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Encyclopedia > Mary Robinson
Mary Robinson

In office
3 December 1990 – 12 September 1997
Preceded by Patrick Hillery
Succeeded by Mary McAleese

Born May 21, 1944 (1944-05-21) (age 63)
Ballina, County Mayo
Political party Independent (Labour)
Spouse Nick Robinson
Profession Barrister, former Senator

Mary Robinson (Irish: Máire Mhic Róibín;[1] born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. She first rose to prominence as an academic, barrister, campaigner and member of the Irish senate (1969–1989). She defeated Fianna Fáil's Brian Lenihan and Fine Gael's Austin Currie in the 1990 presidential election becoming, as an Independent candidate nominated by the Labour Party, the Workers' Party of Ireland and independent senators, the first elected president in the office's history not to have the support of Fianna Fáil.[1] Mary Robinson, nee Darby (1756 or 1758 - 26 December 1800) the English poet, was also known for her role as Perdita (heroine of Shakespeares A Winters Tale) in 1779. ... Mary Robinson (1778-1837) was known as The Maid of Buttermere, is the subject of Melvyn Braggs novel of that name, and is mentioned in William Wordsworths Prelude. ... -1... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Dr. Patrick John Hillery (born May 2, 1923) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and the sixth President of Ireland from 1976 until 1990. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Ballina may refer to: Ballina, County Mayo, Ireland Ballina, County Tipperary, Ireland Ballina, New South Wales, Australia Electoral district of Ballina is an electoral district in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly, based around the area. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Castlebar Code: MO Area: 5,397 km² Population (2006) 123,648 Website: www. ... The Labour Party (Irish: Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... Nicholas Robinson is husband of Mary Robinson, the former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and former President of Ireland. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... -1... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... Brian Lenihan (17 November 1930 - 1 November 1995) was a Irish Fianna Fáil politician. ... Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, usually referred to as Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ; approximate English translation: Family/Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland with a membership of over 34,000, and is the largest opposition party in... Austin Currie (born 11 October 1939) is a former Irish politician, being elected to the parliaments of both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ... In the Irish presidential election in 1990 the Irish Labour Party let it be known that it would for the first time run a candidate. ... The Labour Party (Irish: Páirtí an Lucht Oibre) is a social democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Workers Party of Ireland (in Irish Páirtí na nOibrithe, though its logo translates it erroneously as Páirtí na nOibri), is a left wing Irish political party that developed from Official Sinn Féin and the Official IRA. // The modern origins of the party can be found in...


She is credited by many as having revitalised and liberalised a previously conservative political office. She resigned the presidency four months ahead of the end of her term of office to take up her post in the United Nations. Robinson has been Honorary President of Oxfam International since 2002, she is Chair of the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and is also a founding member and Chair of the Council of Women World Leaders. Robinson is also one of the European members of the controversial Trilateral Commission. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The International Institute for Environment and Development is a London-based policy centre and thinktank established by Barbara Ward in 1971. ... The Trilateral Commission is a private organization, founded in July 1973, at the initiative of David Rockefeller; who was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time and the Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. ...


She serves on many boards including the GAVI Fund. Robinson’s newest project is Realizing Rights: the Ethical Globalization Initiative, which promotes equitable trade and development, more humane migration policies and better responses to HIV/AIDS in Africa. The organization also promotes women's leadership and supports capacity building and good governance in developing countries. Since 2004, she has also been Professor of Practice in International Affairs at Columbia University, where she teaches international human rights. Robinson also visits other colleges and universities where she lectures on human rights. Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


In 2004, she received Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for her work in promoting human rights. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... The Ambassador of Conscience Award is Amnesty Internationals highest human rights award. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

Contents

Background

Born Mary Therese Winifred Bourke in Ballina, County Mayo in 1944, Mary Robinson was the daughter of two medical doctors.[2] The Hiberno-Norman Bourkes have been in Mayo since the thirteenth century. Like many who came to Ireland with the Norman invasion, it was said of the Bourkes that they ended up "more Irish than the Irish themselves". Her family had links with many diverse political strands in Ireland. One ancestor was a leading activist in the Irish National Land League of Mayo and the Irish Republican Brotherhood; an uncle, Sir Paget John Bourke, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II after a career as a judge in the Colonial Service; while another relative was a Roman Catholic nun. Some branches of the family were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland while others were Roman Catholics. Robinson was therefore born into a family that was a historical mix of rebels against and servants of the Crown. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Irish painter Henry Jones Thaddeus enlisted the conscience of the propertied classes with the sentimental realism of La retour du bracconier (The Wounded Poacher), exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1881, at the height of the Irish Land War The Irish Land League was an Irish political organization of... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB; Bráithreachas na Poblachta in Irish) was a secret fraternal organisation dedicated to fomenting armed revolt against the British state in Ireland in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


Though Catholic, Mary Bourke received the permission of the then Archbishop of Dublin, John Charles McQuaid to study in Trinity College, Dublin; at the time Roman Catholics were forbidden by church rules from studying without a dispensation in Trinity, which was founded by Queen Elizabeth I and was once a Protestant, Unionist bastion. In her twenties, she was appointed Reid Professor of Law in the college, considered to be a prestigious appointment made to accomplished lawyers. Subsequent holders of the title have included her successor as Irish president Mary McAleese, Professor John F. Larkin Q.C., Irish Human Rights Commissioner and prominent pro-life and anti-divorce activist Professor William Binchy. Primate of Ireland is a title possessed by the Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland (Anglican) Archbishops of Dublin. ... John Charles McQuaid (July 28, 1895-April 7, 1973) was a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin and Primate of Ireland between December 1940 and 1971. ... Trinity College, Dublin TCD, corporately designated as the Provost, Fellows and Scholars of the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, was founded in 1592 by Elizabeth I, and is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... Dispensation is the act of distributing goods or services, especially those that are regulated, as in the practice of pharmacists. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Unionism, in the context of Ireland, is a belief in the continuation of the Act of Union 1800 (as amended by the Government of Ireland Act 1920) so that Northern Ireland (created by the 1920 Act) remains part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ... This article is about the social movement. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... William Binchy is Regius Professor of Law at Trinity College, Dublin Law School, Ireland, where he is widely loved by students due to his kind and affable nature. ...


In 1970 she married Nicholas Robinson. Despite the fact that her family had close links to the Church of Ireland, her marriage to a Protestant student caused a rift with her parents, who did not attend her wedding, although the rift was eventually overcome in subsequent years. Together they have three children. Nicholas Robinson is husband of Mary Robinson, the former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and former President of Ireland. ... The Church of Ireland (Irish: ) is an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, operating seamlessly across the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Career in Seanad Éireann

Robinson's early political career included election to Dublin City Council in 1979, where she served until 1983. However she first hit national headlines as one of Trinity College's three members of Seanad Éireann to which she was first elected, as an independent candidate, in 1969. From this body she campaigned on a wide range of liberal issues, including the right of women to sit on juries, the then requirement that all women upon marriage resign from the civil service, and the right to the legal availability of contraception. This latter campaign won her many enemies. Condoms and other items were regularly sent in the post to the senator by conservative critics and a false rumour was spread that the chain of pharmacies Hayes, Conyngham Robinson was owned by her family (and so therefore that her promotion of contraception was an attempt to benefit members of her family). So unpopular was her campaign among fellow politicians that when she introduced the first bill proposing to liberalise the law on contraception into the senate, no other member would agree to 'second' the initiative and so it could not be further discussed. As a senator she served on the following parliamentary committees: Dublin City Council (Comhairle Cathrach Bhaile Átha Cliath in Irish) refers to two different entities. ... Type Upper house of Oireachtas Cathaoirleach Pat Moylan, Fianna Fáil since 13 September 2007 Members 60 Political groups Fianna Fáil Fine Gael Labour Party Independents Progressive Democrats Green Party Sinn Féin Last elections 2007 Meeting place Leinster House Web site www. ...

  • Joint Committee on EC Secondary Legislation (1973–89)
    • Chairman of its Social Affairs Sub-Committee (1977–87)
    • Chairman of its Legal Affairs Committee (1987–89)
  • Joint Committee on Marital Breakdown (1983–1985)

For many years Robinson also worked as legal advisor for the Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform with future Trinity College senator David Norris. Coincidentally, just as Mary McAleese replaced Mary Robinson as Reid Professor of Law in Trinity, and would succeed her to the Irish presidency, so Robinson replaced McAleese in the Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform. The Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform was an organisation set up to campaign for the decriminalisation of homosexuality in the Republic of Ireland in the 1970s. ... Senator David Norris David Patrick Bernard Norris (b. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (Irish: [1]; born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ...

One of the Civic Offices (nicknamed the 'Bunkers').
Dublin Corporation controversially built them on what had been one of the world's best preserved Viking sites, at Wood Quay. Robinson gave legal support to the leaders of the unsuccessful campaign to save the site.

Robinson initially served in the Irish upper house as an independent senator, but in the mid 1970s she joined the Labour Party. Subsequently she attempted to be elected to Dáil Éireann (the lower house) but her efforts were unsuccessful, as were her efforts to be elected to Dublin Corporation. Robinson, along with hundreds of thousands of other Irish people, clashed with Dublin Corporation when it planned to built its new administrative headquarters on Wood Quay, one of Europe's best preserved Viking sites. Though Robinson and people who in the past might not have espoused her causes, fought a determined battle, Wood Quay was ultimately bulldozed and concreted over, to build the controversial Civic Offices. Civic Offices on Wood Quay in Dublin. ... Civic Offices on Wood Quay in Dublin. ... Dublin Corporation is the former name given to the city government and its administrative organisation in Dublin between the twelfth century and 1 January 2002. ... Wood Quay is a riverside area of Dublin that was one of the most important sites of Viking settlement in the city. ... This article is about the current Irish body. ... Dublin Corporation is the former name given to the city government and its administrative organisation in Dublin between the twelfth century and 1 January 2002. ... Wood Quay is a riverside area of Dublin that was one of the most important sites of Viking settlement in the city. ...


In 1982, the Labour Party entered into a coalition government with Fine Gael. When Peter Sutherland was appointed the Republic of Ireland's European Commissioner, Labour demanded the choice of the next attorney-general. Many expected Robinson to be the choice, but the party leader instead picked an unknown, new senior counsel called John Rogers. Shortly afterwards, Robinson resigned from the party in protest at the Anglo-Irish Agreement that the coalition under Garret FitzGerald had signed with the British Government of Margaret Thatcher. Robinson argued that unionist politicians in Northern Ireland should have been consulted as part of the deal, despite their reluctance to share power. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, usually referred to as Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ; approximate English translation: Family/Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland with a membership of over 34,000, and is the largest opposition party in... Peter Denis Sutherland (born April 25, 1946) is an Irish businessman and former politician, associated with the Fine Gael party. ... The Attorney General (Irish: An Ard-Aighne) is the official adviser to the Irish Government in matters of law. ... John Rogers. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... Garret FitzGerald (Irish: ; born February 9, 1926) was the seventh Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; July 1981 to February 1982, and December 1982 to March 1987. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: ) is a part of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Robinson remained in the Seanad for four more years, although at this point many of the issues she had campaigned for had been tackled. Contraception had been legalised although heavily restricted, women were on juries, and the marriage bar on women in the civil service had been revoked. To the surprise of many, she decided not to seek re-election to the senate in 1989. One year later, however, Labour approached her about the Irish presidency, for which an election was to be held. She thought she was being asked her legal advice about the type of policy programme party leader Dick Spring was proposing. However, as she read the briefing notes, she began to realise that the programme was aimed at her. After some consideration, she agreed to become the first Labour nominee for the presidency and the first woman candidate in what was only the second presidential election to be contested by three candidates since 1945. Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard Spring (born August 29, 1950 in Tralee County Kerry), is a businessman and former senior Irish politician. ...


Presidential candidacy

Beating Noel Browne for the nomination

Trinity College Dublin
Robinson served as Reid Professor of Law in the University, as well as being one of its three elected senators in Seanad Éireann for twenty years.

Few, even in the Labour Party, gave Robinson much chance of winning the presidency, not least because of an internal party row over her nomination. With the Labour Party the first name for a possible candidate was an elderly former minister for Health, and hero to the left, Dr. Noel Browne. Browne was a household name for having done more than anybody else in Ireland for tackling Tubercolosis in the 1950s. However Browne had little or no contact with Dick Spring and therefore had to live in hope of being nominated without the endorsement of the party leadership. The possibility that Browne might be nominated raised the possibility of an internal argument within the party. The fact that Browne was enthusiastic for candidacy, in a contest where Labour never before contested, now acted as pressure for Labour to find a candidate. The Labour Party leadership now had to act. Spring did not feel that he could control Browne for the duration of the election, given Browne's history towards eccentricity, and defying party policy to such a degree that Browne had to leave several political parties. In these circumstances the decision to propose Robinson proved to be politically inspired. Robinson had an advantage in being the first candidate nominated for the election, in that she could cover more meetings, public addresses and interviews. However she refused to be drawn on specifics in case she would alienate possible support. Robinson also received the backing of the Irish Times newspaper, and this proved hugely advantageous. large image Trinity College Dublin - my image. ... large image Trinity College Dublin - my image. ... Dr. Noel Christopher Browne (20 December 1915-21 May 1997) was an Irish politician and doctor. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Richard Spring (born August 29, 1950 in Tralee County Kerry), is a businessman and former senior Irish politician. ...


Candidates from other parties

Robinson's campaign was boosted by a lack of organisation in the main opposition party: Fine Gael. Fine Gael, having gambled that former Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald would run as its candidate (even though he had insisted for two years that he would not run for office) then approached another senior figure, Peter Barry, who had previously been willing to run but had run out of patience and was no longer interested. The party ultimately nominated the former civil rights campaigner Austin Currie, a respected new TD and former minister in Brian Faulkner's power-sharing executive in Northern Ireland from 1973-1974. Currie had little experience in the politics of the Republic and was widely seen as the party's last choice, nominated only when no-one else was available. Fianna Fáil chose Tánaiste and Minister for Defence, Brian Lenihan. Lenihan was popular and widely seen as humorous and intelligent. Like Robinson he had himself delivered liberal policy reform (abolished censorship in the 1960s, for example), and he was seen as a near certainty to win the presidency. The only question asked was whether Robinson would beat Currie and come second. Fine Gael – The United Ireland Party, usually referred to as Fine Gael (IPA: , though often anglicised to ; approximate English translation: Family/Tribe of the Irish, is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland with a membership of over 34,000, and is the largest opposition party in... The Taoiseach (IPA: or ) — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach[1], is the head of government of Ireland or prime minister. ... Garret FitzGerald (Irish: ; born February 9, 1926) was the seventh Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; July 1981 to February 1982, and December 1982 to March 1987. ... Peter Barry (Irish: ; born August 10, 1928) is a retired Irish Fine Gael politician and businessman. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Austin Currie (born 11 October 1939) is a former Irish politician, being elected to the parliaments of both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ... Arthur Brian Deane Faulkner, Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick (February 18, 1921 - March 3, 1977) was the sixth and last Prime Minister of Northern Ireland from 1971 until 1972. ... Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party (Irish: ), commonly referred to as Fianna Fáil (IPA ; traditionally translated by the party into English as Soldiers of Destiny, though the actual meaning is Soldiers [Fianna] of Ireland[1]), is currently the largest political party in Ireland with 55,000 members. ... The Tánaiste (IPA: ; plural Tánaistí ), or, more formally, An Tánaiste[1], is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Brian Lenihan (17 November 1930 - 1 November 1995) was a Irish Fianna Fáil politician. ...


However, as the campaign proceeded, it became apparent that Lenihan's victory was by no means a foregone conclusion, and that Robinson was a serious contender. Crucial to her appeal was the deep unpopularity of the then Taoiseach Charles Haughey and the rising popularity of the Labour Party leader Dick Spring. Notwithstanding, Fianna Fáil knew they could count on Lenihan to mount a barnstorming campaign in the last few weeks. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Richard Spring (born August 29, 1950 in Tralee County Kerry), is a businessman and former senior Irish politician. ...


Election Campaign

The head start that Robinson attained in the nomination process, and the fact that the Fine Gael candidate was from Northern Ireland, resulted in Robinson attaining second place in the polls. Given that Fine Gael normally received 25% of the election result, and were reduced to third place this was an achievement in itself. Robinson had proved superior media skills to both alternative candidates, and only now had to compete with the Fianna Fáil party election machine.


At this point a transfer pact was decided upon between Fine Gael and Labour, as both parties were normally preferred partners for each other in general elections. However the Fine Gael candidate felt shortchanged by this deal as the media was more interested in the Robinson campaign, and privately he did not like Robinson. Currie later remarked that Lenihan was his personal friend, and that he felt personally sick at being asked to endorse somebody he did not like, for the sake of beating Lenihan. The possibility of transfers increased Robinson's chances if only Lenihan could be further weakened.


It emerged during the campaign that what Lenihan had told friends and insiders in private flatly contradicted his public statements on a controversial effort in 1982 by the then opposition Fianna Fáil to pressure President Hillery into refusing a parliamentary dissolution to then Taoiseach, Garret FitzGerald; Hillery had resolutely rejected the pressure. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Dr. Patrick John Hillery (born May 2, 1923) is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician and the sixth President of Ireland from 1976 until 1990. ...


Lenihan denied he had pressured the President but then a tape was produced of an 'on the record' interview he had given to a postgraduate student the previous May in which he frankly discussed attempting to apply pressure. Lenihan claimed that "on mature recollection" he hadn't pressured the President and had been confused in his interview with the student. But the government threatened to fall over the issue.


Within days, the "unbeatable candidate" was dismissed as Tánaiste and Minister for Defence. Lenihan's integrity for the highest ofice in the land was seriously questioned. Lenihan's role in the event in 1982, seemed to imply that he could be instructed by Haughey in his duties, and that in effect electing Lenihan was in effect empowering the controversial Haughey. In a pointless effort to weaken Robinson a government minister and Haughey ally, Padraig Flynn launched a controversial personal attack on Mary Robinson "as a wife and mother" and her "new found commitment to the family". Flynn, even more controversially, also joked privately that Robinson would "turn the Aras into the Red Cow Inn". Flynn's tirade was itself attacked in response as "disgraceful" on live radio by Michael McDowell, a senior member of the Progressive Democrats, then in coalition with Fianna Fáil and up to that point supporting Lenihan's campaign.[3] When Robinson met McDowell later in a restaurant, she quipped, "with enemies like McDowell, who needs friends?" Flynn's attack was a fatal blow to Lenihan's campaign, causing many female supporters of Lenihan to vote for Robinson in a gesture of support. The Tánaiste (IPA: ; plural Tánaistí ), or, more formally, An Tánaiste[1], is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland. ... Pádraig Flynn (born May 9, 1939) was a senior Irish politician. ... Michael McDowell (Irish: ;[1] born 1 May 1951) is a former Irish politician and a founding member of the Progressive Democrats political party. ... The Progressive Democrats (Irish An Páirtí Daonlathach, lit. ... Michael McDowell (Irish: ;[1] born 1 May 1951) is a former Irish politician and a founding member of the Progressive Democrats political party. ...


Lenihan's supported evaporated, and Haughey concluded that the election was as good as lost. Haughey distanced himself from Lenihan, as he did not want any share in the blame. This had unintended consequences, as disquiet with the Fianna Fáil organization concerning Haughey's leadership increased dramatically. An episode of the current affairs television program program, featured Fianna Fáil members in Roscommon openly attacking Haughey's leadership and character. Many canvassers now restarted the campaign to get Lenihan elected. However Lenihan's personal confidence was shattered. Though he recovered somewhat in the polls towards the end of the campaign, it was insufficient. Lenihan did win the first count. However transfers from Austin Currie proved critical, and the majority of these went as expected against Fianna Fáil. Lenihan became the first Fianna Fáil presidential candidate in the history of the office to lose a presidential election. Robinson now became President.


Robinson became the first Labour Party candidate, the first woman and the first non-Fianna Fáil candidate in the history of contested presidential elections to win the presidency. Famously, RTÉ broadcast her victory speech live rather than the Angelus. Radio Telefís Éireann (RTÉ; Irish for Radio and Television of Ireland) is the national publicly-funded broadcaster of Ireland. ... The Angelus is a devotion in memory of the Incarnation. ...


Presidency

Robinson was inaugurated as the seventh President of Ireland on 3 December 1990. She proved a remarkably popular president, earning the praise of Lenihan himself, who before his death five years later, said that she was a better president than he ever could have been. She took on an office that had a low profile but which, once the pressures placed on President Hillery back in 1982 became known, suddenly was taken very seriously again. (As was Hillery, who was seen as a national hero because of his evident integrity in standing up to former colleagues in 1982.) She brought to the presidency legal knowledge, deep intellect and political experience. Her clear vision enabled her to raise issues in a manner which did not break the tight constraints of a very limited office. She took on the issue of what she called the 'diaspora', the vast number of Irish emigrants and people of Irish descent. She also changed the face of Anglo-Irish relations, visiting Britain and in one particular epoch-making moment, became the first Irish president to visit Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace. She welcomed visits by senior British royals, most notably the Prince of Wales to her official residence, Áras an Uachtaráin. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The term Anglo-Irish means British-Irish and is used frequently to describe formal contacts, negotiations or treaties between both states. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Áras an Uachtaráin (formerly the Viceregal Lodge) is the official residence of the President of Ireland, located in the Phoenix Park on the Northside of Dublin1. ...


Her political profile changed also. Charles Haughey, Taoiseach when she was elected (and who had had to dismiss her rival, Brian Lenihan when the Progressive Democrats, the smaller party in government, threatened to leave the government unless he was sacked) had a diffident relationship with her, at one stage preventing her from delivering the prestigious BBC Dimbleby Lecture. Haughey's successors, Albert Reynolds (Fianna Fáil: 1992-94), John Bruton (Fine Gael: 1994-97) and Bertie Ahern (Fianna Fáil:1997- ) never hid their admiration of her work, with Bruton's and Ahern's governments actively campaigning to get her the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights post when she sought it. In the previous fifty-two years, only one address to the Oireachtas (parliament) had taken place, by Éamon de Valera in 1966, on the fiftieth anniversary of the Easter Rising. Robinson delivered two such Addresses, though they were thought too long and intellectually obscure and not judged a success. She was also invited to chair a committee to review the workings of the United Nations, but declined when asked to by the Irish government, who feared that her involvement might make it difficult for it to oppose the proposals that would result if their head of state had been chair of the review group. Controversially, on one trip to Belfast she met with the local MP, Gerry Adams, the President of Sinn Féin. Foreign Minister Dick Spring, who was leader of the Labour Party which had previous links with the Official IRA, advised her not to meet Adams, whose party had previous links with the Provisional IRA. However the Government refused to formally advise her not to meet with him. She felt it would be wrong, in the absence of such formal advice, for her as head of state not to meet the local member of parliament during her visit, and was photographed publicly shaking his hand. During her various visits to Northern Ireland, she in fact regularly met politicians of all hues, including David Trimble of the Ulster Unionist Party and John Hume of the Social Democratic and Labour Party. Brian Lenihan (17 November 1930 - 1 November 1995) was a Irish Fianna Fáil politician. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Richard Dimbleby Lecture (also known as the Dimblebly Lecture) was founded in the memory of Richard Dimbleby, the BBC broadcaster. ... Albert Reynolds (born November 3, 1932), was the eighth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving one term in office from 1992 until 1994. ... John Gerard Bruton (Irish: ; born 18 May 1947) was the ninth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick Bartholomew Bertie Ahern (Irish: ;[1] born 12 September 1951) is an Irish politician who, since 26 June 1997, has served as the tenth Taoiseach of Ireland. ... The purpose of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights involves the promotion and protection of human rights worldwide through direct contact with individual governments and the provision of technical assistance where appropriate. ... The Oireachtas is the National Parliament of the Republic of Ireland. ... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ... Gerard Adams (Irish Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh[1]; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish Republican politician and abstentionist Westminster Member of Parliament for Belfast West. ... For pre-Arthur Griffith use of the political name, see Sinn Féin (19th century). ... The term Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA refers to one of the two organisations - the other being the Provisional Irish Republican Army - that emerged from the split in the then Irish Republican Army in 1969-70. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) is a paramilitary group which aimed, through the use of violence, to achieve three goals: (i) British withdrawal from Ireland, (ii) the political unification of Ireland through the merger of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland , and (iii) the creation of an all... The Lord Trimble William David Trimble, Baron Trimble, PC (born 15 October 1944), known as David Trimble, is a Northern Irish politician who served as leader of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and the first First Minister of Northern Ireland. ... The Ulster Unionist Party (UUP, sometimes referred to as the Official Unionist Party or OUP or, in a historic sense, simply the Unionist Party) is a moderate unionist political party in Northern Ireland. ... John Hume. ... The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP — Irish: Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is the smaller of the two major nationalist parties in Northern Ireland. ...


To the surprise of her critics, who had seen her as embodying liberalism that the Catholic Church disapproved of, she had a close working relationship with the Church. She visited Irish nuns and priests abroad regularly, and became the first president to host an Áras reception for the Christian Brothers. When on a working trip to Rome, she requested, and was granted, an audience with Pope John Paul II. Ironically the outfit was condemned by a controversial young priest, Fr. David O'Hanlon, in The Irish Times for supposedly breaking Vatican dress codes on her visit; the Vatican denied that she had — the Vatican dress codes had been changed early in John Paul's pontificate — an analysis echoed by Ireland's Roman Catholic Bishops who distanced themselves from Fr. O' Hanlon's comments.[4] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Father David OHanlon (born in 1969) is a controversial Irish Roman Catholic priest and theologian. ... It has been suggested that Irish Times Trust be merged into this article or section. ...


High Commissioner for Human Rights

Robinson became the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on 12 September 1997, resigning the Presidency a few weeks early with the approval of Irish political parties in order to take up the post. Media reports suggested that she had been headhunted for the post by Secretary General of the United Nations Kofi Annan to assume an advocacy as opposed to administrative role, in other words to become a public campaigner outlining principles rather than the previous implementational and consensus-building model. The belief was that the post had ceased to be seen as the voice of general principles and had become largely bureaucratic. Robinson's role was to set the human rights agenda within the organisation and internationally, refocusing its appeal. UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


In November 1997, still new to her post, Robinson delivered the Romanes Lecture in Oxford on the topic of "Realizing Human Rights"; she spoke of the "daunting challenge" ahead of her, and how she intended to set about her task. She concluded the lecture with words from The Golden Bough: "If fate has called you, the bough will come easily, and of its own accord. Otherwise, no matter how much strength you muster, you never will manage to quell it or cut it down with the toughest of blades." The Romanes Lecture is a prestigious free public lecture given annually at the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford. ... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). ...


Robinson was the first High Commissioner for Human Rights to visit Tibet, making her trip in 1998. During her tenure she criticised the Irish system of permits for non-EU immigrants as similar to "bonded labour" and criticised the United States' use of capital punishment. Though she had initially announced her intention to serve a single four-year period, she extended the term by a year following an appeal from Annan, allowing her to preside over the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance in Durban, South Africa, as Secretary-General. Robinson's posting as High Commissioner ended in 2002. This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... The World Conference against Racism (WCAR) are international events organized by the UNESCO in order to struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours. ... Map of South Africa showing Durbans location. ...


Trinity College

Mrs Robinson is the twenty fourth, and first female, Chancellor of University of Dublin. The University of Dublin, corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin located in Dublin, Ireland, was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, making it Irelands oldest university. ...


The Elders

On July 18, 2007 in Johannesburg, South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel, and Desmond Tutu convened a group of world leaders to contribute their wisdom, independent leadership and integrity to tackle some of the world's toughest problems. Nelson Mandela announced the formation of this new group, The Elders, in a speech he delivered on the occasion of his 89th birthday. Graça Machel in 1984, with then husband President Samora Machel of Mozambique and P W Botha and Pik Botha of South Africa at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ...


Archbishop Tutu will serve as the Chair of The Elders. The founding members of this group also include Graça Machel, Kofi Annan, Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Li Zhaoxing, Mary Robinson and Muhammad Yunus. Graça Machel in 1984, with then husband President Samora Machel of Mozambique and P W Botha and Pik Botha of South Africa at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... Kofi Atta Annan (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Ela Bhatt is the founder of the Self-Employed Womens Association (SEWA) and served as the General Secretary of SEWA from 1972-1996. ... Gro Harlem Brundtland [IPA: gro hÉ‘É­É›m brʉntlÉ‘nd] (born April 20, 1939) is a Norwegian politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Li (李) Li Zhaoxing (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born October 20, 1940) was the foreign minister of the Peoples Republic of China from 2003 to 2007. ... Dr. Muhammad Yunus (Bengali: , pronounced ) (born June 28, 1940) is a Muslim Bangladeshi banker and economist. ...


“This group can speak freely and boldly, working both publicly and behind the scenes on whatever actions need to be taken,” Mandela commented. “Together we will work to support courage where there is fear, foster agreement where there is conflict, and inspire hope where there is despair.”


The Elders will be independently funded by a group of Founders, including Richard Branson, Peter Gabriel, Ray Chambers; Michael Chambers; Bridgeway Foundation; Pam Omidyar, Humanity United; Amy Robbins; Shashi Ruia, Dick Tarlow; andThe United Nations Foundation. Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson (born 18 July 1950 ) in Shamley Green, Surrey, England), is a British entrepreneur, best known for his Virgin brand of over 360 companies. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Chobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ...


Popularity

She invited groups not normally invited to presidential residences to visit her in Áras an Uachtaráin; from the Christian Brothers, a large religious order who ran schools throughout Ireland but had never had its leaders invited to the Áras, to G.L.E.N., the Gay and Lesbian Equality Network. She visited Irish nuns and priests abroad, Irish famine relief charities, attended international sports events, met the Pope and, to the fury of the People's Republic of China, met Tenzin Gyatso (the 14th Dalai Lama). She famously put a special symbolic light in her kitchen window in Áras an Uachtaráin which was visible to the public as it overlooked the principal public view of the building, as a sign of remembering Irish emigrants around the world. (Placing a light in a darkened window to guide the way of strangers was an old Irish folk custom.) Robinson's symbolic light became an acclaimed symbol of an Ireland thinking about its sons and daughters around the world. Famously, she visited Rwanda where she brought world attention to the suffering in that state in the aftermath of its civil war. After her visit, she spoke at a press conference, where she became visibly emotional. As a lawyer trained to be rational, she was furious at her emotion, but it moved everyone who saw it. One media critic who had slated her presidential ideas in 1990, journalist and Sunday Tribune editor Vincent Browne passed her a note at the end of the press conference saying simply "you were magnificent." [citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tenzin Gyatso is the fourteenth and current Dalai Lama. ... The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933). ... For the school of thought incorporating the perennial philosophy, see Traditionalist School For the opening number of Fiddler on the Roof, see Tradition (song). ... The Sunday Tribune is an broadsheet Irish Sunday newspaper published by Tribune Newspapers plc. ... Vincent Browne is one of Irelands best-known and most controversial print and broadcast journalists. ...

Mary Robinson, on the former Lord Lieutenant of Ireland's throne, signs her Declaration of Office, using de Valera's quill.

Browne's comments matched the attitudes of Irish people on Robinson's achievements as president between 1990 and 1997. By half way through her term of office her popularity rating reached an unheard of 93%.[citation needed] presumably covered by Fair Use and irish legal equivalent. ... Official standard of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (plural: Lords Lieutenant), also known as the Judiciar in the early mediaeval period and as the Lord Deputy as late as the 17th century, was the Kings representative and head of the Irish executive during the... Éamon de Valera (born with the name Edward George de Valera, IPA: [1][2]) (14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ...


In one of her roles as president, the signing into laws of Bills passed by the Oireachtas she was called upon to sign two very significant Bills that she had fought for throughout her political career. A Bill to fully liberalise the law on the availability of contraceptives, and a law fully decriminalising homosexuality and unlike Britain and much of the world at the time, providing for a fully equal age of consent, treating heterosexuals and homosexuals alike. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any...


In 2002 she was awarded the Sydney Peace Prize for her outstanding work as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, and in 2003 the prestigious Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold of the United Nations Association of Germany in Berlin. The Sydney Peace Prize is awarded by the Sydney Peace Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation associated with the University of Sydney. ... The Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold is named after the German nuclear chemist and 1944 Nobel Prizewinner Professor Dr. Dr. h. ...


In March 2005, Robinson gave a lecture entitled "Human Rights and Ethical Globalization" at the University of San Diego's Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace & Justice Distinguished Lecture Series. The University of San Diego, frequently referred to as USD, is a Catholic university in San Diego, California. ...


In May 2005 she was awarded the first "Outspoken" award from the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC). General information The International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC) is a US-based non-profit, Non-governmental_organization(NGO) whose mission is to secure the full enjoyment of the human rights of all people and communities subject to discrimination or abuse on the basis of sexual orientation or expression...


In October 2006 she was awarded the Social Science Principes de Asturias Prize. The jury commended her for "offering her non-conformist, brave and far-reaching voice to those who cannot speak for themselves or can barely be heard." In the same month she was the keynote speaker at The Future of International Criminal Justice Symposium hosted by the Penn State Dickinson School of Law, where she spoke on "The Rule of Law and International Human Rights in Challenging Times". The Dickinson School of Law is located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and is the law school of Pennsylvania State University. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.electionsireland.org/results/president/index.cfm
  2. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9126239
  3. ^ McDowell, a former TD, had been a controversial figure in the government. Though with no seat in parliament, he was nevertheless projected as the party's "conscience", launching attacks on Fianna Fáil that caused considerable anger in Fianna Fáil. The PDs threatened to quit the government after the revelations about Lenihan. They gave Haughey an ultimatum: either hold an inquiry into the pressure placed on President Hillery, or dismiss Lenihan. Through professing loyalty to his "friend of thirty years" Haughey chose the latter option and dismissed Lenihan.
  4. ^ O'Hanlon also criticized Robinson for not making a state visit to the Vatican. That was revealed to be unjustified. She could only make a state visit if invited. No invitation had been issued. As the last state visit had been carried out by President Hillery in 1989, another state visit was not due for at least a decade.

State visits usually involve a military review. ...

Additional reading

  • Stephen Collins, Spring and the Labour Party (O'Brien Press, 1993) ISBN 0-86278-349-6
  • Eamon Delaney, An Accidential Diplomat: My Years in the Irish Foreign Service (1987-1995) (New Island Books, 2001) ISBN 1-902602-39-0
  • Garret FitzGerald, All in a Life (Gill and Macmillan, 1991) ISBN 0-7171-1600-X
  • Fergus Finlay, Mary Robinson: A President with a Purpose (O'Brien Press, 1991) ISBN 0-86278-257-0
  • Fergus Finlay. Snakes & Ladders (New Island Books, 1998) ISBN 1-874597-76-6
  • Jack Jones, In Your Opinion: Political and Social Trends in Ireland through the Eyes of the Electorate (Townhouse, 2001) ISBN 1-86059-149-3
  • Ray Kavanagh, The Rise and Fall of the Labour Party:1986-1999 (Blackwater Press 2001) ISBN 1-84131-528-1
  • Gabriel Kiely, Anne o'Donnell, Patricia Kennedy, Suzanne Quin (eds) Irish Social Policy in Context (University College Dublin Press, 1999) ISBN 1-900621-25-8)
  • Brian Lenihan, For the Record (Blackwater Press, 1991) ISBN 0-86121-362-9
  • Mary McQuillan, Mary Robinson: A President in Progress (Gill and Macmillan, 1994) ISBN 0-7171-2251-4
  • Olivia O'Leary & Helen Burke, Mary Robinson: The Authorised Biography (Lir/Hodder & Stoughton, 1998) ISBN 0-340-71738-6
  • Michael O'Sullivan, Mary Robinson: The Life and Times of an Irish Liberal (Blackwater Press, 1993) ISBN 0-86121-448-X
  • Lorna Siggins, The Woman Who Took Power in the Park: Mary Robinson, President of Ireland, 1990-1997 (Mainstream Publishing, 1997) ISBN 1-85158-805-1

Other source material

Media coverage in The Irish Times, The Irish Independent, The Examiner (now renamed the Irish Examiner), The Star, The Irish Mirror, The Irish Sun, Sunday Tribune, The Sunday Independent, The Sunday Times, The Times, The Daily Telegraph and The Guardian. Also briefing notes issued on various occasions (notably state, official or personal visits by Robinson abroad) supplied by the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs, The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Buckingham Palace, Áras an Uachtaráin, the Holy See and the press offices of the United Nations (including [2] the text of her Romanes Lecture in November 1997). Some background came via an interview with Mrs. Robinson. It has been suggested that Irish Times Trust be merged into this article or section. ... The Irish Examiner (Formerly: Cork Examiner, The Examiner) is an Irish national daily newspaper which primarily circulates in the Munster region surrounding its base in Cork, though it is available throughout the country. ... The Irish Daily Star (formerly known simply as The Star, and known in Northern Ireland as The Irish Star) is a tabloid newspaper published in Ireland by Independent Star Limited. ... The Sunday Tribune is an broadsheet Irish Sunday newspaper published by Tribune Newspapers plc. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1788. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The Korea Liberator: [3] Criticism of Robinson's failure to speak out while North Korea deliberately starved two million of its people to death, largely during her tenure (warning: graphic image).


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mary Robinson (poet) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (805 words)
Mary Robinson, nee Darby (1756 or 1758 - 26 December 1800) the English poet and novelist, was also known for her role as Perdita (heroine of Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale) in 1779.
Mary Darby Robinson was born to a sea captain and his wife allegedly on 27 November 1758 according to her memoirs, but 1756 according to recently published research.
From the late 1780s, Mary Robinson became distinguished for her poetry and was called "the English Sappho." In addition to poems, she wrote six novels, two plays, a feminist treatise, and an autobiographical manuscript that was incomplete at the time of her death.
Mary Robinson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3819 words)
Mary Robinson (Irish name Máire Mhic Róibín; born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002.
Robinson was therefore born into a family that was a historical mix of rebels against and servants of the Crown.
Robinson was inaugurated as the seventh President of Ireland on December 3, 1990.
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