Corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee's left flank that began the bloody battle. Attacks and counterattacks swept across the Miller Cornfield and the woods near the Dunker Church as Maj. Gen. Joseph K. Mansfield's XII Corps joined to reinforce Hooker. Union assaults against the Sunken Road ("Bloody Lane") by Maj. Gen. Edwin V. Sumner's II Corps eventually pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not pressed. In the afternoon, Burnside's IX Corps crossed a stone bridge over Antietam Creek and rolled up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill's division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside's men and saving Lee's army from destruction. Although outnumbered two to one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in only four of his six available corps. This enabled Lee to shift brigades across the battlefield and counter each individual Union assault. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties—Union 12,401, or 25%; Confederate 10,318, or 31%—Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout September 18, while transporting his wounded men south of the Potomac. McClellan did not renew the offensive. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley.
Battle of Shepherdstown (September 19September 20)
On September 19, a detachment of Fitz John Porter's V Corps pushed across the river at Boteler's Ford, attacked the Confederate rear guard commanded by Brig. Gen. William N. Pendleton, and captured four guns. Early on September 20, Porter pushed elements of two divisions across the Potomac to establish a bridgehead. A.P. Hill's division counterattacked while many of the Federals were crossing and nearly annihilated the 118th Pennsylvania (the "Corn Exchange" Regiment), inflicting 269 casualties. This rearguard action discouraged further Federal pursuit.

Battle of Harpers Ferry Conflict American Civil War Date September 12-15, 1862 Place Jefferson County Result Confederate victory The Battle of Harpers Ferry was fought during the American Civil War on September 12–15, 1862. ... Portal:Currentevents September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Dixon Stansbury Miles (May 4, 1804 – September 16, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Ambrose Burnside William B. Franklin Robert E. Lee Strength 28,000 18,000 Casualties 2,325 (443 killed, 1,807 wounded, 75 missing) 2,685 (325 killed, 1560 wounded, 800 missing) The Battle of South Mountain (known... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... General Daniel Harvey Hill Daniel Harvey Hill (July 12th, 1821 - September 24th, 1889) was a Confederate general and Southern scholar. ... Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Burnside Bridge traversing Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland, site of heavy combat during the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862 Antietam Creek is a tributary of the Potomac River located in south central Pennsylvania and western Maryland in the United States. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... Portrait of Joseph Hooker Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Marathon, an example of the double-envelopment, a form of flanking maneuver In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, also called a flank attack, is an attack on the sides of an opposing force. ... Joseph K. Mansfield Joseph King Fenno Mansfield (December 22, 1803 – September 18, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union general in the American Civil War, mortally wounded at the Battle of Antietam. ... The XII Corps (Twelfth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Edwin Vose Bull Head Sumner (January 30, 1797 – March 21, 1863) was a U.S. Army officer who became a Major General and the oldest field commander of any Army Corps on either side during the American Civil War. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Battle of Shepherdstown Conflict American Civil War Date September 19-20, 1862 Place Jefferson County, West Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Shepherdstown, also known as the Battle of Botelers Ford, took place from September 19-20, 1862 in Jefferson County, West Virginia as part of the Maryland... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Fitz John Porter Fitz John Porter (August 31, 1822 – May 21, 1901) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... William Nelson Pendleton (December 26, 1809 – January 15, 1883) was an Episcopal minister and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, serving as Robert E. Lees chief of artillery. ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... The 118th Pennsylvania Regiment was a volunteer infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...

Aftermath and diplomatic implications

Lee successfully withdrew across the Potomac, ending the Maryland Campaign and summer campaigning altogether. President Lincoln was disappointed in McClellan's performance. He believed that the general's cautious and poorly coordinated actions in the field had forced the battle to a draw rather than a crippling Confederate defeat. He was even more astonished that from September 17 to October 26, despite repeated entreaties from the War Department and the president, McClellan declined to pursue Lee across the Potomac, citing shortages of equipment and the fear of overextending his forces. General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck wrote in his official report, "The long inactivity of so large an army in the face of a defeated foe, and during the most favorable season for rapid movements and a vigorous campaign, was a matter of great disappointment and regret."[18] Lincoln relieved McClellan of his command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7, effectively ending the general's military career. Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside rose to command the Army of the Potomac. The Eastern Theater was relatively quiet until December, when the Lee faced Burnside at the Battle of Fredericksburg. September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116...


Although a tactical draw, the Battle of Antietam was a strategic victory for the Union. It forced the end of Lee's strategic invasion of the North and gave Abraham Lincoln the victory he was awaiting before announcing the Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, which took effect on January 1, 1863. Although Lincoln had intended to do so earlier, he was advised by his Cabinet to make this announcement after a Union victory to avoid the perception that it was issued out of desperation. The Confederate reversal at Antietam also dissuaded the governments of France and Great Britain from recognizing the Confederacy. And, with the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, it became less likely that future battlefield victories would induce foreign recognition. Lincoln had effectively highlighted slavery as a tenet of the Confederate States of America, and the abhorrence of slavery in France and Great Britain would not allow for intervention on behalf of the South. The Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive decree by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during that countrys Civil War, which declared the freedom of all slaves in those areas of the rebellious Confederate States of America that had not already returned to Union control. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Diplomatic recognition is the act in which a states government is formally recognized by another state as being legitimate. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


References

  • Bailey, Ronald H., and the Editors of Time-Life Books, The Bloodiest Day: The Battle of Antietam, Time-Life Books, 1984, ISBN 0-8094-4740-1.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • McPherson, James M., Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam, The Battle That Changed the Course of the Civil War, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-19-513521-0.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam, Houghton Mifflin, 1983, ISBN 0-89919-172-X.
  • Wolff, Robert S., "The Antietam Campaign", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • National Park Service battle descriptions

James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Sears, p. 66.
  2. ^ McPherson, p. 89.
  3. ^ McPherson, pp. 93-94.
  4. ^ Detailed organization of Lee's army.
  5. ^ Sears, p. 69.
  6. ^ The word invasion has been used historically for these operations, and in the case of Kentucky it is valid. The Confederacy was attempting to regain territory it believed was its own. In the case of Maryland, however, Lee had no plans to seize and hold Union territory, and therefore his actions would more properly be described as a strategic raid or an incursion.
  7. ^ Sears, pp. 68-69.
  8. ^ McPherson, p. 91.
  9. ^ a b Eicher, p. 339
  10. ^ Sears, p. 83.
  11. ^ a b McPherson, p. 100.
  12. ^ Sears, p. 83.
  13. ^ McPherson, p. 98.
  14. ^ McPherson, p. 101.
  15. ^ Sears, pp. 100-101.
  16. ^ Detailed organization of McClellan's army.
  17. ^ Eicher, p. 340.
  18. ^ Bailey, p. 67.

Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also...

External links

  • Antietam on the Web

  Results from FactBites:
 
American Civil War Maryland Battle at Antietam 1862 (1063 words)
The First Maryland Infantry was formed from Marylanders who chose to cast their lot with the Confederacy against a Union government that had invaded their state and established martial law, forcing those who disagreed with the invasion of the South to join the Confederates or to submit to what they considered as tyranny.
Maryland did not freely choose to remain in the Union at the outbreak of the Civil War, this book argues: the state was held by brute force.
Maryland was the site of the greatest single day's carnage in American history, at Antietam Creek, and Marylanders on both sides of this brothers' war shot down one another at Front Royal and Gettysburg.
Maryland State Board of Elections (630 words)
Check the campaign finance database for contributions, expenditures, and summary information reported by Maryland Campaign Finance Entities.
In November 1999, Maryland law began to require that the campaign accounts file the campaign fund reports in an electronic storage format.
Charitable Contributions from Campaign Funds: SBE has received numerous inquiries by individuals wanting to know whether it is permissible to use campaign funds for the purpose of donating to disaster relief efforts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m