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Encyclopedia > Mary II of England
Queen Mary II
Mary II
Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland
Reign 13 February 1689 - 28 December 1694
(with William III)
Born 30 April 1662
London
Died 28 December 1694
Buried Westminster Abbey
Predecessor James II
Successor William III (alone)
Consort William III (joint monarch)
Royal House Stuart
Father James II
Mother Anne Hyde

Mary II (30 April 166228 December 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from 11 April 1689 until her death. Mary, a Protestant, came to the thrones following the Glorious Revolution, which resulted in the deposition of her Roman Catholic father, James II. Mary reigned jointly with her husband and first cousin, William III, who became the sole ruler of both countries upon her death in 1694. Popular histories usually refer to the joint reigns as those of "William and Mary". Mary, although a sovereign in her own right, did not wield power during most of her reign, instead ceding it to her husband. She did, however, govern the realms when William was engaged in military campaigns abroad.[1] Image File history File links Queen_Mary_II.jpg‎ Portrait of Queen Mary II, Wearing a Blue and Red Dress and Holding a Sprig of Orange Blossom by William Wissing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Lady Anne Hyde (March 1637 – March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Protestantism is one of three main groups within Christianity, whose beliefs are centered on Jesus. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by...

Contents

Early life

Mary, born at St. James Palace in London on 30 April 1662, was the eldest daughter of James, Duke of York (the future James II of England) and of his first wife, Lady Anne Hyde.[2] Mary's uncle was King Charles II; her maternal grandfather, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, served for a lengthy period as Charles's chief advisor.[3] Although her mother bore eight children, only Mary and her younger sister Anne survived into adulthood.[4] Main entrance of St Jamess Palace, London St Jamess Palace is one of Londons oldest and most historic palaces. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Events February 1 - The Chinese pirate Koxinga seizes the island of Taiwan after a nine-month siege. ... James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Lady Anne Hyde (1637 - March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (February 18, 1609–December 9, 1674) was an English historian and statesman. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England and Ireland and Queen of Scots on 8 March 1702. ...


The Duke of York converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668 or 1669, but Mary and Anne had a Protestant upbringing, pursuant to the command of Charles II.[5] Mary's mother died in 1671; her father married again in 1673, taking as his second wife the Catholic Mary of Modena, also known as Mary Beatrice d'Este.[6] Protestantism is one of three main groups within Christianity, whose beliefs are centered on Jesus. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ...


At the age of fifteen, Princess Mary became betrothed to the Protestant Stadtholder, William, Prince of Orange.[1] William was the son of her aunt, Mary, Princess Royal, and Prince William II of Nassau. At first, Charles II opposed the alliance with a Dutch ruler — he preferred that Mary marry the heir to the French Throne, the Dauphin Louis — but later, under pressure from Parliament and with a coalition with the Catholic French no longer politically favourable, he approved the union.[7] Pressured by Parliament, the Duke of York agreed to the marriage, falsely assuming that it would improve his popularity amongst Protestants.[8] The first cousins Mary and William married in London on 4 November 1677; Mary reportedly wept throughout the ceremony.[2] A stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder meaning place holder, a Germanic parallel to Latin locum tenens or French lieutenant), means an official who is appointed by the legal ruling Monarch to represent him in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in his name, in the latter case roughly... Prince of Orange is a title of nobility, originally associated with the principality of Orange in southern France. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... William II (fragment of a 1641 painting by Antoon van Dijck) William II, Prince of Orange (May 27, 1626 – November 6, 1650), stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from March 14, 1647 until his death. ... Louis, the Grand Dauphin (le Grand Dauphin in French) (1 November 1661 - 14 April 1711) was the eldest son and heir of King Louis XIV of France and Queen Maria Theresa of Spain. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1677 (MDCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...

British Royalty
House of Stuart
Mary II & William III
Mary II

Mary went to the Netherlands, where she lived as William's consort. Although she was devoted to her husband, the marriage was often unhappy; her three pregnancies ended in miscarriage or stillbirth, and her childlessness would be the greatest source of unhappiness in Mary's life. Her animated and personable nature made her popular with the Dutch people, but her husband was often cold and neglectful,[1] and long maintained an affair with Elizabeth Villiers, one of Mary's ladies-in-waiting,[8] though over time he became more relaxed in Mary's company.[2] The British Monarchy is a shared monarchy. ... The Coat of Arms of King James I, the first British monarch of the House of Stuart The House of Stuart or Stewart was a royal house of the Kingdom of Scotland, later of the Kingdom of England, and finally of the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Image File history File links This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... William III of England (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Hampton Court, 8 March 1702; also known as William II of Scotland and William III of Orange) was a Dutch aristocrat and a Protestant Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28... Elizabeth Villiers ( 1657- April 19, 1733), was the daughter of Colonel Sir Edward Villiers of Richmond and his wife, Frances Howard. ...


The Glorious Revolution

Main article: Glorious Revolution

Upon the death of Charles II without legitimate issue in 1685, the Duke of York became King as James II in England and Ireland, and as James VII in Scotland. He had a controversial religious policy; his attempt to grant freedom of religion to non-Anglicans was not well-received, as the technique he chose was to annul acts of Parliament by royal decree.[5] Several Protestant politicians and noblemen entered into negotiations with Mary's husband as early as 1687. After James took the step of forcing Anglican clergymen to read the Declaration of Indulgence—the proclamation granting religious liberty to dissenters—from their churches in May 1688, his popularity plunged.[5] Alarm amongst Protestants increased when his wife, Queen Mary, gave birth to a son—James Francis Edward—in June 1688, for the son would, unlike Mary and Anne, be raised a Roman Catholic. Some charged that the boy was "supposititious", having been secretly smuggled in to Queen's room in a bed-warming pan as a substitute for her stillborn baby.[9] Although there was no evidence to support the allegation, Mary publicly challenged the boy's legitimacy, sending a pointed list of questions to her sister, Anne, regarding the circumstances of the birth.[10] The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Declaration of Indulgence (or the declaration for the liberty of conscience) was made by King James II of England, on the April 4, 1687. ... Mary of Modena (October 5, 1658 – May 7, 1718) was the queen consort of King James II of England. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ...


On 30 June, the Immortal Seven secretly requested William—then in the Netherlands with Mary—to come to England with an army.[11] At first, William was reluctant; he was jealous of his wife's position as the heiress to the English Crown and feared that she would become more powerful than he was. Mary, however, convinced her husband that she did not care for political power, telling him "she would be no more but his wife, and that she would do all that lay in her power to make him king for life".[12] William agreed to invade and issued a declaration which referred to James' new-born son as the "pretended Prince of Wales". He also gave a list of grievences of the English people and stated that his proposed expedition was for the sole purpose of having "a free and lawful Parliament assembled".[2] The Dutch army finally landed on 5 November, having been turned back by a storm in October.[11] The disaffected English Army and Navy went over to William, and English people's confidence in James stood so low that they did not attempt to save their King.[13] On 11 December, the defeated King attempted to flee, but was intercepted. A second attempt at flight, on 23 December, was successful: James escaped to France where he lived in exile until his death.[5] June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 184 days remaining. ... The Immortal Seven were seven notable English citizens who issued the Invitation to William, a document asking William of Orange to depose James II in favour of Williams wife Mary, culminating in the Glorious Revolution. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (358th in leap years). ...


Mary was upset by the circumstances surrounding the deposition of her father, but William ordered her to appear cheerful on their triumphant arrival in London. As a result she was criticised for appearing cold to her father's plight. James too wrote a diatribe against her criticising her disloyalty, an action which deeply affected the pious Mary.[2]


In 1689, a Convention Parliament summoned by the Prince of Orange assembled, and much discussion relating to the appropriate course of action ensued.[14] William of Orange felt insecure about his position; he wished to reign as a King, rather than function as a mere consort of a Queen. The only precedent for a joint monarchy dated from the sixteenth century: when Queen Mary I married the Spanish Prince Philip, it was agreed that the latter would take the title of King. But Philip II remained King only during his wife's lifetime, and restrictions were placed on his power. William, however, demanded that he remain King even after his wife's death. Although some prominent statesmen proposed to make her the sole ruler, Mary, remaining loyal to her husband, refused.[14] The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... Mary Tudor is the name of both Mary I of England and her fathers sister, Mary Tudor (queen consort of France). ... Philip II of Spain Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King of England (as King-consort of Mary I) from...


On 13 February 1689, Parliament passed the Declaration of Right, in which it deemed that James, by attempting to flee on 11 December 1688, had abdicated the government of the realm, and that the Throne had thereby become vacant.[14][15] Parliament offered the Crown not to James's eldest son, James Francis Edward (who would have been the heir-apparent under normal circumstances), but to William and Mary as joint Sovereigns. It was, however, provided that "the sole and full exercise of the regal power be only in and executed by the said Prince of Orange in the names of the said Prince and Princess during their joint lives."[14] The declaration was later extended to exclude not only James and his heirs from the throne, but all Catholics, since "it hath been found by experience that it is inconsistent with the safety and welfare of this Protestant kingdom to be governed by a papist prince".[15] February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Convention Parliament has been applied to three different English Parliaments, of 1399, 1660 and 1689. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) and is commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... The term Heir Apparent is most often used to refer to someone who is first in the order of succession to a throne and who, unlike an Heir Presumptive, cannot lose this status by the birth of any other person. ...


The Bishop of London, Henry Compton, crowned William and Mary together at Westminster Abbey on 11 April 1689. Normally, the Archbishop of Canterbury performs coronations, but the Archbishop at the time, William Sancroft, although an Anglican, refused to recognise the validity of James II's removal.[16][17] On the day of the coronation, the Convention of the Estates of Scotland — which was much more divided than the English Parliament — finally declared that James was no longer King of Scotland. William and Mary were offered the separate Scottish Crown (the two kingdoms were not united until the Acts of Union in 1707); they accepted on 11 May.[1] Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... Henry Compton (1632 - July 7, 1713), English divine, was the sixth and youngest son of the second earl of Northampton. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... William Sancroft (1616-1693), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Fressingfield in Suffolk on January 30, 1616, and entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in July 1634. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... May 11 is the 131st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (132nd in leap years). ...


Even after the declaration, there was still substantial support for James in Scotland. The Viscount of Dundee raised an army, and won a convincing victory at Killiecrankie on 27 July. The huge losses suffered by Dundee's troops, coupled with his fatal wounding at the start of the battle, served to remove the only effective resistance to William and the uprising was quickly crushed, suffering a resounding defeat the next month at the Battle of Dunkeld.[18][19] John Graham, Viscount Dundee (c. ... Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Royalists (Covenanters, Lowlanders) Commanders Viscount Dundee† Hugh Mackay Strength 2400 foot 3500 foot Casualties 800, inc. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... The Battle of Dunkeld was fought between Highland clans supporting James II and a government regiment of covenanters supporting William of Orange, in the streets around Dunkeld Cathedral, Dunkeld, Scotland, on August 21, 1689, and formed part of the first Jacobite rising. ...


Reign

Monarchical Styles of
Mary II as Queen of England
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am
Monarchical Styles of
Mary II as Queen of Scotland
Reference style Her Grace
Spoken style Your Grace
Alternative style Ma'am

In December 1689 Parliament passed one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights. This measure — which restated and confirmed many provisions of the earlier Declaration of Right — established restrictions on the royal prerogative; it declared, amongst other things, that the Sovereign could not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House of Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel or unusual punishments. The Bill of Rights also addressed the question of succession to the Throne.[20] Image File history File links Edward's_crown_PD_cleaned. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Look up majesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Majesty is an English word rooting in the Latin Maiestas, meaning literally, Greatness. ... A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... The Bill of Rights 1689 is an Act of the Parliament of England (1 Will. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... The right to petition is the freedom of individuals (and sometimes groups and corporations) to petition their government for a correction or repair of some form of injustice without fear of punishment for the same. ... The word bail as a legal term means: Security, usually a sum of money, exchanged for the release of an arrested person as a guarantee of that persons appearance for trial. ...


Following the death of either William III or Mary II, the other was to continue to reign. Next in the line of succession would be any children of the couple, to be followed by Mary's sister Anne and her children. Last in the line of succession stood any children William III might have had from any subsequent marriage.[20]


From 1690 onwards, William often remained absent from England, at first fighting Jacobites in Ireland. Whilst her husband was away, Mary administered the government of the realm. She proved a firm ruler, ordering the arrest of her own uncle, Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, for plotting to restore James II to the throne. In 1692, she dismissed and imprisoned the influential John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough on similar charges; the dismissal somewhat diminished her popularity and harmed her relationship with her sister Anne who was strongly influenced by Churchill's wife, Sarah.[1] Anne appeared at court with Sarah, obviously supporting the disgraced Churchill, which led to Mary angrily demanding that Anne dismiss Sarah and vacate her lodgings. Mary later failed to visit Anne during her pregnancy and relations remained strained until Mary's death.[2] Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Henry Hyde, (1638-1709), was the son of Edward Hyde, the 1st Earl of Clarendon, and his wife Frances Aylesbury. ... John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in his Garter robes John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, KG, PC (26 May 1650 – 16 June 1722) was an English military officer during the War of the Spanish Succession. ...


William had crushed the Irish Jacobites by 1692, but he continued with campaigns abroad in order to wage war against France in the Netherlands. When her husband was away, Mary acted in her own name but on his advice; whilst he was in England, Mary completely refrained from interfering in political matters, as had been agreed in the Bill of Rights.[1][20] She did, however, participate in the affairs of the Church - all matters of ecclesiastical patronage passed through her hands.[21] She died of smallpox at Kensington Palace on the 28th December 1694 and was buried at Westminster Abbey.[1][22] Upon her death, baroque composer Henry Purcell of England was commissioned to write her funeral music, entitled Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary.[23] The ominous March (catalogued as Z860 A) has subsequently been used in other media, such as the title theme in the movie A Clockwork Orange. William, who had grown increasingly to rely on Mary, was devastated by her death, reportedly said that "from being the happiest" he was "now going to be the miserablest creature on earth".[2] The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... The south facade of the main block of Kensington Palace, seen through Jean Tijous wrought iron gates. ... (Redirected from 28th December) December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... The Abbeys western façade The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: [1]; September 10 (?) [2], 1659–November 21, 1695), a Baroque composer, is generally considered to be one of Englands greatest composers—indeed, he has often been called Englands finest native composer. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Legacy

After Mary II's death, William III continued to rule as king. Princess Anne's last surviving child, William, Duke of Gloucester, died in July 1700, and, as it was clear that William III would have no more children, Parliament passed the Act of Settlement 1701, which provided that the Crown would go to the nearest Protestant relative, Sophia, Electress of Hanover and her Protestant heirs. When William III died in 1702, he was succeeded by Anne, and she in turn was succeeded by the son of the deceased Electress Sophia, George I.[24] William, Duke of Gloucester ( 24 July 1689 - 29 July 1700) was the only child of Princess (later Queen) Anne of England to survive infancy. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Electress Sophia of Hanover was born Sophia, Pfalzgräfin von Simmern, at The Hague on October 14, 1630, and died at Herrenhausen on June 8, 1714. ... George I (Georg Ludwig) (28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was Elector of Hanover from 23 January 1698, and King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 1 August 1714, until his death. ...


Mary endowed the College of William and Mary (in the present day Williamsburg, Virginia) in 1693.[25] She also founded the Royal Hospital for Seamen, Greenwich.[1] The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... Nickname: The Burg Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... The Greenwich Hospital was founded in 1694 as the Royal Naval Hospital for Seamen. ...


Ancestors

Mary II's ancestors in three generations
Mary II of England Father:
James II of England
Paternal Grandfather:
Charles I of England
Paternal Great-grandfather:
James I of England
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Anne of Denmark
Paternal Grandmother:
Henrietta Maria of France
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Henry IV of France
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Marie de' Medici
Mother:
Anne Hyde
Maternal Grandfather:
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Henry Hyde
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Mary Hyde
Maternal Grandmother:
Frances Hyde, Countess of Clarendon
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Sir Thomas Aylesbury
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Anne Aylesbury

James II of England/VII of Scotland (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701) became King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland on 6 February 1685, and Duke of Normandy on 31 December 1660. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... James VI and I (James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland. ... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Queen Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 – September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Mariae) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert, son... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... Portrait of Marie de Medici. ... Lady Anne Hyde (March 1637 – March 31, 1671), daughter of Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, became the first wife of James, Duke of York (the future King James II of England), and the mother of two British queens, Mary II and Anne. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (February 18, 1609–December 9, 1674) was an English historian and statesman. ... Frances Hyde, Countess of Clarendon (bapt. ...

Style and arms

The joint style of William III and Mary II was "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc." when they ascended the Throne. (The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English King since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) From 11 April 1689 — when the Estates of Scotland recognised them as Sovereigns — the royal couple used the style "William and Mary, by the Grace of God, King and Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, etc.".[26] The Kingdom of England was first unified as a state by Athelstan of Wessex. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... For the play, see Edward III (play). ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ...


The arms used by the King and Queen were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland); overall an escutcheon Azure billetty and a lion rampant Or.[27] Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Motto: (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - UK Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78,772 km...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Mary II". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th Ed.). (1911). London: Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g The House Of Stuart: William III and Mary II. English Monarchs (2004). Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  3. ^ "Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon". Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. (2000). Columbia University Press.
  4. ^ Anne Hyde. David Nash Ford's Royal Berkshire History (2005). Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  5. ^ a b c d The House Of Stuart: James II. English Monarchs (2004). Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  6. ^ James II and VII. The Jacobite Heritage (1997). Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  7. ^ John Pollock. The Policy of Charles II and James II. (1667-87.). 
  8. ^ a b Nicholas Seager, University of Nottingham. (2006-02-09). "Reign of King William III". The Literary Encyclopedia. The Literary Dictionary Company. Retrieved on 19 September 2006.
  9. ^ Nenner, Howard (1998). The Right to be King: the Succession to the Crown of England, 1603-1714. Palgrave Macmillan, 243. ISBN 0-333-57724-8. 
  10. ^ Enquiry of the Princess of Orange into the Birth of the Prince of Wales. The Jacobite Heritage (1688). Retrieved on 19 September, 2006.
  11. ^ a b Donald E. Wilkes Jr. and Matthew Kramer (1997). The Glorious Revolution of 1688:Chronology. Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  12. ^ "Mary II (Quote from History of my own Time. G Burnet (1883) Oxford.)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th Ed.). (1911). London: Cambridge University Press.
  13. ^ James II. The Royal Household. Retrieved on 19 September, 2006.
  14. ^ a b c d (1742) "King James' Parliament: The succession of William and Mary", The History and Proceedings of the House of Commons : volume 2. British History Online, 255-77. Retrieved on 19 September. 
  15. ^ a b William III and Mary II. The Royal Household. Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  16. ^ "William Sancroft". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2006). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 21 September.
  17. ^ Historic England - Archbishops of Canterbury. The History of England. Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  18. ^ "John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st viscount of Dundee". Encyclopædia Britannica. (2006). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved on 21 September.
  19. ^ The Contemplator's Short History of "Bonnie Dundee" John Graham, Earl of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee. Retrieved on 20 September, 2006.
  20. ^ a b c Bill of Rights (1689). Retrieved on 19 September, 2006.
  21. ^ Gilbert Burnet. NNDB. Retrieved on 19 September, 2006.
  22. ^ Historic Figures: Mary II of Orange (1662 - 94). BBC. Retrieved on 19 September, 2006.
  23. ^ Music for Queen Mary. The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamiliton County. Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  24. ^ The House Of Stuart: Queen Anne. English Monarchs (2004). Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  25. ^ Historical Facts. William and Mary College (2006). Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
  26. ^ Brewer, E. Cobham (1898). Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Henry Altemus Company, 891. 
  27. ^ Royal Coats of Arms: England & France. Fleur-de-lis Designs. Retrieved on 18 September, 2006.
Preceded by
James II/VII
Queen of England
(with William III)
1689–1694
Succeeded by
William III/II
Queen of Scotland
(with William III)
1689–1694
Queen of Ireland
(with William III)
1689–1694

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mary II of England - New World Encyclopedia (2778 words)
Mary II (April 30, 1662 – December 28, 1694) reigned as Queen of England and Ireland from February 13, 1689, and as Queen of Scots (as Mary II of Scotland) from April 11, 1689 until her death.
Mary, born at St. James Palace in London on April 30, 1662, was the eldest daughter of James, Duke of York (the future James II of England) and of his first wife, Lady Anne Hyde.
Mary's uncle was King Charles II; her maternal grandfather, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, served for a lengthy period as Charles's chief advisor.
Royalty.nu - Royal History - The Stuarts - Queen Mary II and King William III (589 words)
Mary II was the daughter of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by his first wife, Anne Hyde.
Queen Mary II died in 1694 and King William III died in 1702.
Mary II, Queen of England by Hester Chapman.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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