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Encyclopedia > Mary Rose
Mary Rose depicted on the Anthony Roll, a survey of Henry VIII's navy, completed in 1546

The Mary Rose was an English Tudor warship of the carrack type and one of the first to be able to fire a full broadside of cannons. The Mary Rose was well equipped with 78 guns (91 after an upgrade in 1536). Built in Portsmouth, England (15091510) she was thought to be named after King Henry VIII's sister Mary and the rose, the Tudor emblem. She was one of the earliest purpose-built warships to serve in the English Navy; it is thought that she never served as a merchant ship. She displaced 500 tons (700 tons after 1536), was 38.5 m long and 11.7 m abeam and her crew consisted of 200 sailors, 185 soldiers, and 30 gunners. Although she was the pride of the English fleet, she was sunk in Portsmouth Harbour, and it is thought she sank during an engagement with the French fleet on July 19th 1545. The exact cause of her sinking has not been definitely determined but is thought to be because of instability. The surviving section of the ship was raised in 1982 and is now on display in Portsmouth Historic Dockyard along with an extensive collection of well preserved artifacts. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Maryrose. ... The Tudor era was a critical one in the development of the Royal Navy. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Santa Maria at anchor by Andries van Eertvelt, painted c. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ... Should not be confused with Canon. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the Queen (King) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 967 AD  Area  -  Total 130,395 km²  50,346 sq mi  Population  -  2007 estimate... 1509 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1510 (MDX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... A sketch of Mary during her brief period as Queen of France Mary Tudor (March 18, 1496 – June 25, 1533) was the younger sister of Henry VIII of England and queen consort of France due to her marriage to Louis XII. Mary was the fifth child of Henry VII of... Species Between 100 and 150, see list Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Rosa A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: ) was a series of six monarchs of a Welsh origin who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ... Diagrams of first and third rate warships, England, 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship that carries goods and materials from one port to another. ... In fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place. ... The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... Portsmouth Naval Dockyard. ...

Contents

Career

She served as the flagship of Admiral Sir Edward Howard in the Italian Wars and was frequently engaged. On 10 August 1512 she was the flagship of an English fleet of 50 ships that attacked the French at Brest in Brittany. The Mary Rose attacked the French Marie la Cordelière, the flagship of Admiral Ren de Clermont; in the battle the Marie la Cordelière was crippled and the Mary Rose was damaged and ran aground. The Marie la Cordelière then came under fire from the Mary James, the Sovereign, and the Regent, eventually blowing up with the loss of more than a thousand men. Thirty-two French ships were taken or destroyed in the battle. Sir Edward Howard, (1476/1477-25 April 1513), Knight of the Garter, son of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and Elizabeth Tilney, younger brother to Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk. ... The Italian Wars, often referred to as the great Italian Wars or the great wars of Italy in historical works, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, all the major states of western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, the... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... A flagship is the ship used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships. ... Brest (lol) is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


After the death of Edward Howard in 1513, the Mary Rose became the flagship of Lord High Admiral Sir Thomas Howard. For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk by Hans Holbein. ...


In 1528 and again in 1536 the Mary Rose was rebuilt, having her displacement increased from 500 to 700 tons and now mounting 91 guns. The refits are thought to have added an extra deck, making her top-heavy and liable to roll in heavy seas. Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


Sinking

In 1545, King Francis I of France launched an invasion of England with 30,000 soldiers in more than 200 ships. Against this invasion fleet — larger than the Spanish Armada forty-three years later — the English had about 80 ships and 12,000 soldiers, with the Mary Rose the flagship of Vice Admiral Sir George Carew. In early July the French entered the Solent channel, between Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. On July 19, 1545 (See Battle of the Solent) the English came out of Portsmouth and engaged the French at long range, little damage being done on either side. The next day was calm, and the French employed their galleys against the immobile English vessels. Toward evening a breeze sprang up and as Mary Rose advanced to battle she capsized and sank with the loss of all but 35 of her crew. There were sources that said that the ship had fired from the portside and made a sharp turn so it could fire from the starboard side. The turn was so sharp that the ship keeled over to one side but at the same time the gun ports were open so that water rushed in and the ship sank. Sources also suggest that the Mary Rose had the gunports too low for it to be stable. Furthermore, the ship was carrying a large number of soldiers on her upper decks, with the possible result of further raising her centre of gravity and making her even more unstable. As was common in warships of the time, the upper decks were covered with netting to prevent soldiers from enemy ships from boarding. When the Mary Rose sank, this netting prevented many from escaping in time and contributed to the high percentage of casualties. Furthermore many sailors could not swim, as having a reputation for superstition, they regarded this as tempting fate. Losses were therefore particularly severe. Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish... Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Britain The Solent is a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Great Britain. ... Hampshire, sometimes historically Southamptonshire or Hamptonshire, (abbr. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... July 19 is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Combatants France England Commanders Admiral Claude dAnnebault Admiral John Dudley, Viscount Lisle Strength 30,000 soldiers in more than 200 ships 12,000 soldiers in 80 ships The naval Battle of the Solent took place on 18 and 19 July 1545 during the Italian Wars, fought between the fleets... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The number 13 is often avoided in public buildings, also floors, doors and this Santa Anita Park horse stall. ...


Experiments

Researchers for a television programme used an exact scale model of the Mary Rose to investigate the causes suggested for her sinking. Metal weights were used to simulate the presence of troops on the upper decks. Initial tests showed that the Mary Rose was able to make the turn described by eyewitnesses without capsizing. In later tests, a fan was used to create a breeze similar to the one reported to have suddenly sprung up on the day of the sinking as the real Mary Rose went to make the turn. As the model went to make the turn, the breeze in the upper works of the ship forced the ship to turn at a more acute angle than before, forcing her lower gun ports below the waterline. Water entered the ship, increasing the degree of the list, and causing the rate of flooding to increase. The ship quickly keeled over and capsized, sinking completely within a few seconds. The sequence of events closely followed what eyewitnesses had reported had occurred, particularly the suddenness with which the ship sank. The researchers concluded that numerous causes had contributed to making the Mary Rose unstable and top heavy, such as: Fan may refer to the following: Fan (aficionado) (the bracketed word being the Spanish translation), someone who has an intense liking of a sporting. ... Look up acute in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Waterline refers to an imaginary line marking the level at which ship or boat floats in the water. ...

  • The 1528 and 1536 refits, which had installed heavy cannon higher up in the structure of the ship than had originally been planned.
  • The presence of large numbers of troops on the upper decks, preparing to fight the French forces.
  • The development of larger bronze cannons through the period of her time in service, which ended up being fitted to a ship not designed to carry them.
  • The design of many warships in the period, which had a tendency towards being top heavy, as mathematical observations concerning centres of gravity and displacement were not thoroughly understood. Eventually the decisions regarding a ship's design came down to the experience of the shipwright, and miscalculations were not uncommon.

In addition to these weaknesses, the gun ports were cut too low in the ship's side, perhaps in an attempt to fit more cannon and create a more powerful warship. These ports should have been closed as the ship went to make the turn, but for some reason, possibly a breakdown in communication, or an oversight by the sailors, they were not. Despite all these factors combining to create a hazardous situation, the experiment showed that the Mary Rose's sinking was not inevitable. The sudden gust of wind that caught the ship at the crucial point of her turn was the final fatal contribution to the sinking. Events June 19 - Battle of Landriano - A French army in Italy under Marshal St. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Should not be confused with Canon. ... Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ...


Consequences

The loss of one of the most powerful tudor warships afloat caused considerable consternation, particularly as it sank within sight of King Henry VIII who was watching from the shore. The fact that it sank was particularly unusual for the time. The most common cause of the loss of a warship was through fire. The lack of powerful cannon and the robustness of wooden ships made it difficult for ships to be damaged sufficiently in engagements for them to sink. There was also no immediate explanation for the sinking, such as a violent storm, or foundering on rocks. The loss of the Mary Rose therefore entered the public consciousness and was remembered, whereas most ship losses over the period were not. Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


Modern work on the wreck

Rediscovery

On June 16, 1836 the Mary Rose was found when a fishing net caught on the wreck, and diver John Deane recovered timbers, guns, longbows, and other items. But the location was forgotten after Deane stopped work on the site in 1840. June 16 is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Fishing with a cast net. ... A gun is a common name given to an object that fires high-velocity projectiles. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in long, 105 lbf draw force. ...


Alexander McKee started a new search in 1965, and in 1967 Professor Harold Edgerton found an acoustic anomaly by using side-scan sonar. In 1971 a springtide, combined with a severe gale, uncovered a layer of sediment, leaving several structural timbers clearly visible. In the years that followed, it became clear that the wreck lay on her starboard side, at an angle of 60°. 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Shadowgraph of a . ... Diagram of sidescan sonar Side scan sonar (also sometimes called side-scan sonar, sidescan sonar, side looking sonar and side-looking sonar) is a category of sonar system that is used to efficiently create an image of large areas of the sea floor. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


On 5 February 1974 the Mary Rose wreck became the second wrecksite (along with others) to be protected under the Protection of Wrecks Act. The wrecksite remains protected today even after the lifting of the majority of the remaining ship timbers. February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 (1973 c. ...


Excavation and raising

In 1979 the Mary Rose Trust was formed and an archeological team under the direction of Dr. Margaret Rule, CBE, began work to excavate the wreck. First, the wreck was lifted by means of a lifting frame. After that, the wreck, still under water, could be lifted onto a support cradle. On October 11, 1982 the wreck was lifted from the water and put upright in a dry dock with a temperature of 2–6 °C and a relative humidity of 95%. Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Dr Margaret Rule, CBE, led the project that excavated and raised the Tudor warship Mary Rose in 1982. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


Preservation

In 1994 work started on a three-stage conservation process using low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (a wax, essentially). The second stage consists of spraying the wreck with a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol; these first two stages will take at least twenty years to complete. In the third stage, the wreck will be slowly dried. This preservation technique is the same as that begun in 1961 for the Vasa, a Swedish ship of the line which capsized in 1628 and is now on display in Stockholm. The Vasa is virtually intact while the Mary Rose is an almost perfect longitudinal vertical cross-section, due to marine worms such as the shipworm Teredo navalis destroying the port side above the seabed. (Experts from the Mary Rose also helped conserve the Dover Bronze Age Boat.) 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Regalskeppet Vasa (also Wasa) is a Swedish 64-gun ship of the line built for King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden of the House of Vasa, between 1626 and 1628. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Shipworms are not in fact worms at all, but rather a peculiar variety of marine mollusk (Eulamellibranchiata). ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ...


Finds

Along with remains of around half the crew, a great number of artifacts were uncovered during excavation, including navigational and medical equipment, carpentry tools, guns, longbows, arrows with traces of copper-rich binding glue still remaining on the tips, cooking and eating utensils, lanterns, backgammon boards, playing dice, logs for the galley's ovens, and even a well-preserved shawm, a long lost predecessor of the oboe, from which a fully functioning model has since been replicated. Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... A carpenter is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry -- a wide range of woodworking that includes constructing buildings, furniture, and other large objects out of wood. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in long, 105 lbf draw force. ... An arrow is a pointed projectile that is shot with a bow. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Stone lantern in a Chinese Garden A chōchin invites customers into an okonomiyaki restaurant in Japan A lantern is a portable lighting device used to illuminate broad areas. ... Backgammon is a board game for two players in which pieces are moved according to the roll of dice. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The shawm was a Renaissance musical instrument of the woodwind family, made in Europe from the late 13th century until the 17th century. ... The oboe is a double reed musical instrument of the woodwind family. ...


Display

These artifacts, and the wreck itself, are displayed at the Mary Rose museum located on the Royal Naval base in Portsmouth, England. A £20 million appeal for funds for The Final Voyage - the co-location of the hull of the Mary Rose with her artifacts in a new museum - was launched locally in Portsmouth on the evening of 10th March 2006. Leading local businesses, members of Portsmouth City Council and the Lord Mayor attended presentations in the current museum. Intended to attract 500,000 visitors and opening by 2012 (with active conservation of the hull intended to be complete in 2009), this new co-located museum will create a world-leading museum in Portsmouth for the Mary Rose and the Tudor Navy, an international centre for maritime archaeology and provide better facilities for education and outreach. This was denied a Heritage Lottery Fund grant in 2006 [1]. Portsmouth Naval Dockyard. ... A play here! sign outside a newsagent, incorporating the National Lotterys logo of a stylised hand with crossed fingers. ...


Further excavation

On 11 October 2005, the 23rd anniversary of the original wreck lift, the anchor and parts of her bow were raised from the sea-bed in a delicate operation sponsored by the Ministry of Defence. These parts will also eventually go on display. October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ...


See also

For other ships of this name see:

  • HMS Mary Rose

For general Tudor naval history, see: Nine ships of the Royal Navy have been named Mary Rose. ...

For more information on archaeology and shipwrecks see: Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... The British Royal Navy does not have a well-defined moment of formation; it started out as a motley assortment of Kings ships during the Middle Ages, assembled only as needed and then dispersed, began to take shape as a standing navy during the 16th century, and became a...

Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ... Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... Reearchers investigating the archaeology of shipwrecks need to understand the processes by which a wreck site is formed so that they can allow for the distortions in the archaeological material caused by the filtering and scrambling of material remains that occurs during and after the wrecking process. ...

Warship shipwrecks

Regalskeppet Vasa (also Wasa) is a Swedish 64-gun ship of the line built for King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden of the House of Vasa, between 1626 and 1628. ... Kronan (The Crown) was a Swedish Royal Warship. ... Three ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Hood after members of the Hood family, which produced several notable Navy officers: HMS Hood (1859) - 91-gun second-rate ship of the line, launched as Edgar. ... The German battleship Bismarck is the most famous warships of the Second World War. ...

External links

Coordinates: 50°47′59″N, 1°06′24″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mary Rose (800 words)
''Mary Rose'' was an English Carrack of 78 Guns (91 guns after 1536), built in Portsmouth, England, in 1509 – 1510, thought to be named after King Henry VIII 's sister Mary and the Rose, the Tudor emblem.
The ''Mary Rose'' attacked the French ''Marie la Cordelière'', the flagship of Admiral Ren de Clermont; in the battle the ''Marie la Cordelière'' was crippled and the ''Mary Rose'' was damaged and ran aground.
In 1528 and again in 1536 the ''Mary Rose'' was rebuilt, having her weight increased from 500 to 700 tons and mounting 91 guns.
BBC - History - The Mary Rose: A Great Ship of King Henry VIII (398 words)
By the time she sunk off Portsmouth harbour in 1545, the Mary Rose was obsolete: cumbersome, vulnerable to attack and ill-equipped for 16th century warfare.
While the Mary Rose was smaller, initially rated at 600 tons, she remained the second most powerful ship in the fleet and a favourite of the king.
As built, the Mary Rose was intended to close with her enemies, fire her guns, come alongside to allow the soldiers she was carrying to board the enemy ship, supported by a hail of arrows, darts and quick-lime, and to capture it by hand-to-hand fighting.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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