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Encyclopedia > Mary I of England
Mary I
Queen of England and Ireland, Queen Consort of Spain, Sicily and Naples. (more...)
Queen Mary I of England
painted in 1554 by Antonius Mor
Museum of Prado, Madrid
Reign 19 July 155317 November 1558
Coronation 1 October 1553
Predecessor Edward VI
Successor Elizabeth I
Issue
None
Titles
The Queen
The Lady Mary
The Princess Mary
Royal house Tudor
Father Henry VIII
Mother Catherine of Aragon
Born 18 February 1516(1516-02-18)
Died 17 November 1558 (aged 42)
St. James's Palace, London
Burial Westminster Abbey, London

Mary I (18 February 151617 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... Image File history File links Mary1England. ... Selfportrait. ... The Museo del Prado is a museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Edward VI King of England and Ireland Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... Henry VIII, became the first King of Ireland in 1541. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ...


Mary, the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, after the uncrowned Jane Grey and before Elizabeth I, is remembered for briefly returning England to Roman Catholicism. To this end, she had almost three hundred religious dissenters executed; as a consequence, she is often known as Bloody Mary. Her reestablishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I (1558–1603). Mary and Elizabeth were both first cousins once-removed of Mary, Queen of Scots, granddaughter of their aunt Margaret Tudor. For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Lady Jane Grey (October 12, 1537 – February 12, 1554), a great-granddaughter of Henry VII of England, was proclaimed Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days in 1553. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Mary I of England Bloody Mary is a name applied to both Queen Mary I of England and to a figure of Western folklore. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and...

Contents

Childhood and early years

Mary was the only child of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. A stillborn sister and three short-lived brothers, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall, had preceded her. Through her mother, she was a granddaughter of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. She was born at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, London, on Monday 18 February 1516. She was baptised on the following Thursday with Thomas Cardinal Wolsey standing as her godfather. Mary was a sickly child who had poor eyesight, sinus conditions and bad headaches. It has been speculated that her poor health was due to congenital syphilis contracted ultimately from her father via her mother.[1]. Henry VIII redirects here. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Henry, Duke of Cornwall was the name of two sons of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Greenwich Palace. ... This page is about Greenwich in England. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, (c. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...


Despite her health problems Mary was a precocious child. A great part of the credit for her early education was undoubtedly due to her mother, who not only consulted the Spanish scholar Juan Luis Vives upon the subject, but also was Mary's first instructor in Latin. Mary also studied Greek, science, and music. In July 1521, when scarcely five and a half years old, she entertained some visitors with a performance on the virginal (a smaller harpsichord). Henry VIII doted on his daughter and would boast in company, "This girl never cries". When Mary was nine years old, Henry gave her her own court at Ludlow Castle and many of the Royal Prerogatives normally only given to a (male) Prince of Wales, even calling her the Princess of Wales. In 1526, Mary was sent to Wales to preside over the Council of Wales and the Marches. Despite this obvious affection, Henry was deeply disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. Juan Luís Vives (March 6, 1492 - May 6, 1540), Spanish scholar, was born at Valencia. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. ... Ludlow Castles gatehouse Ludlow Castle is a large, now ruined castle which dominates the town of Ludlow in Shropshire, England. ... The Royal Prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege, and immunity, recognised in common law jurisdictions possessing a monarchy as belonging to the Crown alone. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... This article is about the country. ... The Council of the Marches was an English regional administrative body (similar to the Council of the North) covering all of Wales and the English counties known as the Welsh Marches. ...


Throughout her childhood Henry negotiated potential marriages for Mary. When she was only two years old she was promised to the Dauphin Francis, son of Francis I, King of France, but after three years, the contract was repudiated. In 1522, she was instead contracted to marry her first cousin, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, then 22, by the Treaty of Windsor. Within a few years, however, the engagement was broken off. It was then suggested that Mary wed, not the Dauphin, but his father Francis I, who was eager for an alliance with England. A marriage treaty was signed which provided that Mary should marry either Francis I or his second son Henry, Duke of Orléans. However, Cardinal Wolsey, Henry VIII's chief adviser, managed to secure an alliance without the marriage. Francis (French: François), Dauphin of France, also Francis III, Duke of Brittany (September 28, 1518 – August 10, 1536), was the first son and heir of King Francis I of France and Claude of France, daughter of Louis XII of France. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... The Treaty of Windsor signed on 16 June 1522 was made between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. ... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ...

Princess Mary in 1544

Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy because Catherine had failed to provide Henry the male heir he desired. Henry attempted to have his marriage to her annulled, but, to his disappointment, Pope Clement VII refused his requests. Some contend that the Pope's decision was influenced by Charles V, Mary's former betrothed and her mother's nephew. Henry had claimed, citing biblical passages, that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she had been previously married (as a child) to his brother Arthur, although there was some debate as to whether or not that marriage had been consummated. In 1533, Henry secretly married another woman, Anne Boleyn, and shortly thereafter, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, formally declared the marriage with Catherine void and the marriage with Anne valid. Henry then broke with the Roman Catholic Church and declared himself head of the Church of England. As a consequence, Catherine lost the dignity of being queen and was demoted to Princess Dowager of Wales (a title she would have held as the widow of Arthur). Mary in turn was deemed illegitimate and her place in the line of succession transferred to her half-sister, the future Elizabeth I, daughter of Anne Boleyn. She was also now styled "Lady Mary" rather than princess due to her illegimate status. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1450, 830 KB) Queen Mary I of England, painted as Princess Mary in 1544, by Master John. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x1450, 830 KB) Queen Mary I of England, painted as Princess Mary in 1544, by Master John. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... Arthur Tudor (19 September/20 September 1486– 2 April 1502) was the first son of King Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and therefore, heir to the throne of England and Wales. ... As a verb, consummate means to bring something to its completion, such as a transaction, concept, plan or action. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort of England, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ...


Mary was expelled from Court, her servants dismissed from her service, and she was forced to serve as a lady-in-waiting to Elizabeth. Mary was not permitted to see her mother Catherine, nor attend her funeral in 1536. It is said that because of this treatment, Mary was very cold towards Elizabeth during Elizabeth's teenage years, deriding Anne Boleyn's execution and calling her a witch. Circumstances between Mary and her father worsened, and she attempted to reconcile with him by submitting to his authority as head of the Church of England. By this she repudiated papal authority, acknowledged that the marriage between her mother and father was unlawful, and accepted her own illegitimacy.


Mary may have expected her troubles to end when Anne Boleyn lost royal favour and was beheaded in 1536. Like Mary before, Elizabeth was downgraded to the status of Lady and removed from the line of succession. Within two weeks of Anne Boleyn's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after giving birth to a son, the future Edward VI. Mary was godmother to her half-brother Edward and chief mourner at Jane Seymour's funeral. In return, Henry agreed to grant her a household and Mary was permitted to reside in royal palaces. Her privy purse expenses for nearly the whole of this period have been published, and show that Hatfield House, the Palace of Beaulieu (also called Newhall), Richmond and Hunsdon were among her principal places of residence. She was later awarded the Palace of Beaulieu as her own. When Mary reminded Henry VIII of Catherine of Aragon, he would banish her to Beaulieu. He would do the same to Elizabeth, but to the dismay of Mary, Elizabeth would be sent to Hatfield. For the actress, see Jane Seymour (actress). ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... The great hall Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the Great Park, on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. ... The Palace of Beaulieu also known as New Hall was located in Essex, England, north of Chelmsford. ... The town of Richmond as seen from the top of the keep of Richmond Castle Richmond is a market town on the River Swale in North Yorkshire, UK and is the administrative centre of the district of Richmondshire. ... Hunsdon is a town in Hertfordshire, England. ...


In 1543 Henry married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, who was able to bring the family closer together. The next year, through the Third Succession Act, Henry returned Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, being placed after Edward. Both women, however, remained legally illegitimate. Catherine Parr or Jane Grey Catherine Parr (c. ... The Third Succession Act of Henry VIIIs reign was passed by the Parliament of England in mid-1543, and returned both Mary and Elizabeth to the line of the succession behind Prince Edward. ...


In 1547, Henry died and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI. Since Edward was still a child, rule passed to a regency council dominated by Protestants, who attempted to establish Protestantism throughout the country. As an example, the Act of Uniformity 1549 prescribed Protestant rites for church services, such as the use of Thomas Cranmer's new Book of Common Prayer. When Mary, who had remained faithful to the Roman Catholicism, asked to be allowed to worship in private in her own chapel, she was refused. It was only after Mary appealed to her cousin Charles V that she was allowed to worship privately. Religious differences would continue to be a problem between Mary and Edward, however. When Mary was in her thirties, she attended a reunion with Edward and Elizabeth for Christmas, where Edward embarrassed Mary and reduced her to tears in front of the court for "daring to ignore" his laws regarding worship. The Act of Uniformity 1549 (citation 2 & 3 Edward VI, c. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...


Accession

English Royalty
House of Tudor

Royal Coat of Arms
Henry VIII
   Henry, Duke of Cornwall
   Mary I
   Elizabeth I
   Edward VI
Mary I

Edward did not want the crown to go to Mary, who he feared would restore the Catholic faith and undo his reforms, he planned to exclude her from the line of succession. His advisors told him that he could not disinherit only one of his sisters but would have to exclude Elizabeth as well, even though she embraced the Reformed faith and the Church of England. Guided by the Lord Protector, Edward excluded both of his sisters from the line of succession in his will.[1] This exclusion was unlawful, as it was made by a minor and contradicted the Act of Succession passed in 1544 which had restored Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession. Under the guidance of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, Edward VI instead devised that he should be succeeded by Northumberland's daughter-in-law Lady Jane Grey, a granddaughter of Henry VIII's younger sister Mary Tudor. It was during this time that Lady Mary stayed in the country to hold off a siege of the attacking armies. After nine days, however, a popular upwelling of support for Mary who was living at Framlingham Castle in Suffolk resulted in her being universally acclaimed Queen, and Dudley and Grey ended up in the Tower of London. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... For other uses, see Tudor (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links England_Arms_1554-1558. ... The Royal Arms as used in England, Wales and Northern Ireland The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch, and are officially... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Henry, Duke of Cornwall was the name of two sons of King Henry VIII of England and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) became King of England, King of France (in practice only the town and surrounding district of Calais) and Edward I of Ireland on 28 January 1547, and crowned on 20 February, at just nine years of age. ... Act of Succession may stand for: Swedish Act of Succession English Act of Succession This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... John Dudley John Dudley (1501 – August 22/23, 1553) was a Tudor nobleman and politician, executed for high treason by Queen Mary I of England. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Mary Tudor can refer to any of the following: Mary Tudor (queen consort of France) Mary I of England Category: ... Framlingham Castle is an important castle in the market town of Framlingham, Suffolk, England. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


One of her first actions as Queen was to order the release of the Roman Catholic Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk and Stephen Gardiner from imprisonment in the Tower of London [2]. Also, Lady Mary had Lady Jane Grey imprisoned in the Tower of London. Mary feared that if left alive Lady Jane would be a rallying point for rebels who rejected Mary's rule. At this time, the Duke of Northumberland was the only conspirator executed for high treason, and even that was after some hesitation on the Queen's part.[citation needed] Mary was left in a difficult position, as almost all the Privy Counsellors had been implicated in the plot to put Jane on the throne. She could only rely on Gardiner, whom she appointed Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor. Gardiner crowned Mary on 1 October 1553. Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk by Hans Holbein. ... Stephen Gardiner (c. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... Arms of the Bishop of Winchester The diocese of Winchester is one of the oldest and most important in England. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and prior to the Union the Chancellor of England and the Lord Chancellor of Scotland, is a senior and important functionary in the government of the United Kingdom, and its predecessor states. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey...


Reign

Philip II of Spain

Mary's first act of Parliament retroactively validated Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon, and legitimised Mary herself. This image is the most famous portrait of Philip II (1527-1598), with the emblem of the Golden Fleece and holding his rosary. ... This image is the most famous portrait of Philip II (1527-1598), with the emblem of the Golden Fleece and holding his rosary. ...


The Spanish marriage

Then 37, Mary turned her attention to finding a husband and producing an heir, thus preventing the Protestant Elizabeth (still her successor under the terms of Henry VIII's will) from succeeding to the throne. Mary rejected Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, as a prospect when her cousin Charles V suggested she marry his only son, the Spanish prince Philip, later Philip II of Spain. It is said that upon viewing a portrait of Philip, Mary declared herself to be in love with him. Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon (c. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the...


Their marriage at Winchester Cathedral on July 25, 1554 took place just two days after their first meeting. Philip felt completely political about the affair (he admired her dignity but felt "no carnal love for her"), and it was extremely unpopular with the English. Lord Chancellor Gardiner and the House of Commons petitioned her to consider marrying an Englishman, fearing that England would be relegated to a dependency of Spain. This fear may have arisen from the fact that Mary was England's first Queen (excluding the brief, and controversial, reign of Jane) since Empress Mathilda. Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn F̩in... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... Empress Maud (February 7, 1102 РSeptember 10, 1169) is the title by which Matilda, daughter and dispossessed heir of King Henry I of England and his wife Maud of Scotland (herself daughter of Malcolm III Canmore and St. ...


Domestic politics

Insurrections broke out across the country when she insisted on marrying Philip, with whom she was in love. The Duke of Suffolk once again proclaimed that his daughter, Lady Jane Grey, was queen. In support of Elizabeth, Thomas Wyatt led a force from Kent that was not defeated until he had arrived at London. After the rebellions were crushed, the Duke of Suffolk, his daughter, Lady Jane Grey, and her husband were convicted of high treason and executed. Elizabeth, though protesting her innocence in the Wyatt affair, was imprisoned in the Tower of London for two months, then was put under house arrest at Woodstock Palace. Thomas Wyatt the younger (1521-11 April 1554) was a rebel leader during the reign of Queen Mary I of England. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... {{main|Treason}} High treason, broadly defined, is an action which is grossly disloyal to ones country or sovereign. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ... Woodstock Palace was a royal residence in the Oxfordshire town of Woodstock. ...


Mary married Philip on 25 July 1554, at Winchester Cathedral. Under the terms of the marriage treaty, Philip was to be styled "King of England", all official documents (including Acts of Parliament) were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. Coins were also to show the heads of both Mary and Philip. The marriage treaty further provided that England would not be obliged to provide military support to Philip's father, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, in any war. Philip's powers, however, were extremely limited and he and Mary were not true joint sovereigns like William and Mary. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 5 - Great fire in Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with... William III Mary II The phrase William and Mary usually refers to the joint sovereignty over the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland of King William III and his wife Queen Mary II. Their joint reign began in February, 1689, when they were called to the throne by...

Mary and Philip appear on the above medal by Jacopo da Trezzo made circa 1555.
Mary and Philip appear on the above medal by Jacopo da Trezzo made circa 1555.

Download high resolution version (480x952, 95 KB)A medal by Jacopo da Trezzo made circa 1555. ... Download high resolution version (480x952, 95 KB)A medal by Jacopo da Trezzo made circa 1555. ...

Pregnancy

Mary, thinking she was pregnant, had thanksgiving services at the diocese of London in November 1554. This turned out to be the first of two phantom pregnancies. Philip persuaded his wife to permit Elizabeth's release from house arrest, probably so that he would be viewed favourably by her in case Mary died during childbirth. Philip found Mary, who was eleven years his senior, to be physically unattractive[citation needed] and after only fourteen months found an excuse to leave for Spain. Pseudocyesis also known as false pregnancy, can cause many of the signs and symptoms associated with pregnancy, and can resemble the condition in every way except for fetal presence. ...


Religion

As Queen, Mary was very concerned about religious issues. She had always rejected the break with Rome instituted by her father and the establishment of Protestantism by Edward VI. She had England reconcile with Rome and Reginald Cardinal Pole, the son of her governess the Countess of Salisbury and once considered a suitor, became Archbishop of Canterbury after Mary had his predecessor Thomas Cranmer executed. Mary would come to rely greatly on Pole for advice. Reginald Pole (1500 – November 17, 1558) was an English prelate, Archbishop of Canterbury, Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and...


Edward's religious laws were abolished by Mary's first Parliament in the Statute of Repeal Act (1553). Church doctrine was restored to the form they had taken in the 1547 Six Articles. The Six Articles of 1539 (short title ), also called the Bloody Statute and the Bloody Whip with Six Strings, was an Act of Parliament which reaffirmed Henry VIIIs general Catholicism. ...


Mary also persuaded Parliament to repeal the Protestant religious laws passed by Henry VIII. Getting their agreement took several years, and she had to make a major concession: tens of thousands of acres of monastery lands confiscated under Henry were not to be returned to the monasteries as the new landowners created by this distribution were very influential. This was approved by the Papacy in 1554. The Revival of the Heresy Acts were also passed in 1554. Mary also started currency reform to counteract the dramatic devaluation overseen by Thomas Gresham that had characterized the last few years of Henry's reign and the reign of Edward VI. These measures, however, were largely unsuccessful. In November 1554, the Revival of the Heresy Acts revived three former Acts against heresy; the letters patent of 1382 of King Richard II, an Act of 1401 of King Henry IV, and an Act of 1414 of King Henry V. All three of these laws had been repealed under... Portrait by Anthonis Mor, c. ...


Persecutions

Numerous microbe leaders were murdered in the Marian Persecutions. Many poor Protestants chose hanging and around 26 left the country. The first to die were John Rogers (4 February 1555), Laurence Saunders (8 February 1555), Rowland Taylor (9 February 1555), and John Hooper, the Bishop of Gloucester (9 February 1555). The persecution lasted for almost four years. 468 were executed for their faith. The Marian persecutions are commemorated especially by bonfires in the town of Lewes in Sussex: there is a prominent martyrs' memorial outside St John's church at Stratford, London, to those Protestants burnt in Essex, and others in Christchurch Park Ipswich and the abbey grounds, Bury St Edmunds, to those who suffered in East and West Suffolk respectively. Marian Persecutions refers to the persecutions of Protestants and dissenters under the Queen Mary I of England. ... John Rogers (c. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Laurence Saunders (1500s - February 8, 1555), was the son of Thomas Saunders and Margaret Cave of Harrington, Northamptonshire, England. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Rowland Taylor (October 6, 1510 - February 9, 1555) was an English Protestant martyr of the Tudor period. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... John Hooper (died February 9, 1555) was an English churchman, Bishop of Gloucester and Worcester and a Marian martyr. ... The Bishop of Gloucester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Gloucester in the Province of Canterbury. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland February 2 - Diet of Augsburg begins February 4 - John Rogers becomes first Protestant martyr in England February 9 - Bishop of Gloucester John Hooper is burned at the stake May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Marian Persecutions refers to the persecutions of Protestants and dissenters under the Queen Mary I of England. ... Members of the Lewes Borough Bonfire Society parade behind their banner wearing blue and white smugglers colours, as part of the torchlit procession on Bonfire Night in Lewes, Sussex. ... This is about Lewes in England. ... This article refers to the historic county in England. ... , Stratford, historically Stratford Langthorne, is a place in the London Borough of Newham in East London. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... Christchurch Park is a 70-acre area of rolling lawns, wooded areas, and delicately created arboreta in central Ipswich, Suffolk, England. ... For other uses, see Ipswich (disambiguation). ... , Bury St Edmunds is a town in the county of Suffolk, England, and was formerly the county town of West Suffolk. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ...


Foreign policy

Under Mary's reign, in another of the Plantations of Ireland, English colonists were settled in the Irish midlands to reduce the attacks on the Pale (the colony around Dublin). Two counties were created in Ireland and named Queen's County (now Laois) and King's County (now Offaly) in honor of her and Philip. The county town of Queen's County was called Maryborough (now Portlaoise). Plantations in 16th and 17th century Ireland were established throughout the country by the confiscation of lands occupied by Gaelic clans and Hiberno-Norman dynasties, but principally in the provinces of Munster and Ulster. ... The Irish midlands are made up of the central plain of Ireland. ... The Pale or the English Pale comprised a region in a radius of twenty miles around Dublin which the English in Ireland gradually fortified against incursion from Gaels. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Portlaoise Code: LS Area: 1,719 km² Population (2006) 69,012 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Tullamore Code: OY Area: 1,999 km² Population (2006) 70,604 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S465986 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 139m (459ft) Population (2006) 14,275  Portlaoise (older spelling Portlaoighise; former name Maryborough), is the county town of County Laois (formerly Queens County) in the midlands of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Having inherited the throne of Spain upon his father's abdication, Philip returned to England from March to July 1557 to persuade Mary to support Spain in a war against France (the Italian Wars). There was much opposition to declaring war on France. There existed an old alliance between Scotland and France; French trade would be jeopardized; and England had a distinct lack of finances due to a bad economic legacy from the reign of Edward VI. As a result of her agreement to declare war (which violated the carefully-written marriage treaty), England became full of factions and seditious pamphlets of Protestant origin inflaming the country against the Spaniards. English forces fared badly in the conflict and as a result lost Calais, England's sole remaining continental possession, on 13 January 1558. Although this territory had recently become financially burdensome, the effects of its loss were ideological. Mary later lamented that when she died the words "Philip" and "Calais" would be found inscribed on her heart. Combatants France, the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Italy (notably the Republic of Venice, the Duchy of Milan, the Kingdom of Naples, the Papal States, Florence, and the Duchy of Ferrara), England, Scotland, Spain, the Ottoman Empire, the Swiss, Saxony, and others The Italian Wars, often referred to as... Edward VI King of England and Ireland Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


Irish policy

Henry VIII's creation of the Kingdom of Ireland in 1542 was not recognized by Europe's Catholic powers. In 1555 Mary obtained a papal bull confirming that she and Philip were the monarchs of Ireland, and thereby the Church accepted the personal link between the kingdoms of Ireland and England. Furthering the Tudor Reconquest of Ireland, the midlands counties of Laois and Offaly were shired and named after the new monarchs respectively as "Queen's County" and "King's County". Their principal towns were respectively named Maryborough (now Portlaoise) and Philipstown (now Daingean). This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... A Papal bull is a particular type of patent or charter issued by a pope. ... The Tudor re-conquest of Ireland took place under the English Tudor dynasty during the 16th century. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Portlaoise Code: LS Area: 1,719 km² Population (2006) 69,012 Website: www. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Tullamore Code: OY Area: 1,999 km² Population (2006) 70,604 Website: www. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S465986 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 139m (459ft) Population (2006) 14,275  Portlaoise (older spelling Portlaoighise; former name Maryborough), is the county town of County Laois (formerly Queens County) in the midlands of the Republic of Ireland. ... Daingean is a small town in County Offaly, Ireland. ...


Trade and commerce

The most prominent problem was the decline of the Antwerp cloth trade. Despite Mary's marriage to the King of Spain, Philip II, England did not benefit from their enormously lucrative trade with the New World. The Spanish guarded their trading revenue jealously and Mary could not condone illegitimate trade (in the form of piracy) as she was married to a Spaniard. In an attempt to increase trade and rescue the English economy, Mary continued Northumberland's policy of seeking out new commercial ports outside Europe. The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... The title Duke of Northumberland was created in 1551 for John Dudley. ...


Revenue and customs

The immediate problem here concerned the reconciliation between a modern form of government - with correspondingly higher spending - with a medieval system of collecting taxation and dues. A failure to apply new tariffs to new forms of imports meant that a key source of revenue was neglected. In order to solve this problem, Mary's government published the 'Book of Rates' (1558), listing the tariffs and duties for every import. This publication was not reviewed until 1604. Mary also appointed William Paulet, the Marquis of Winchester as 'Surveyor of Customs' and assigned him to oversee the revenue collection system.


Death

During her reign, Mary's weak health led her to suffer two false pregnancies. After such a delusion in 1558, Mary decreed in her will that her husband Philip should be the regent during the minority of her child. No child, however, was born, and Mary died at the age of 42, most likely of ovarian cancer, at St. James's Palace on 17 November 1558. She was succeeded by her half-sister, who became Elizabeth I. Although her will stated that she wished to be buried next to her mother, Mary was interred in Westminster Abbey on 14 December in a tomb she would eventually share with Elizabeth. The Latin inscription on a marble plaque on their tomb (affixed there by James VI of Scotland when he succeeded Elizabeth to the throne of England as James I) translates to "Partners both in Throne and grave, here rest we two sisters, Elizabeth and Mary, in the hope of one resurrection". 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... This article is about the country. ... See James VI of Scotland and I of England James I of Scotland James I of Aragon James I of Sicily James I of Cyprus This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Queen Mary, by Hans Eworth
Queen Mary, by Hans Eworth

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1364 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 468 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1064 × 1364 pixel, file size: 274 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Categories: Stub | Flemish painters ...

Legacy

Although Mary enjoyed tremendous popular support and sympathy for her mistreatment during the earliest parts of her reign, she lost almost all of it after marrying Philip[citation needed]. The marriage treaty clearly specified that England was not to be drawn into any Spanish wars, but this guarantee proved meaningless. Philip spent most of his time governing his European territories, while his wife usually remained in England. After Mary's death, Philip became a suitor for Elizabeth's hand, but she refused him.


The persecution of Protestants earned Mary the appellation "Bloody Mary" although many historians believe Mary does not deserve all the blame. There is disagreement as to the number of people put to death during Mary's five-year reign. However, several notable clerics were executed; among them Thomas Cranmer, the former Archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley the former Bishop of London and the reformist Hugh Latimer. John Foxe vilified Mary in his Book of Martyrs, no doubt a somewhat biased account of the events, considering the high level of emotion at this time. Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books of Common Prayer which established the basic structure of Anglican liturgy for centuries and... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... There are two Nicholas Ridleys: Nicholas Ridley (martyr) Nicholas Ridley (politician) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Arms of the Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. ... Hugh Latimer (d. ... John Foxe, line engraving by George Glover, first published in the 1641 edition of Actes and Monuments John Foxe (1516–April 8, 1587) is remembered as the author of the famous Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ...


One popular tradition traces the nursery rhyme Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary to Mary's attempts to bring Roman Catholicism back to England, although it may well be about her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots. A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ... William Wallace Denslows rendition of the poem, 1901 Mistress Mary, according to Denslow Mary, Mary, Quite Contrary is an English nursery rhyme; an alternate first line is Mistress Mary, quite contrary. ... Mary, Queen of Scots is the name of: Mary I of Scotland, the former queen of France and Scotland executed by her cousin Elizabeth I of England Mary, Queen of Scots (movie), a 1971 film about that queen starring Vanessa Redgrave Mary, Queen of Scots (1969 book), a 1969 book...


Style and arms

Arms of Mary I, quartered with those of her husband, Philip II
Arms of Mary I, quartered with those of her husband, Philip II

Like Henry VIII and Edward VI, Mary used the style "Majesty", as well as "Highness" and "Grace". "Majesty", which Henry VIII first used on a consistent basis, did not become exclusive until the reign of Elizabeth I's successor, James I. Image File history File links England_Arms_1554-1558. ... Image File history File links England_Arms_1554-1558. ... Quartering in heraldry is a method of joining several different coats of arms together in one shield by dividing the shield into not more than four equal parts and placing different coats of arms in each division. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


When Mary ascended the throne, she was proclaimed under the same official style as Henry VIII and Edward VI: "Mary, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of the Church of England and also of Ireland in Earth Supreme Head". The "supremacy phrase" at the end of the style was repugnant to Mary's Roman Catholic faith; from 1554 onwards, she omitted the phrase without statutory authority, which was not retroactively granted by Parliament until 1555. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... // Fidei defensor is the Latin original of the English and French titles. ... The Church of England logo since 1996. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ...


Under Mary's marriage treaty with Philip II of Spain, the couple were jointly styled Queen and King. The official joint style reflected not only Mary's but also Philip's dominions and claims; it was "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God, King and Queen of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, Chile and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Princes of Spain and Sicily, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Milan, Burgundy and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol". This style, which had been in use since 1554, was replaced when Philip inherited the Spanish Crown in 1556 with "Philip and Mary, by the Grace of God King and Queen of England, Spain, France, Jerusalem, both the Sicilies and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Burgundy, Milan and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol". Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Union with Sicily 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland of southern Italy after of the secession... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Look up Archduke in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page lists rulers of Milan from the 13th century to the present. ... Cross of Burgundy Flag The Duchy of Burgundy, today Bourgogne, has its origin in the small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Balds kingdom of West Franks. ... Coat of arms of Dukes of Brabant The Duchy of Brabant was formally erected in 1183/1184. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and...


Mary I's arms were the same as those used by all her predecessors since Henry IV: Quarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lys Or [for France] and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or [for England]. Sometimes, Mary's arms were impaled (depicted side-by-side) with those of her husband. Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ...


Ancestors

+Mary I's ancestors in three generations
Mary I Father:
Henry VIII of England
Paternal Grandfather:
Henry VII of England
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Lady Margaret Beaufort
Paternal Grandmother:
Elizabeth of York
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Edward IV of England
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Elizabeth Woodville
Mother:
Catherine of Aragon
Maternal Grandfather:
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John II of Aragon
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Juana Enríquez
Maternal Grandmother:
Isabella of Castile
Maternal Great-grandfather:
John II of Castile
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Infanta Isabel of Portugal

Henry VIII redirects here. ... The Tudor Rose: a combination of the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), born Henry Tudor, was the first monarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond (~1430-November 1, 1456) was the father of King Henry VII of England. ... Margaret Beaufort, Mother of Henry VII, at prayer, by an anonymous artist, about 1500 Margaret Beaufort (May 31, 1443 – June 29, 1509) was the daughter of John Beaufort, 1st Duke of Somerset, granddaughter of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt and his mistress... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Elizabeth Woodville or Wydville (c. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... John II the Great (June 29, 1397 – January 20, 1479) was the King of Aragon (1458–1479) and a King of Navarre (1425–1479). ... Juana Enriquez (1425-1468), was John II of Aragons second wife. ... Isabella I of Castile (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Juan II (March 6, 1405 – July 20, 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Media portrayals

  • Mark Twain's "The Prince and the Pauper" includes a monstrous depiction of Mary before her accession: "When his royal 'sister,' the grimly holy Lady Mary, set herself to reason with him against the wisdom of his course in pardoning so many people who would otherwise be jailed, or hanged, or burned (...) the boy [pauper pretending to be King Edward VI] was filled with generous indignation, and commanded her to go to her closet, and beseech God to take away the stone that was in her breast, and give her a human heart."
  • Ann Tyrrell made a cameo appearance as Mary in the movie Young Bess (1953).
  • Nicola Pagett played her in the 1969 film Anne of the Thousand Days where she made a brief appearance in a scene showing Catherine of Aragon's death. In reality, Mary was not present at the time.
  • In 1971, the BBC broadcast the six-part television series The Six Wives of Henry VIII. In the first part, "Catherine of Aragon", the young Princess Mary was portrayed by Verina Greenlaw. She reappeared, played by Alison Frazer, in the third part, "Jane Seymour", and in the sixth, "Catherine Parr". The success of this series led to a sequel, Elizabeth R, where the middle-aged Mary was played by Daphne Slater.
  • In the 1985 movie Lady Jane she was portrayed by Jane Lapotaire.
  • In 1998, she was portrayed by Kathy Burke in the lavish costume drama Elizabeth.
  • In 2003, Lara Belmont played her in the British television drama Henry VIII.
  • In 2005 Joanne Whalley portrayed her in the BBC drama The Virgin Queen.
  • In The Tudors (2007), Mary Tudor was portrayed as a young girl at the time of Henry's fascination with Anne Boleyn.
  • In the novel Elizabeth I: Red Rose of the House of Tudor, part of the juvenile historical-fiction series The Royal Diaries, Mary is a prominent character and is portrayed as a bitter rival to her half-sister Elizabeth.
  • Sarah Bolger will portray her in as a teenager in the upcoming series of The Tudors

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... The Prince and the Pauper was first published in 1881 in Canada before its 1882 publication in the united states. ... Edward VI King of England and Ireland Edward VI (12 October 1537–6 July 1553) was King of England and King of Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. ... Young Bess is a 1953 film about the early career of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Nicola Pagett (born June 15, 1945 in Cairo, Egypt) is a British actress. ... Anne of the Thousand Days is an Academy Award-winning 1969 costume drama made by Hal Wallis Productions and distributed by Universal Pictures. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with The Six Wives of Henry VIII (documentary), a more recent Channel 4 documentary series on the subject by David Starkey. ... Glenda Jackson as Elizabeth I Elizabeth R is a BBC television drama serial that was broadcast in six, 85 minute parts on terrestrial channel BBC Two from February to March 1971. ... Lady Jane Lady Jane is a film, first released in the United Kingdom on February 7, 1986, that tells the story of Lady Jane Grey, the Nine Days Queen. ... Jane Lapotaire (born 26 December 1944) is a British actress born in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. ... Kathy Burke (born June 13, 1964) is a British actress. ... Elizabeth is a 1998 movie about the early reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Lara Belmont (born in Oxford, England) is a British actress, most famous for her role as Jessie in the 1999 film The War Zone. ... Joanne Whalley (born August 25, 1964 ) ) is a British actress. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tudors is an Emmy Award-nominated television series that examines the early reign of Henry VIII, with Jonathan Rhys Meyers in the lead role. ... The Royal Diaries is a series of twenty books published by Scholastic Press from 1999 to 2005. ... Sarah Bolger in In America Sarah Bolger in Stormbreaker Sarah Bolger (born 28 February 1991 in Dublin, Ireland) is an Irish actress. ... The Tudors is an Emmy Award-nominated television series that examines the early reign of Henry VIII, with Jonathan Rhys Meyers in the lead role. ...

See also

The Pilgrimage of Grace was a popular rising in Northern England in 1536, in protest against Englands break with Rome and the Dissolution of the Monasteries, as well as other specific political, social and economic grievances. ... The Marian martyrs were Protestants executed for their beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Tudors: Mary I. The Royal Household. Retrieved on 31 October 2006.

is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Further reading

Non-fiction

  • Erickson, Carolly. Bloody Mary: The Life of Mary Tudor. (June 1993) ISBN 0-688-11641-8
  • Hugo, Victor. Mary Tudor: A Drama. ISBN 1-58963-478-0
  • Loades, David M. Mary Tudor: A Life. (March 1992) ISBN 0-631-18449-X
  • Loades, David M. The Reign of Mary Tudor: Politics, Government & Religion in England, 1553-58. (May 1991) ISBN 0-582-05759-0
  • McHarque, Georgess. Queen in Waiting: A Life of "Bloody Mary" Tudor. (June 2004) ISBN 0-595-31254-3
  • Porter, Linda Mary Tudor: The First Queen. (October 2007) ISBN 978-0-7499-5144-3
  • Prescott, H. F. M. Mary Tudor: The Spanish Tudor. (October 2003) ISBN 1-84212-625-3
  • Ridley, Jasper. Bloody Mary's Martyrs: The Story of England's Terror. (July 2002) ISBN 0-7867-0986-3
  • Slavicek, Louise Chipley. Bloody Mary (History's Villains). (July 2005) ISBN 1-4103-0581-3
  • Waldman, Milton. The Lady Mary: a biography of Mary Tudor, 1516-1558. (1972) ISBN 0-00-211486-0
  • Weir, Alison. "The Children of Henry VIII. (1996)
  • Whitelock, Anna. 'Mary: the first queen of England' (bloomsbury forthcoming)
  • Deary, Terry. "The Terrible Tudors". ISBN 0-590-55290-2
  • Deary, Terry. "Even More Terrible Tudors". ISBN 0-590-11254-6

Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Linda Porter was born in Exeter, Devon. ... Hilda Francis Margaret Prescott (1896 - 1972) H F M Prescott, FRSL, author, academic and historian, was born Feb 22, 1896, the daughter of Rev James Mulleneux Prescott and Margaret Prescott (nee Warburton). ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ...

Fiction

  • The short appearance of the future Queen Mary in Mark Twain's The Prince and the Pauper had a considerable influence on her negative image, given the enduring popularity of Twain's work. His depiction of her as a cold and cruel person seems to connected both to Twain's outspoken atheism and to the strong anti-Catholic prejudice prevalent in American society at the time of writing.
  • Ainsworth, William Harrison. The Tower of London. London, J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd.; New York, E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc. [1946], 455 p.
  • Baker, Kage. In The Garden of Iden. (December 2005) ISBN 0-7653-1457-6 (listed as science fiction, as it involves time travel)
  • Churchill, Rosemary. Daughter of Henry VIII. (May 1978) ISBN 0-523-40325-9
  • Dukthas, Ann. In the Time of the Poisoned Queen. (February 1998) ISBN 0-312-18030-6
  • Feather, Jane. Kissed by Shadows. (February 2003) ISBN 0-553-58308-5
  • Gregory, Philippa. The Queen's Fool. (November 2004) ISBN 0-7432-6982-9 makes an effort to revise her long-lasting horrific image and show her through the eyes of a devoted and loving servant - without hiding the horror of the persecutions
  • Irwin, Margaret. Trilogy: Young Bess, Elizabeth, Captive Princess and Elizabeth and the Prince of Spain.
  • Lewis, Hilda. I Am Mary Tudor ISBN 0-446-78017-0, Mary the Queen ISBN 0-09-116030-8, and Bloody Mary (1973), a trilogy.
  • Meyer, Carolyn Mary, Bloody Mary. (April 2001) ISBN 0-15-216456-1 (Juvenile Fiction, ages 11 and up)
  • Parkes, Patricia. Queen's Lady. (May 1981) ISBN 0-312-66008-1
  • Plaidy, Jean. In the Shadow of the Crown: The Tudor Queens. (May 2004) ISBN 0-609-81019-7
  • Dunnett, Dorothy. "The Ringed Castle" includes a sympathetic portrayal of Mary's marriage and pregnancies
  • "Queen Mary" by Alfred Tennyson - full online text
  • Santiago Sevilla. Dracula and the Bloody Mary: A Tragicomedy, published in Liceus El Portal de las Humanidades. (Liceus.com)
  • Innocent Traitor by Alison Weir (2007).

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... The Prince and the Pauper was first published in 1881 in Canada before its 1882 publication in the united states. ... Caricature from Punch, 1881: TO THE GREATEST AXE-AND-NECK-ROMANCER OF OUR TIME, WHO IS QUITE AT THE HEAD OF HIS PROFESSION, WE DEDICATE THIS BLOCK AD MULTOS ANNOS! William Harrison Ainsworth (1805 - 1882) was a British writer. ... Kage Baker is an American science fiction and fantasy writer, best known for her The Company series of historical time travel science fiction. ... In the Garden of Iden is a 1997 novel by Kage Baker. ... Paul C. Doherty (1946) is a British writer, with a doctorate in history from Oxford, who writes historical mysteries and novels under the pennames Anna Apostolou, Michael Clynes, Ann Dukthas, C. L. Grace, Paul Harding, and Mollie Hardwick. ... Jane Feather was born in Cairo, Egypt, and grew up in New Forest, in the south of England. ... Philippa Gregory (born 9 January 1954) is a British novelist, mainly associated with the historical fiction genre. ... Carolyn Meyer (b. ... Jean Plaidy was a pen name of British author Eleanor Hibbert, also known as Philippa Carr and Victoria Holt. ... Dorothy Dunnett (August 25, 1923 – November 9, 2001) was a Scottish historical novelist. ... Innocent Traitor is a historical novel by Alison Weir, published in 2007. ... Alison Weir (born 1951) is a British writer of history books for the general public, mostly in the form of biographies about British kings and queens. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mary I of England
Mary I of England
Born: 18 February 1516 Died: 17 November 1558
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Jane
Queen of England
Queen of Ireland

19 July 1553 – 17 November 1558
Succeeded by
Elizabeth I
English royalty
Preceded by
Margaret Tudor
Heir to the English Throne
as heiress presumptive
18 February 1516 – March 1534
Succeeded by
Lady Elizabeth Tudor
Preceded by
Edward, Prince of Wales
Heir to the English and Irish Thrones
as heiress presumptive
28 January 1547 – 21 June 1553
Succeeded by
Lady Jane Grey
Preceded by
Isabella of Portugal
Titular Duchess consort of Burgundy,
Duchess Consort of Brabant, Limburg, Lothier and Luxembourg
Countess Consort of Flanders, Burgundy, Artois, Hainaut, Namur, Holland, Zeeland and Zutphen

16 January 1556 – 17 November 1558
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Valois
Spanish royalty
Preceded by
Isabella of Portugal
Queen Consort of Castile and Leon,
Queen Consort of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia and Sicily
Countess Consort of Barcelona

16 January 175617 November 1558
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Valois
Italian royalty
Preceded by
Isabella of Portugal
Queen Consort of Naples
1554 – 17 November 1558
Succeeded by
Elisabeth of Valois

Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ...


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