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Encyclopedia > Mary Mallon
Typhoid Mary in a 1909 newspaper illustration
Typhoid Mary in a 1909 newspaper illustration

Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was the first person in the United States to be identified as a healthy carrier of typhoid fever. Over the course of her career as a cook, she infected 47 people, three of whom died from the disease. Her fame is in part due to her vehement denial of her own role in causing the disease, together with her refusal to cease working as a cook. She was forcibly quarantined twice by public health authorities and died in quarantine. It was also possible that she was born with the disease, as her mother had typhoid fever during her pregnancy. Typhoid Mary (real name Mary Walker), also known as Typhoid and Bloody Mary, is a fictional mutant character in the Marvel Comics universe, most commonly associated with Daredevil as a supervillain. ... Image File history File links Mallon-Mary_01. ... Image File history File links Mallon-Mary_01. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An asymptomatic carrier (or just carrier), is a person who is infected with an infectious disease or carries the abnormal gene of a recessive genetic disorder, but displays no symptoms. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ...

Contents

Cook

Mallon was born in 1869 in County Tyrone, Ireland, and emigrated to the United States in 1884. She worked as a cook in the New York City area between 1900 and 1907. She had been working in a house in Mamaroneck, New York for less than two weeks when the residents came down with typhoid. She moved to Manhattan in 1901 and members of the family for whom she worked developed fevers and diarrhea and the laundress died. She then went to work for a lawyer until seven of the eight household members developed typhoid. Mary spent months helping to care for the people she made sick, but her care further spread the disease through the household. In 1906, she took a position in Long Island. Within two weeks, six out of eleven family members were hospitalized with typhoid. She changed employment again and three more households were infected. Statistics Province: Ulster County Town: Omagh Area: 3,155 km² Population (est. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Mamaroneck, New York may refer to two places in New York: The Town of Mamaroneck, a town in Westchester County The Village of Mamaroneck, a village partially within the town This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ...


People catch typhoid fever after ingesting water or food which has been contaminated during handling by a human carrier. The human carrier is usually a healthy person who has survived a previous episode of typhoid fever but in whom the typhoid bacteria have been able to survive without causing further symptoms. Carriers continue to excrete the bacteria in their faeces and urine and poor hygiene can lead to its introduction into food and water.


When typhoid researcher George Soper approached Mallon with the news she was possibly spreading typhoid, she adamantly rejected his request for urine and stool samples. Soper left and later published his findings in the June 15, 1906 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.[1] On his next contact with her, he brought a doctor with him, but was again turned away. Mallon's denials that she was a carrier were based in part on the diagnosis of a reputable chemist who had found she was not harboring the bacteria. It is possible she was in temporary remission when tested. Moreover, when Soper first told her she was a carrier, the concept a person could spread disease and remain healthy was not well known. Finally, George Soper may have been somewhat tactless in his dealings with her. During a later encounter in the hospital, he told Mary he would write a book about her and give her all the royalties. She got up and locked herself in the bathroom until he left.[citation needed] George A. Soper (1870 -- June 17, 1948) was a sanitation engineer. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ...


Quarantine

Mary Mallon (left bed) in a hospital bed during her first quarantine
Mary Mallon (left bed) in a hospital bed during her first quarantine

The New York City Health Department sent Dr. Sara Josephine Baker to talk to Mary, but "by that time she was convinced that the law was wrongly persecuting her when she had done nothing wrong."[2] Image File history File links Mary_Mallon_in_hospital. ... Image File history File links Mary_Mallon_in_hospital. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


A few days later, Baker arrived at Mary's place of work with several police officers and took her into custody. The New York City health inspector investigated and found her to be a carrier. She was isolated for three years at a hospital located on North Brother Island, and then released on the condition she would not work with food. However, she assumed the pseudonym "Mary Brown", returned to cooking, and in 1915 infected 25 people while working as a cook at New York's Sloan Hospital; two of those infected died. Public health authorities again seized Mary Mallon and returned her to quarantine on the island, this time for life. She became something of a celebrity, and was interviewed by journalists who were forbidden to accept as much as a glass of water from her. Later in life, she was allowed to work in the island's laboratory as a technician. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... North Brother Island is an island in the East River situated between the Bronx and Rikers Island. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ...


Death

Mallon died on November 11, 1938 at the age of 69 due to pneumonia (not typhoid), six years after a stroke had left her paralyzed.[2] An autopsy found evidence of live typhoid bacteria in her gallbladder. Her body was cremated with burial in Saint Raymond's Cemetery in the Bronx. is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that can accomodate up to 60 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Saint Raymonds Cemetery is a cemetery in The Bronx, New York City. ... For other uses, see The Bronx (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

Part of the problems Mary created stemmed from her vehement denial of the situation. She maintained she was healthy and had never had typhoid fever. Historians say it also stemmed from the prejudice that existed against working-class Irish immigrants at the time. Today, Typhoid Mary is a generic term for a carrier of a dangerous disease who is a danger to the public because they refuse to take appropriate precautions. Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand...


Still living in Cookstown, Northern Ireland today, are her descendants who currently run a successful catering business.[citation needed] Typhoid Mary's legacy lives on in the family business, with their appropriately named 'Typhoid Bun', which to this day is still a hit among the locals.[citation needed] , Cookstown (An Chorr Chríochach in Irish) is a town in County Tyrone in Northern Ireland. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ...


Further reading

  • Typhoid Mary: An Urban Historical, Anthony Bourdain, Bloomsbury, New York, 2001, hardcover, 148 pages, ISBN 1-58234-133-8
  • Typhoid Mary, Captive to the Public's Health, Judith Walzer Leavitt, Beacon Press, Boston, 1996, hardcover, 331 pages, ISBN 0-8070-2102-4
  • Fighting for Life, Sara Josephine Baker, Macmillan Press, New York 1939, ISBN 0-405-05945-0 (1974 ed), ISBN 0-88275-611-7 (1980 ed)
  • The Ballad of Typhoid Mary, Jürg Federspiel [translated by Joel Agee], Ballantine Press, New York, 1985
  • Typhoid Mary. snopes.com (2006-07-23).
  1. ^ Soper, George A. (1907-06-15). "The work of a chronic typhoid germ distributor". Journal of the American Medical Association 48: 2019–2022. 
  2. ^ a b Rosenberg, Jennifer. Typhoid Mary. About.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.

Anthony Michael Tony Bourdain (born June 25, 1956) is an American author and chef. ... Judith Walzer Leavitt is Rupple Bascom and Ruth Bleier Professor of History of Medicine, History of Science, and Women’s Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... JAMA, published continuously since in 1883, is an international peer-reviewed general medical journal published 48 times per year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • "Dinner with Typhoid Mary," Long Island History
  • A more detailed profile of Typhoid Mary
  • PBS NOVA site: "The Most Dangerous Woman in America"
  • www.snopes.com about Typhoid Mary

See also

Look up Typhoid Mary in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Persondata
NAME Mallon, Mary
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Typhoid Mary
SHORT DESCRIPTION The first person in the United States to be identified as a healthy carrier of typhoid fever. She worked as a cook and infected 47 people over the course of her career, and had to be forcibly quarantined several times.
DATE OF BIRTH September 23, 1869
PLACE OF BIRTH New York, United States
DATE OF DEATH November 11, 1938
PLACE OF DEATH New York, United States
Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... An asymptomatic carrier (or just carrier), is a person who is infected with an infectious disease or carries the abnormal gene of a recessive genetic disorder, but displays no symptoms. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... For other uses, see Chef (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Quarantine (disambiguation) Quarantine is voluntary or compulsory isolation, typically to contain the spread of something considered dangerous, often but not always disease. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mary Mallon Summary (3573 words)
Mallon lunged at the visitors with a long kitchen fork and fled to a nearby shed, where she was arrested and taken to hospital in an ambulance, kicking, screaming, and biting, with Baker sitting on her chest.
Mallon's denials that she was a carrier were based in part on the diagnosis of a reputable chemist; he found she was not harboring the germs.
Mary's eventual death (in 1938) was due to pneumonia, not typhoid.
Mary Mallon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (843 words)
Mary was a cook in a house in Mamaroneck, New York, for less than two weeks in the year 1900 when the residents came down with typhoid.
Mallon's denials that she was a carrier were based in part on the diagnosis of a reputable chemist who Mallon had test herself; he found she was not harboring the germs.
Mary's eventual death (in 1938) was due to pneumonia, not typhoid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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