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Encyclopedia > Mary Wollstonecraft
Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie
Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie

Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 175910 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men and women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason. Image File history File links Marywollstonecraft. ... Image File history File links Marywollstonecraft. ... John Opie (May 1761 - April 6, 1807) was a Cornish historical and portrait painter. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Travel literature is literature which records the people, events, sights and feelings of an author who is touring a foreign place for the pleasure of travel. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Mary Wollstonecraft. ...


Among the general public and specifically among feminists, Wollstonecraft's life has received much more attention than her writing because of her unconventional, and often tumultuous, personal relationships. After two complicated and heart-rending affairs with Henry Fuseli and Gilbert Imlay, Wollstonecraft married the philosopher William Godwin, one of the forefathers of the anarchist movement; they had one daughter, Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein. Wollstonecraft died at the age of thirty-eight due to complications from childbirth, leaving behind several unfinished manuscripts. Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ...


Today Wollstonecraft is considered to be one of the foundational feminist philosophers. Her early advocacy of women's equality and her critiques of conventional femininity presaged the organized feminist movement. Feminist scholars and activists have often cited both her philosophical ideas and her personal life as important influences on their work. Feminist philosophy refers to philosophy approached from a feminist perspective. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ...

Contents

Early life

Wollstonecraft was born on 27 April 1759 in Spitalfields, London. Although her family had a comfortable income when she was a child, her father gradually squandered it on speculative projects. Consequently, the family became financially unstable and they were frequently forced to move during Wollstonecraft's youth.[1] The family's financial situation eventually became so dire that Wollstonecraft's father compelled her to turn over money that she would have inherited at her maturity. Moreover, he was apparently a violent man who would beat his wife in drunken rages. As a teenager, Wollstonecraft used to lie outside the door of her mother's bedroom to protect her.[2] Wollstonecraft played a similar maternal role for her sisters, Everina and Eliza, throughout her life. For example, in a defining moment in 1784, she convinced Eliza, who was suffering from what was probably postpartum depression, to leave her husband and infant; Wollstonecraft made all of the arrangements for Eliza to flee, demonstrating her willingness to challenge social norms. The human costs, however, were severe: her sister suffered social condemnation and, because she could not remarry, was doomed to a life of poverty and hard work.[3] April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Christ Church, Spitalfields Spitalfields, an area in Tower Hamlets, east London near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane which gets its name from a contraction of hospital fields, as there used to be a major hospital in the area. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Postpartum depression (also postnatal depression) is a form of clinical depression which can affect women, and less frequently men, after childbirth. ...


Two friendships shaped Wollstonecraft's early life. The first was with Jane Arden in Beverley. The two frequently read books together and attended lectures presented by Arden's father, a self-styled philosopher and scientist. Wollstonecraft reveled in the intellectual atmosphere of the Arden household and valued her friendship with Arden greatly, sometimes to the point of being emotionally possessive. Wollstonecraft wrote to her, "I have formed romantic notions of friendship…I am a little singular in my thoughts of love and friendship; I must have the first place or none."[4] In some of Wollstonecraft's letters to Arden, she reveals the volatile and depressive emotions that would haunt her throughout her life.[5] Arms of Beverley For other uses, see Beverley (disambiguation). ...


The second and more important friendship was with Fanny Blood, introduced to Wollstonecraft by the Clares, a couple in Hoxton who became parental figures to her; Wollstonecraft credited Blood with opening her mind.[6] Unhappy with her home life, Wollstonecraft struck out on her own in 1778 and accepted a job as a lady's companion to a Mrs. Dawson, a widow living in Bath. However, Wollstonecraft had trouble getting along with the irascible woman (an experience she drew on when describing the drawbacks of such a position in Thoughts on the Education of Daughters). In 1780 she returned home, called back to care for her dying mother.[7] Rather than return to Mrs. Dawson's employ after the death of her mother, Wollstonecraft moved in with the Bloods. She realized during the two years she spent with the family that she had idealized Blood—she was more invested in traditional feminine values than was Wollstonecraft. But Wollstonecraft remained dedicated to her and her family throughout her life (she frequently gave pecuniary assistance to Blood's brother, for example).[8] Hoxton Square. ... Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ...


Wollstonecraft had envisioned living in a female utopia with Blood; they made plans to rent rooms together and support each other emotionally and financially, but this dream collapsed under economic realities.[9] In order to make a living, Wollstonecraft, her sisters, and Blood set up a school together in Newington Green, a Dissenting community, but Blood soon became engaged. After her marriage, her husband, Hugh Skeys, took her to Europe to improve her health, which had always been precarious.[10] After she became pregnant, Blood's health deteriorated even further. In 1785, Wollstonecraft followed Blood to nurse her, but to no avail;[11] moreover, her abandonment of the school led to its failure.[12] Blood's death devastated Wollstonecraft and was part of the inspiration for her first novel, Mary.[13] Non conformism is the term of KKK ...


"The first of a new genus"

Frontispiece to the 1791 edition of Original Stories from Real Life (engraved by William Blake)

After Blood's death, Wollstonecraft's friends helped her obtain a position as governess to the daughters of the Anglo-Irish Kingsborough family in Ireland. Although she could not get along with Lady Kingsborough,[14] the children found her an inspiring instructor; Margaret King would later say she "had freed her mind from all superstitions."[15] Some of Wollstonecraft's experiences during this year would make their way into her only children's book, Original Stories from Real Life (1788).[16] Image File history File links OrigStoriesBlake. ... Image File history File links OrigStoriesBlake. ... Original Stories from Real Life with Conversations calculated to Regulate the Affections, and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness, published in 1788, is the only work of childrens fiction by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Anglo-Irish was a term used historically to describe a ruling class inhabitants of Ireland who were the descendants and successors of the Protestant Ascendancy[1], mostly belonging to the Anglican Church of Ireland or to a lesser extent one of the English dissenting churches, such as the Methodist church. ... Original Stories from Real Life with Conversations calculated to Regulate the Affections, and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness, published in 1788, is the only work of childrens fiction by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). ...


Frustrated by the limited career options open to respectable yet poor women — an impediment which Wollstonecraft eloquently describes in the chapter of Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787) entitled "Unfortunate Situation of Females, Fashionably Educated, and Left Without a Fortune" — she decided, after only a year as a governess, to embark upon a career as an author. This was a radical choice, since, at the time, few women could support themselves by writing. As she wrote to her sister Everina in 1787, she was trying to become "the first of a new genus."[17] She moved to London and, assisted by the liberal publisher Joseph Johnson, found a place to live and work to support herself.[18] She learned French and German and translated texts,[19] most notably Of the Importance of Religious Opinions by Jacques Necker and Elements of Morality, for the Use of Children by Christian Gotthilf Salzmann. She also wrote reviews, primarily of novels, for Johnson's Analytical Review.[20] Wollstonecraft's intellectual universe expanded during this time, not only from the reading that she did for her reviews but also from the company she kept: she attended Johnson's famous dinners and met such luminaries as Thomas Paine and William Godwin. The first time Godwin and Wollstonecraft met, they were both disappointed in each other. Godwin had come to hear Paine, but Wollstonecraft assailed him all night long, disagreeing with him on nearly every subject. Johnson himself, however, became much more than a friend; she described him in her letters as a father and a brother.[21] Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ... Only known portrait of Joseph Johnson by William Sharp (after Moses Haughton)[1] Joseph Johnson (15 November 1738 – 20 December 1809) was an influential eighteenth-century London bookseller, often called the father of the book trade in England. ... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman of Swiss origin and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Necker was born in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Christian Gotthilf Salzmann (1744 – 1811) was the founder of the Schnepfenthal institution, a school dedicated to new modes of education (derived heavily from the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau). ... Prospectus for the Analytical Review (1788) The Analytical Review was a periodical begun in 1788 by Joseph Johnson and Thomas Christie. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ...


While in London, Wollstonecraft pursued a relationship with the artist Henry Fuseli, even though he was already married. She was, she wrote, enraptured by his genius, "the grandeur of his soul, that quickness of comprehension, and lovely sympathy."[22] She proposed a platonic living arrangement with Fuseli and his wife, but Fuseli's wife was appalled, and he broke off the relationship with Wollstonecraft.[23] After Fuseli's rejection, Wollstonecraft decided to travel to France to escape the humiliation of the incident, and to participate in the revolutionary events that she had just celebrated in her recent Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790). She had written Vindication of the Rights of Men in response to Edmund Burke's conservative critique of the French Revolution in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) and it made her famous overnight. She was compared with such leading lights as the theologian and controversialist Joseph Priestley and Paine, whose Rights of Man (1791) would prove to be the most popular of the responses to Burke. She pursued the ideas she had outlined in Rights of Men in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), her most famous and influential work.[24] Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... A Vindication of the Rights of Men was a defense of the ideals of the French Revolution, written by the English feminist and radical Mary Wollstonecraft in 1790. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Reflections on the Revolution in France is a work of political commentary written by Anglo-Irish statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, first published on 1 November 1790. ... Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... Mary Wollstonecraft. ...


France and Gilbert Imlay

Wollstonecraft left for Paris in December 1792 and arrived about a month before Louis XVI was guillotined. The country was in turmoil. She sought out other British visitors such as Helen Maria Williams and joined the circle of expatriates then in the city.[25] Having just written A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Wollstonecraft was determined to put her ideas to the test, and in the stimulating intellectual atmosphere of the French Revolution she attempted her most experimental romantic attachment yet: she met and fell passionately in love with Gilbert Imlay, an American adventurer. Whether or not Wollstonecraft was interested in marriage, Imlay was not, and Wollstonecraft appears to have fallen in love with an idealized portrait of the man. While Wollstonecraft had rejected the sexual component of relationships in A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Imlay awakened her passions and her interest in sex.[26] Wollstonecraft soon became pregnant, and on 14 May 1794 she gave birth to her first child, Fanny, naming her after perhaps her closest friend.[27] Wollstonecraft was overjoyed with her baby; she wrote to a friend: "My little Girl begins to suck so MANFULLY that her father reckons saucily on her writing the second part of the R[igh]ts of Woman."[28] Wollstonecraft continued to write avidly despite not only her pregnancy and the burdens of being a new mother alone in a foreign country but also the growing tumult of the French Revolution. While at Le Havre in northern France, she wrote a history of the early revolution, An Historical and Moral View of the French Revolution, which was published in London in December 1794.[29] It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Helen Maria Williams (1761 or 1762–1827) was a British novelist, poet, and translator of French-language works. ... Mary Wollstonecraft. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. ...


As the political situation worsened, Britain declared war on France, placing all British citizens in France in considerable danger. To protect Wollstonecraft, Imlay registered her as his wife in 1793, even though they were not married.[30] Some of Wollstonecraft's friends were not so lucky; many, like Thomas Paine, were arrested, and some were even guillotined (Wollstonecraft's sisters believed she had been imprisoned). After Wollstonecraft left France, she continued to refer to herself as Mrs. Imlay, even to her sisters, in order to bestow legitimacy upon her child.[31] The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ...


Imlay, unhappy with the domestic-minded and maternal Wollstonecraft, eventually left her. He promised that he would return to Le Havre where she went to give birth to her child, but his delays in writing to her and his long absences convinced Wollstonecraft that he had found another woman. Her letters to him are full of needy expostulations, explained by most critics as the expressions of a deeply depressed woman but by some as a result of her circumstances — alone with an infant in the middle of a revolution.[32]


England and William Godwin

Seeking Imlay, Wollstonecraft returned to London in April 1795, but he rejected her. In May 1795 she attempted to commit suicide, probably with laudanum, but Imlay saved her life (although it is unclear how).[33] In a last attempt to win back Imlay, she embarked upon some business negotiations for him in Scandinavia, trying to recoup some of his losses. Wollstonecraft undertook this hazardous trip with only her young daughter and a maid. She recounted her travels and thoughts in letters to Imlay, many of which were eventually published as Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark in 1796.[34] When she returned to England and came to the full realization that her relationship with Imlay was over, she attempted suicide for the second time, leaving this note for Imlay: Laudanum is an opium tincture, sometimes sweetened with sugar and also called wine of opium. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Title page from the first edition of Letters (1796) Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796), the last published work by eighteenth-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is a deeply personal travel narrative. ...

Let my wrongs sleep with me! Soon, very soon, I shall be at peace. When you receive this, my burning head will be cold. . . . I shall plunge into the Thames where there is least chance of my being snatched from the death I seek. God bless you! May you never know by experience what you have made me endure. Should your sensibility ever awake, remorse will find its way to your heart; and, in the midst of business and sensual pleasure, I shall appear before you, the victim of your deviation from rectitude.[35]

She then went out on a rainy night and "to make her clothes heavy with water, she walked up and down about half an hour" before jumping into the Thames, but a stranger saw her jump and rescued her.[36] Wollstonecraft considered her suicide attempt deeply rational, writing after her rescue, "I have only to lament, that, when the bitterness of death was past, I was inhumanly brought back to life and misery. But a fixed determination is not to be baffled by disappointment; nor will I allow that to be a frantic attempt, which was one of the calmest acts of reason. In this respect, I am only accountable to myself. Did I care for what is termed reputation, it is by other circumstances that I should be dishonoured."[37] This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ...

Portrait of William Godwin
Portrait of William Godwin

Gradually, Wollstonecraft returned to her literary life, becoming involved with Joseph Johnson's circle again, in particular with Mary Hays, Elizabeth Inchbald, and Sarah Siddons through William Godwin. Godwin and Wollstonecraft's unique courtship began slowly, but it eventually became a passionate love affair.[38] Godwin had read her Letters Written in Sweden, Norway and Denmark and later wrote that "If ever there was a book calculated to make a man in love with its author, this appears to me to be the book. She speaks of her sorrows, in a way that fills us with melancholy, and dissolves us in tenderness, at the same time that she displays a genius which commands all our admiration."[39] Once Wollstonecraft became pregnant, they decided to marry so that their child would be legitimate. Their marriage revealed the fact that Wollstonecraft had never been married to Imlay, and as a result she and Godwin lost many friends. Godwin received further criticism because he had advocated the abolition of marriage in his philosophical treatise Political Justice.[40] After their marriage on 29 March 1797, they moved into two adjoining houses, known as The Polygon, so that they could both still retain their independence; they often communicated by letter. By all accounts, theirs was a happy and stable, though tragically brief, relationship.[41] William Godwin. ... William Godwin. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... Only known portrait of Joseph Johnson by William Sharp (after Moses Haughton)[1] Joseph Johnson (15 November 1738 – 20 December 1809) was an influential eighteenth-century London bookseller, often called the father of the book trade in England. ... Mary Hays (1760 – 1843) was an English novelist and feminist. ... Mrs. ... Sarah Siddons Sarah Siddons (1755–1831) was a British actress, the best-known of the 18th century. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Death and Godwin's Memoirs

On 30 August 1797, Wollstonecraft gave birth to her second daughter, Mary. Although the delivery seemed to go well initially, the placenta broke apart during the birth and became infected, a common occurrence in the eighteenth century. After several days of agony, Wollstonecraft died of septicemia on 10 September.[42] Godwin was devastated; he wrote to his friend Thomas Holcroft, "I firmly believe there does not exist her equal in the world. I know from experience we were formed to make each other happy. I have not the least expectation that I can now ever know happiness again."[43] She was buried at Old Saint Pancras Churchyard, and a memorial to her was constructed there, though both her and Godwin's remains were later moved to Bournemouth. Her tombstone reads, "Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: Born 27 April, 1759: Died 10 September, 1797."[44] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Holcroft (December 10, 1745 - March 23, 1809) was an English dramatist and miscellaneous writer. ... St Pancras Old Church in 1815. ... , Bournemouth is a large town and tourist resort, situated on the south coast of England. ...


In January 1798 Godwin published his Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Although Godwin felt that he was portraying his wife with love, compassion, and sincerity, many readers were shocked that he would reveal Wollstonecraft's illegitimate children, love affairs, and suicide attempts.[45] Robert Southey accused him of "the want of all feeling in stripping his dead wife naked."[46] Godwin's Memoirs portrays Wollstonecraft as a woman deeply invested in feeling who was balanced by his reason and as more of a religious skeptic than her own writings suggest. Godwin's views of Wollstonecraft were perpetuated throughout the nineteenth century and resulted in poems such as "Wollstonecraft and Fuseli" by British poet Robert Browning. Title page from the revised second edition of Memoirs Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is William Godwins biography of his wife Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Robert Southey, English poet Robert Southey (August 12, 1774 – March 21, 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the so-called Lake Poets, and Poet Laureate. ... Robert Browning (May 7, 1812 – December 12, 1889) was a British poet and playwright whose mastery of dramatic verse, especially dramatic monologues, made him one of the foremost Victorian poets. ...


Legacy

Wollstonecraft has had what Cora Kaplan labels a "curious" legacy: "for an author-activist adept in many genres… up until the last quarter-century Wollstonecraft's life has been read much more closely than her writing."[47] After the devastating effect of Godwin's Memoirs, Wollstonecraft's reputation lay in tatters for a century; she was pilloried by such writers as Maria Edgeworth, who patterned the "freakish" Harriet Freke in Belinda (1801) after Wollstonecraft. Other novelists such as Mary Hays, Charlotte Smith, Fanny Burney and Jane West created similar figures, all to teach a "moral lesson" to their readers.[48] It was not until the late nineteenth century that Wollstonecraft was again applauded. With the advent of the feminist movement, women as politically dissimilar from each other as Virginia Woolf and Emma Goldman embraced Wollstonecraft's life story and celebrated her "experiments in living", as Woolf termed them in a famous essay.[49] Many, however, continued to decry Wollstonecraft's lifestyle. Maria Edgeworth Maria Edgeworth (1 January 1767 – 22 May 1849) was an Anglo-Irish novelist. ... Mary Hays (1760 – 1843) was an English novelist and feminist. ... Charlotte Turner Smith (May 4, 1749 - October 28, 1806) was an English poet and novelist whose works have been credited with influencing Jane Austen and particularly Charles Dickens. ... Fanny Burney For Frances Burney (1776–1828), niece of Frances Burney, later Madame DArblay (1752-1840), see Frances Burney Fanny Burney, later Madame DArblay, (June 13, 1752-January 6, 1840) was an English novelist and diarist. ... Jane West (1758-1852), also known as Mrs. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... For the American childrens writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff Virginia Woolf (née Stephen) (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was an English novelist and essayist regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) aka Red Emma, was a Lithuanian-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. ...


With the advent of feminist criticism in academia in the 1960s and 1970s, Wollstonecraft's works returned to prominence. Their fortunes reflected that of the feminist movement itself; for example, in the early 1970s, six major biographies of Wollstonecraft were published that presented her "passionate life in apposition to [her] radical and rationalist agenda."[50] Wollstonecraft was seen as a paradoxical yet intriguing figure who did not adhere to the 1970s version of feminism—"the personal is the political." In the 1980s and 1990s, yet another image of Wollstonecraft emerged, one which described her as much more a creature of her time; scholars such as Claudia Johnson, Gary Kelly, and Virginia Sapiro demonstrated the continuity between Wollstonecraft's thought and other important eighteenth-century ideas regarding topics such as sensibility, economics, and political theory. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Wollstonecraft's work has also had an effect on feminism outside the academy in recent years. Ayaan Hirsi Ali, a feminist who is critical of Islam's dictates regarding women, cited the Rights of Woman in her autobiography and wrote that she was "inspired by Mary Wollstonecraft, the pioneering feminist thinker who told women they had the same ability to reason as men did and deserved the same rights."[51] Ayaan Hirsi Ali ( ; Somali: ; born Ayaan Hirsi Magan 13 November 1969[2] in Mogadishu, Somalia) is a feminist and political writer, daughter of the Somali scholar, politician, and revolutionary opposition leader Hirsi Magan Isse. ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ...


Major works

Educational works

First page of the first edition of Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787)
First page of the first edition of Thoughts on the Education of Daughters (1787)
Main articles: Thoughts on the Education of Daughters and Original Stories from Real Life

Wollstonecraft's first two works revolve around education. The first, Thoughts on the Education of Daughters, is a conduct book; that is, it is a text that gives advice not only on moral issues such as benevolence,[52] but also on issues of etiquette such as dress.[53] Such texts were extremely popular throughout the eighteenth century, particularly amongst the emerging middle class, who saw in them a way to develop a middle-class ethos that would challenge the aristocratic code of manners.[54] While much of this text is platitudinous, there are moments, such as Wollstonecraft's description of the suffering single woman,[55] that suggest she was not content to simply imitate other authors. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ... Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ... Original Stories from Real Life with Conversations calculated to Regulate the Affections, and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness, published in 1788, is the only work of childrens fiction by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). ... Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ...


One year later, Wollstonecraft produced another educational text, this time a children's book. In Original Stories from Real Life, two young girls, Mary and Caroline (named after two of Lady Kingsborough's daughters), are instructed by a wise and benevolent maternal figure, Mrs. Mason. Throughout Original Stories, Wollstonecraft emphasizes the importance of rational thought in female education,[56] a theme that would become a hallmark throughout her works. The girls are encouraged to feel sympathy for animals and for the poor, but they are specifically warned not to let their emotions run away with them; it is this balance between reason and passion that allows them to become charitable adults. The book went through nine editions before eventually going out of print sometime between 1820 and 1835; the second edition, printed in 1791, carried engravings by William Blake. Original Stories from Real Life with Conversations calculated to Regulate the Affections, and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness, published in 1788, is the only work of childrens fiction by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ...


Vindications

Vindication of the Rights of Men (1790)

In 1790 Edmund Burke published Reflections on the Revolution in France. Burke, who had been a supporter of the American Revolution, shocked his contemporaries by arguing against the French revolutionaries. His book set off what is now known as the "Revolution Controversy", a pamphlet war responding to Burke's text.[57] Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Men was the first of many sallies in a war that included other such seminal works as Thomas Paine's Rights of Man. But Wollstonecraft was not just responding to Burke's Reflections; she was also responding to his A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1756), in which he argues that the beautiful is associated with weakness and femininity and that the sublime is associated with strength and masculinity. Wollstonecraft turns Burke's rhetoric in the Reflections against him; she argues that his theatrical staging, such as the famous scene in which he describes in florid prose the horrors Marie Antoinette had to undergo, turns Burke's readers — the citizens — into weak women who are swayed by show.[58] She further critiques Burke's argument by focusing on class, demonstrating, like many other critics of Burke, that while he was moved by Marie Antoinette's suffering he was unmoved by the plight of the poor, starving women in France; indeed, he is openly hostile to them. Wollstonecraft also challenges Burke's argument that tradition should underlie political theory; she argues for rationality, pointing out that Burke's system would logically lead to the continuation of slavery simply because it had been an ancestral tradition.[59] Wollstonecraft does not reject the need for sympathy in human relations that Burke emphasizes, but she often argues that sympathy is insufficient for social cohesion, at one point writing, "Such misery demands more than tears — I pause to recollect myself — one must always also analyze any situation rationally."[60] Significantly, she ends the Vindication of the Rights of Men with a reference to the Bible: "He fears God and loves his fellow-creatures. Behold the whole duty of man!"[61] A Vindication of the Rights of Men was a defense of the ideals of the French Revolution, written by the English feminist and radical Mary Wollstonecraft in 1790. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Reflections on the Revolution in France is a work of political commentary written by Anglo-Irish statesman and philosopher Edmund Burke, first published on 1 November 1790. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... A Vindication of the Rights of Men was a defense of the ideals of the French Revolution, written by the English feminist and radical Mary Wollstonecraft in 1790. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Thomas Paine wrote the Rights of Man in 1791 as a reply to Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke, and as such, it is a work glorifying the French Revolution. ... A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is a 1757 treatise on aesthetics, written by Edmund Burke. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Slave redirects here. ...

First American edition of Rights of Woman
First American edition of Rights of Woman

Image File history File links Wollstonecraft-right-of-woman. ... Image File history File links Wollstonecraft-right-of-woman. ...

Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is a hybrid of genres — a political treatise, a conduct book, and an educational treatise. In order to discuss the position of women in society, Wollstonecraft outlines the connections between four terms: rights, reason, virtue, and duty. Rights and duties are integrally linked for Wollstonecraft — if one has civic rights, then one also has civic duties. As she succinctly states, "without rights there cannot be any incumbent duties."[62] Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Mary Wollstonecraft. ...


One of Wollstonecraft's main arguments in Vindication of the Rights of Woman is that women should be educated rationally, so that they can contribute to society. Wollstonecraft responds vitriolically to such conduct-book writers as James Fordyce and John Gregory and such educational philosophers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argue that a woman does not need a rational education. (Rousseau famously argues in Émile (1762) that women should be educated for the pleasure of men.) By contrast, Wollstonecraft maintains that wives should be the rational "companions" of their husbands. She points out that if a society decides to leave the education of its children to women, those women must be well-educated in order to pass on knowledge to the next generation.[63] Wollstonecraft states that women are silly and superficial (she refers to them, for example, as "spaniels" and "toys" at one point[64]), but says this is not because of an innate deficiency of mind but because men have denied them access to education. Wollstonecraft is most intent on illustrating the limitations that women's educations have placed on them; poetically, she writes: "Taught from their infancy that beauty is woman's sceptre, the mind shapes itself to the body, and, roaming round its gilt cage, only seeks to adorn its prison."[65] The implication of the statement is that, without the damaging ideology encouraging young women from an early age to focus their attention on beauty and outward accomplishments, women could achieve much more. James Fordyce, DD (b. ... John Gregory (a. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ...


It is debatable to what extent Wollstonecraft believed that women were equal to men; certainly she was not a feminist in the modern sense of the word (the words feminist and feminism did not come into existence until the 1890s[66]), since she called for neither equal rights nor suffrage in her texts. She does claim that all men and women are equal in the eyes of God and that they are all subject to the same moral laws.[67] However, such claims of equality stand in contrast to her statements respecting the superiority of masculine strength and valor.[68] Wollstonecraft famously and ambiguously states: "Let it not be concluded that I wish to invert the order of things; I have already granted, that, from the constitution of their bodies, men seem to be designed by Providence to attain a greater degree of virtue. I speak collectively of the whole sex; but I see not the shadow of a reason to conclude that their virtues should differ in respect to their nature. In fact, how can they, if virtue has only one eternal standard? I must therefore, if I reason consequentially, as strenuously maintain that they have the same simple direction, as that there is a God."[69]


One of Wollstonecraft's most scathing criticisms in Vindication of the Rights of Woman is against false and excessive sensibility, particularly in women. She argues that women who succumb to sensibility are "blown about by every momentary gust of feeling" and because they are "the prey of their senses" they cannot think rationally.[70] In fact, she claims, they do harm not only to themselves but to the entire civilization: these are not women who can help refine a civilization — a popular eighteenth-century idea — but women who will destroy it. Wollstonecraft does not argue that reason and feeling should act independently of each other; rather, she believes that they should inform each other. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In addition to her larger philosophical arguments, Wollstonecraft also lays out a specific educational plan. In Chapter 12, "On National Education", she argues that all children should be sent to a "country day school" as well as given some education at home "to inspire a love of home and domestic pleasures." She also maintains that schooling should be co-educational, arguing that men and women, whose marriages are "the cement of society", should be "educated after the same model." Coeducation is the integrated education of males and females at the same school facilities. ...


Wollstonecraft addressed her text to the middle-class, which she called the "most natural state", and in many ways Vindication of the Rights of Woman is inflected by a bourgeois view of the world.[71] She encourages modesty and industry and attacks the wealthy using the same language with which she accuses women of worthlessness. But she is not necessarily a friend to the poor; for example, in her national plan for education, she suggests that, after the age of nine, the poor be separated from the rich and taught in another school.[72] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Novels

Otto Scholderer's Young Girl Reading (1883); in both Mary and The Wrongs of Woman, Wollstonecraft criticizes women who imagine themselves as sentimental heroines.
Otto Scholderer's Young Girl Reading (1883); in both Mary and The Wrongs of Woman, Wollstonecraft criticizes women who imagine themselves as sentimental heroines.
Main articles: Mary: A Fiction and Maria: or, The Wrongs of Woman

Both of Wollstonecraft's novels focus on the sometimes desperate plight of women during the eighteenth century. In her first novel, Mary: A Fiction (1788), the eponymous protagonist, initially ignored as a child, suddenly becomes an heiress; she is consequently married off by her family as part of a property deal to a man she does not even know. Mary's husband, Charles, quickly disappears from the novel, and the bulk of the story focuses on the friendship between Mary and her sickly friend, Ann. They travel to the continent together in hopes of improving Ann's health, but to no avail; she dies. While there, Mary meets and falls in love with Henry. After Ann dies, Mary and Henry return to England. Henry is also ill, but Mary chooses to live with him and his mother during his last remaining weeks. Mary never recovers from the losses of Ann and Henry, and when her husband returns at the end of the book, she cannot bear to be in the same room with him. The end of the novel suggests that she will die young. Like Maria, this book is a comment on marriage. There are no successful marriages in the novel, and at the end, as she is dying, Mary "thought she was hastening to that world where there is neither marrying, nor giving in marriage," presumably a positive state of affairs. The only successful relationships in this book are friendships, and even those end tragically for Mary. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 495 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (578 × 700 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Otto Scholderer Lesendes Mädchen 1883 76 x 64 cm Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 495 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (578 × 700 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Otto Scholderer Lesendes Mädchen 1883 76 x 64 cm Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to... Otto Scholderer: Self-portrait with tools Otto Scholderer (* 25 January 1834 in Frankfurt /M.; † 22 January 1902) was a German painter. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ...


Maria: or, The Wrongs of Woman is an unfinished novel and often considered Wollstonecraft's most radical work.[73] In it she details many of "the wrongs of woman" not only on an individual level but on a systemic level as well. The protagonist, Maria, is imprisoned in an asylum by her profligate husband in order to steal her money; sadly, her child is stolen from her as well. While in the asylum, Maria meets and perhaps falls in love with a man named Darnford, but because the novel is unfinished, it is unclear whether Wollstonecraft intended to resolve the romantic subplot happily or to end the novel tragically. Maria also befriends one of the nurses, Jemima, who, like Maria herself, has a harrowing tale to tell of married life. Jemima's tale gives Wollstonecraft an opportunity to show the bonds between women of different classes. Significantly, this is one of the first moments in the history of feminism that hints at a cross-class argument, that is, that women of different economic positions have the same interests because they are women.[74] Deeply affected by her own romantic attachments and experiences in France, Wollstonecraft altered some of her previous opinions regarding class; she would not have made these same arguments six years earlier when she described the middle class as "the natural state."

"The wanderer above the sea of fog" by Caspar David Friedrich (1818); depicting the sublime
"The wanderer above the sea of fog" by Caspar David Friedrich (1818); depicting the sublime

Image File history File links Caspar_David_Friedrich_032. ... Image File history File links Caspar_David_Friedrich_032. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ...

Letters Written in Sweden, Norway and Denmark (1796)

Main article: Letters Written in Sweden, Norway and Denmark

Wollstonecraft's Letters Written in Sweden, Norway and Denmark is a travel narrative but a very personal one; it consists not only of her reflections on Scandinavia and its peoples but also on her relationship with Imlay (although he is not referred to by name). In this, her last major finished published work, Wollstonecraft was strongly influenced by the themes of Rousseau's Reveries of a Solitary Walker (1782): "the search for the source of human happiness, the stoic rejection of material goods, the ecstatic embrace of nature, and the essential role of sentiment in understanding".[75] While Rousseau ultimately rejects society, Wollstonecraft celebrates domestic scenes and industrial progress in her text.[76] Wollstonecraft also explores the connections between the sublime and sensibility. Many of the letters describe the breathtaking scenery of Scandinavia and Wollstonecraft's desire to create an emotional connection to that natural world. In so doing, she gives greater value to the imagination than she had in previous works. She contrasts this imaginative connection to the world with a commercial and mercenary one, an attitude that she associates with Imlay and which she criticizes throughout the text.[77] Title page from the first edition of Letters (1796) Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796), the last published work by eighteenth-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is a deeply personal travel narrative. ... Title page from the first edition of Letters (1796) Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796), the last published work by eighteenth-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is a deeply personal travel narrative. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau, (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Genevan philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Reveries of a Solitary Walker (or Reveries of the Solitary Walker, French title: Les Reveries du promeneur solitaire) is a book by French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, written between 1776 and 1778. ... In aesthetics, the sublime (from the Latin sublimis (exalted)) is the quality of transcendent greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual or artistic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

See also

The Unsexd Females, a Poem (1798), by Richard Polwhele, is a polemical intervention into the public debate over the role of women at the end of the eighteenth century. ... Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. ...

List of works

This is a complete list of Mary Wollstonecraft's works; all works are the first edition and were authored by Wollstonecraft unless otherwise noted.[78]

  • —. Thoughts on the Education of Daughters: With Reflections on Female Conduct, in the More Important Duties of Life. London: Joseph Johnson, 1787.
  • —. Mary: A Fiction. London: Joseph Johnson, 1788.
  • —. Original Stories from Real Life: With Conversations Calculated to Regulate the Affections and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness. London: Joseph Johnson, 1788.
  • Necker, Jacques. Of the Importance of Religious Opinions. Trans. Mary Wollstonecraft. London: Joseph Johnson, 1788.
  • —. The Female Reader: Or, Miscellaneous Pieces, in Prose and Verse; selected from the best writers, and disposed under proper heads; for the improvement of young women. By Mr. Cresswick, teacher of elocution [Mary Wollstonecraft]. To which is prefixed a preface, containing some hints on female education. London: Joseph Johnson, 1789.
  • de Cambon, Maria Geertruida van de Werken. Young Grandison. A Series of Letters from Young Persons to Their Friends. Trans. Mary Wollstonecraft. London: Joseph Johnson, 1790.
  • Salzmann, Christian Gotthilf. Elements of Morality, for the Use of Children; with an introductory address to parents. Trans. Mary Wollstonecraft. London: Joseph Johnson, 1790.
  • —. A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke. London: Joseph Johnson, 1790.
  • —. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman with Strictures on Moral and Political Subjects. London: Joseph Johnson, 1792.
  • —. "On the Prevailing Opinion of a Sexual Character in Women, with Strictures on Dr. Gregory's Legacy to His Daughters". New Annual Register (1792): 457-466. [From Rights of Woman]
  • —. An Historical and Moral View of the French Revolution; and the Effect It Has produced in Europe. London: Joseph Johnson, 1794.
  • —. Letters Written during a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. London: Joseph Johnson, 1796.
  • —. "On Poetry, and Our Relish for the Beauties of Nature". Monthly Magazine (April 1797).
  • —. The Wrongs of Woman, or Maria. Posthumous Works of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Ed. William Godwin. London: Joseph Johnson, 1798. [Published posthumously; unfinished]
  • —. "The Cave of Fancy". Posthumous Works of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Ed. William Godwin. London: Joseph Johnson, 1798. [Published posthumously; fragment written in 1787]
  • —. "Letter on the Present Character of the French Nation". Posthumous Works of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Ed. William Godwin. London: Joseph Johnson, 1798. [Published posthumously; written in 1793]
  • —. "Fragment of Letters on the Management of Infants". Posthumous Works of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Ed. William Godwin. London: Joseph Johnson, 1798. [Published posthumously; unfinished]
  • —. "Lessons". Posthumous Works of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Ed. William Godwin. London: Joseph Johnson, 1798. [Published posthumously; unfinished]
  • —. "Hints". Posthumous Works of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Ed. William Godwin. London: Joseph Johnson, 1798. [Published posthumously; notes on the second volume of Rights of Woman, never written]
  • —. Contributions to the Analytical Review (1788–1797) [published anonymously]

Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ... Original Stories from Real Life with Conversations calculated to Regulate the Affections, and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness, published in 1788, is the only work of childrens fiction by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). ... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman of Swiss origin and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Necker was born in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Christian Gotthilf Salzmann (1744 – 1811) was the founder of the Schnepfenthal institution, a school dedicated to new modes of education (derived heavily from the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau). ... A Vindication Of the Rights of Men ... Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Title page from the first edition of Letters (1796) Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796), the last published work by eighteenth-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is a deeply personal travel narrative. ... Prospectus for the Analytical Review (1788) The Analytical Review was a periodical begun in 1788 by Joseph Johnson and Thomas Christie. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Tomalin, 9, 17, 24, 27.
  2. ^ Todd, 1; Tomalin, 19; Wardle, 6.
  3. ^ Todd, 45–57; Tomalin, 34–43; Wardle, 27-30.
  4. ^ Quoted in Todd, 16.
  5. ^ See, for example, Todd, 72–5; Tomalin, 18–21.
  6. ^ Todd, 22–24; Tomalin, 25–27; Wardle, 10-11.
  7. ^ Wardle, 12-18.
  8. ^ Wardle, 20.
  9. ^ Wardle, 30.
  10. ^ Todd, 62; Wardle, 31-32.
  11. ^ Todd, 68–9; Tomalin, 52ff; Wardle, 43-45.
  12. ^ Tomalin, 54-7.
  13. ^ See Wardle, chapter 2, for autobiographical elements of Mary.
  14. ^ See, for example, Todd, 106–7; Tomalin, 66; 79–80.
  15. ^ Todd, 116.
  16. ^ Tomalin, 64–88; Wardle, 60ff.
  17. ^ Wollstonecraft, The Collected Letters, 139.
  18. ^ Todd, 123; Tomalin, 91–92; Wardle, 80-82.
  19. ^ Todd, 134–35.
  20. ^ For an analysis and a list of Wollstonecraft's reviews, see Mitzi Myers, "Sensibility and the 'Walk of Reason': Mary Wollstonecraft's Literary Reviews as Cultural Critique,” Sensibility in Transformation: Creative Resistance to Sentiment from the Augustans to the Romantics, Ed. Syndy McMillen Conger Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press (1990).
  21. ^ Tomalin, 89–109; Wardle, 92-94; 128.
  22. ^ Quoted in Todd, 153.
  23. ^ Todd, 197–98; Tomalin 151–52; Wardle, 171-73; 76-77.
  24. ^ Tomalin, 144–155; Wardle, 115ff.
  25. ^ Todd, 214–15; Tomalin, 156–82; Wardle, 179-84.
  26. ^ Todd, 232–36; Tomalin, 185-86; Wardle, 185-88.
  27. ^ Tomalin, 218; Wardle, 202-3.
  28. ^ Qtd. in Wardle, 202.
  29. ^ Tomalin, 211–219; Wardle, 206-14.
  30. ^ St Clair, 160; Wardle, 192-93.
  31. ^ Tomalin, 225.
  32. ^ Todd, Chapter 25; Tomalin, 220–31; Wardle, 215ff.
  33. ^ Todd, 286–7; Wardle, 225.
  34. ^ Tomalin, 225–231; Wardle, 226-244.
  35. ^ Wollstonecraft, Letters, c. October 10, 1795, 326.
  36. ^ Todd, 355–6; Tomalin, 232–236; Wardle, 245-46.
  37. ^ Quoted in Todd, 357.
  38. ^ St. Clair, 164–9; Tomanlin, 245–70; Wardle, 268ff.
  39. ^ Godwin, 95.
  40. ^ St. Clair, 172–174; Tomalin, 271–3.
  41. ^ St. Clair, 173; Wardle, 286-92.
  42. ^ Todd, 450–456; Tomalin, 275–83; Wardle, 302-306.
  43. ^ Quoted in C. Paul Kegan, William Godwin: His Friends and Contemporaries, London: Henry S. King and Co. (1876). Retrieved on March 11, 2007
  44. ^ Todd, 457.
  45. ^ St. Clair, 182–8; Tomalin, 289–297.
  46. ^ Robert Southey to William Taylor, July 1, 1804. A Memoir of the Life and Writings of William Taylor of Norwich. Ed. J. W. Robberds. 2 vols. London: John Murray (1824) 1:504.
  47. ^ Kaplan, Cora. "Mary Wollstonecraft’s reception and legacies". The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Claudia L. Johnson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2002), 247.
  48. ^ Favret, 131-32.
  49. ^ Woolf, Virginia. "The Four Figures". (updated June 4, 2004) Retrieved on March 11, 2007.
  50. ^ Kaplan, 254.
  51. ^ Hirsi Ali, Ayaan. Infidel. New York: Free Press (2007), 295.
  52. ^ Wollstonecraft, Mary. Thoughts on the Education of Daughters. London: Printed by J. Johnson (1787), 135–7.
  53. ^ Wollstonecraft, Thoughts, 35–7.
  54. ^ Kelly, Revolutionary Feminism, 31.
  55. ^ Wollstonecraft, Thoughts, 73–8.
  56. ^ Myers, 31–59.
  57. ^ See, for example, Marilyn Butler, ed., Burke, Paine, Godwin, and the Revolution Controversy, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).
  58. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 45.
  59. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 44.
  60. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 96.
  61. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 95.
  62. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 282.
  63. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 192.
  64. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 144.
  65. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 157.
  66. ^ Oxford English Dictionary.
  67. ^ See, for example Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 126, 146.
  68. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 110.
  69. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 135.
  70. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 177.
  71. ^ See, for example, Gary Kelly, Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary Wollstonecraft. London: Macmillan (1992).
  72. ^ Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 311.
  73. ^ Taylor, Chapter 9.
  74. ^ Kelly, Gary. English Fiction of the Romantic Period. London: Longman (1989), 4.
  75. ^ Favret, 104.
  76. ^ Favret, 105–6.
  77. ^ Favret, 119ff.
  78. ^ Sapiro, 341ff.

is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Bibliography

Primary works

  • Wollstonecraft, Mary. The Collected Letters of Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Janet Todd. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. ISBN 0231131429.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary. The Complete Works of Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Janet Todd and Marilyn Butler. 7 vols. London: William Pickering, 1989. ISBN 0814792251.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary. The Vindications: The Rights of Men and The Rights of Woman. Eds. D.L. Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf. Toronto: Broadview Literary Texts, 1997. ISBN 978-1551110882.

Biographies

  • Flexner, Eleanor. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Biography. New York: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1972. ISBN 0698104471.
  • Godwin, William. Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Eds. Pamela Clemit and Gina Luria Walker. Peterborough: Broadview Press Ltd., 2001. ISBN 1551112590.
  • Hays, Mary. "Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft". Annual Necrology (1797-98): 411-460.
  • St Clair, William. The Godwins and the Shelleys: The biography of a family. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1989. ISBN 0801842336.
  • Sunstein, Emily. A Different Face: the Life of Mary Wollstonecraft. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1975. ISBN 0060142014.
  • Todd, Janet. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Revolutionary Life. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2000. ISBN 0231121849.
  • Tomalin, Claire. The Life and Death of Mary Wollstonecraft. Rev. ed. New York: Penguin, 1992. ISBN 0140167617.
  • Wardle, Ralph M. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Critical Biography. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1951.

William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... Mary Hays (1760 – 1843) was an English novelist and feminist. ... Janet Todd is a prolific and well-respected author of many books on women in literature. ...

Other secondary works

  • Conger, Syndy McMillen. Mary Wollstonecraft and the Language of Sensibility. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994. ISBN 0838635539.
  • Falco, Maria J., ed. Feminist Interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft. University Park: Penn State Press, 1996. ISBN 0271014938.
  • Favret, Mary. Romantic Correspondence: Women, politics and the fiction of letters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0521410967.
  • Janes, R.M. "On the Reception of Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman". Journal of the History of Ideas 39 (1978): 293–302.
  • Johnson, Claudia L., ed. The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0521789524.
  • Johnson, Claudia L. Equivocal Beings: Politics, Gender, and Sentimentality in the 1790s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. ISBN 0226401847.
  • Kaplan, Cora. "Pandora's Box: Subjectivity, Class and Sexuality in Socialist Feminist Criticism." Sea Changes: Essays on Culture and Feminism. London: Verso, 1986. ISBN 0860911519.
  • Kaplan, Cora. “Wild Nights: Pleasure/Sexuality/Feminism.” Sea Changes: Essays on Culture and Feminism. London: Verso, 1986. ISBN 0860911519.
  • Kelly, Gary. Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: St. Martin's, 1992. ISBN 0312129041.
  • Myers, Mitzi. "Impeccable Governess, Rational Dames, and Moral Mothers: Mary Wollstonecraft and the Female Tradition in Georgian Children's Books." Children's Literature 14 (1986):31–59.
  • Myers, Mitzi. "Sensibility and the 'Walk of Reason': Mary Wollstonecraft's Literary Reviews as Cultural Critique." Sensibility in Transformation: Creative Resistance to Sentiment from the Augustans to the Romantics. Ed. Syndy Conger Mcmillen. Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1990.
  • Poovey, Mary. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer: Ideology as Style in the Works of Mary Wollstonecraft, Mary Shelley and Jane Austen. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. ISBN 0226675289.
  • Sapiro, Virginia. A Vindication of Political Virtue: The Political Theory of Mary Wollstonecraft. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. ISBN 0226734919.
  • Taylor, Barbara. Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0521661447.

Claudia L. Johnson is the Murray Professor of English Literature at Princeton University; she is also currently chairperson of the English department. ... Claudia L. Johnson is the Murray Professor of English Literature at Princeton University; she is also currently chairperson of the English department. ...

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Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Mary Wollstonecraft
Persondata
NAME Wollstonecraft, Mary
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION British writer and philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH April 27, 1759
PLACE OF BIRTH Spitalfields, London, England
DATE OF DEATH September 10, 1797
PLACE OF DEATH London, England

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Mary_Wollstonecraft_20070220. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... // Google offers a variety of services and tools besides its basic web search. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757 – August 12, 1827) was an English poet, visionary, painter, and printmaker. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Only known portrait of Joseph Johnson by William Sharp (after Moses Haughton)[1] Joseph Johnson (15 November 1738 – 20 December 1809) was an influential eighteenth-century London bookseller, often called the father of the book trade in England. ... William Godwin William Godwin (3 March 1756 – 7 April 1836) was an English political and miscellaneous writer, considered one of the important precursors of both utilitarian and liberal anarchist thought. ... Frances Imlay (adopted as Frances Godwin) (1794-1816) was the daughter of British writer Mary Wollstonecraft and American writer Gilbert Imlay, and half-sister to Mary Godwin (later, Mary Shelley). ... Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin Shelley (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Title page from the revised second edition of Memoirs Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman is William Godwins biography of his wife Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Mary Wollstonecraft by John Opie (c. ... Image File history File links Marywollstonecraft. ... Thoughts of the education of daughters: with reflections on female conduct, in the more important duties of life (1787) is Mary Wollstonecrafts first published work. ... Prospectus for the Analytical Review (1788) The Analytical Review was a periodical begun in 1788 by Joseph Johnson and Thomas Christie. ... Original Stories from Real Life with Conversations calculated to Regulate the Affections, and Form the Mind to Truth and Goodness, published in 1788, is the only work of childrens fiction by Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797). ... A Vindication Of the Rights of Men ... Mary Wollstonecraft. ... Title page from the first edition of Letters (1796) Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796), the last published work by eighteenth-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, is a deeply personal travel narrative. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Christ Church, Spitalfields Spitalfields, an area in Tower Hamlets, east London near to Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane which gets its name from a contraction of hospital fields, as there used to be a major hospital in the area. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mary Wollstonecraft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1495 words)
Wollstonecraft was married to the philosopher William Godwin, a prominent atheist and the forefather of the anarchist movement, and was the mother of Mary Shelley, the author of Frankenstein.
Mary Wollstonecraft was the second child of seven, and the eldest daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Wollstonecraft.
Mary was prepared to leave, but was begged to stay by her mother; in exchange for staying, she was given a place to live near Fanny, lodging with an unusual couple: Thomas Taylor "the Platonist" and his wife.
Mary Shelley - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1600 words)
Mary Shelley was born Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin in London, England, the second daughter of famed feminist, educator and writer Mary Wollstonecraft and the equally famous anarchist philosopher, anarchic journalist and atheist dissenter, William Godwin.
Mary had incorporated a number of different sources into her work, not the least of which was the Promethean myth from Ovid.
Mary Shelley died of brain cancer on 1 February 1851, aged 53, in London and was interred at St. Peter's Churchyard in Bournemouth, in the English county of Dorset.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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