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Encyclopedia > Mary (mother of Jesus)
Mary of Nazareth

Mary, Virgin of the Passion

Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, Egypt, 16th century “Our Lady” redirects here. ... Virgin Mary may refer to: In religion: Mary (mother of Jesus), the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, also known as Saint Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary In other... Besides the Virgin Mary, there are other saints named Saint Mary. ... Image File history File links Icon of the Virgin Mary, 16th century. ... St. ... For the Biblical Mount Sinai, and a discussion of its possible locations, see Biblical Mount Sinai. ...

Blessed Virgin Mary

Theotokos ("Mother of God") Saint Mary

Born unknown; celebrated 8 September,
Died unknown; See Assumption of Mary
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, Anglo-Catholicism, and certain Protestant denominations
Major shrine see Shrines to the Virgin Mary
Feast Mary is commemorated on as many as 25 different days. The most universally observed are:

25 March - The Annunciation 15 August - The Assumption The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... In the culture and practice of some Christian Churches - mainly, but not solely, the Roman Catholic Church - a shrine to the Virgin Mary or Marian shrine is a shrine marking an apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary, or a site on which is centered a historically... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Saints Portal

Mary (Judeo-Aramaic: מרים, Maryām, from Hebrew Miriam), called since medieval times Madonna (My Lady), resident in Nazareth in Galilee, is known from the New Testament[1] as the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, whom as a young maiden she had conceived by the agency of the Holy Spirit whilst she was already the betrothed wife of Joseph of the House of David and awaiting their imminent formal "Home-taking" ceremony (the concluding Jewish wedding rite). To many believers the accounts in the canonical "Birth narratives" suggest that she had still been a virgin at the time of the child's conception as well as at his birth.[2] The New Testament also recounts her presence at important stages during her son's adult life and in the early Church (e.g. at the Wedding at Cana, at his crucifixion, during communal prayers in the Upper Room). Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The word Miriam has more than one meaning: Miriam was the sister of Moses, first mentioned in the Book of Exodus, in the Hebrew Bible. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ... For other uses, see Saint Joseph (disambiguation). ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... In Roman times, Vestal Virgins were strictly celibate or they were punished by death. ... In the Christian New Testament, the Gospel of John refers a number of times to a town called Cana of Galilee. ...


Stories of her life are further elaborated in later Christian apocryphal and Islamic traditions, their best known detail being the alleged names of her parents: Joachim and Anne. In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ... For other persons named Joachim, see Joachim (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mother of the Virgin Mary. ...


Christian churches teach various doctrines concerning Mary, and she is the subject of much veneration. The area of Christian theology concerning her is known as Mariology. The conception of her son Jesus is believed to have been an act of the Holy Spirit, and to fulfill the prophecy of Isaiah that a virgin (or maiden) would bear a son who would be called Immanuel ("God with us").[3] The Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches venerate her as the Ever-Virgin Mother of God (Theotokos), who was specially favoured by God's grace (Catholics hold that she was conceived without original sin) and, when her earthly life had been completed, was assumed into Heaven. Some Protestants, including certain Anglicans, Methodists and Lutherans, embrace veneration of Mary and also hold some of these doctrines. Others, especially in the Reformed tradition, question or even condemn the devotional and doctrinal position of Mary in the above traditions. Mary also holds a revered position in Islam. Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Link title Immanuel is also a town in Israel, near Ariel. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... -1...

Moses and the Burning Bush by Nicolas Froment (1476) showing the apparition in the Burning Bush as the Blessed Virgin in a bower of flaming roses.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x1045, 162 KB)Moses and The Burning Bush, Nicholas Froment, 1476 Central panel of tryptich for Rene of Provence Cathedrale Saint Sauveur, Aix-en-Provence File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x1045, 162 KB)Moses and The Burning Bush, Nicholas Froment, 1476 Central panel of tryptich for Rene of Provence Cathedrale Saint Sauveur, Aix-en-Provence File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Triptych of the Burning Bush, by Nicolas Froment, in Aix Cathedral Nicolas Froment (c. ...

Titles

Our Lady of Vladimir, one of the holiest medieval representations of the Theotokos.
Main articles: Blessed Virgin Mary and Theotokos

Mary's most common titles include The Blessed Virgin Mary (also abbreviated to "BVM"), Our Lady (Notre Dame, Nuestra Señora, Nossa Senhora, Madonna), Mother of God, and the Queen of Heaven (Regina Caeli). Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Theotokos of Vladimir Our Lady of Vladimir, more accurately termed the Virgin of Vladimir or the Theotokos of Vladimir (Russian: Владимирская Богоматерь) is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ... “Our Lady” redirects here. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Russian Orthodox Icon of the Theotokos Theotokos is a Greek word that means God-bearer or Mother of God. It is a title assigned by the early Christian Church to Mary, the mother of Jesus, at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. ... Queen of Heaven is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Roman Catholicism. ...


Mary is referred to by the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy and all Eastern Catholic Churches as Theotokos, a title recognized at the Third Ecumenical Council (held at Ephesus to address the teachings of Nestorius, in 431). Theotokos (and its Latin equivalents, "Deipara" and "Dei genetrix") literally means "Godbearer". The equivalent phrase "Mater Dei" (Mother of God) is more common in Latin and so also in the other languages used in the Western Catholic Church, but this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form of the first and last letter of the two words (ΜΡ ΘΥ), is the indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons. The Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God",[4] so as to emphasize that Mary's child, Jesus Christ, is in fact God. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Nestorius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ...


Ancient Sources

New Testament

Little is known of Mary's personal history from the New Testament. She was a relative of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who herself was of the lineage of Aaron and so of the tribe of Levi.[5] In spite of this, some speculate that Mary, like Joseph, to whom she was betrothed, was of the House of David and so of the tribe of Judah, and that the genealogy presented in Luke was hers, while Joseph's is given in Matthew.[6] She resided at Nazareth in Galilee, presumably with her parents, and during her betrothal – the first stage of a Jewish marriage - the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit.[7] When Joseph was told of her conception in a dream by "an angel of the Lord", he was surprised; but the angel told him to be unafraid and take her as his wife, which Joseph did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites.[8] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3200x2234, 728 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fra Angelico Mary (mother of Jesus) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3200x2234, 728 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fra Angelico Mary (mother of Jesus) ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... The Maestà (Madonna enthroned) with Saints Cosmas and Damian, Saint Mark and Saint John, Saint Lawrence and three Dominicans, Saint Dominic, Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Peter Martyr; San Marco, Florence. ... In the first chapter of the Book of Luke in the New Testament, Elisabeth (Hebrew אֱלִישֶׁבַע / אֱלִישָׁבַע My God is oath, Standard Hebrew Elišévaʿ / Elišáva... According to the Gospel of Luke, Zechariah (Zacharias in the King James Version of the Bible) was a priest of the line of Abijah, during the reign of King Herod the Great, and was the father of John the Baptist and husband of Elizabeth, a woman from the priestly family... Abijah means father (i. ... The description Daughter of Aaron is given to several women in the New Testament, among them Elisabeth, mother of John the Baptist. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ...

Visitation, from Altarpiece of the Virgin (St Vaast Altarpiece) by Jacques Daret

Since the angel had told Mary that Elizabeth, having previously been barren, was now miraculously pregnant, Mary hurried to visit Elizabeth, who was living with her husband Zechariah in a city of Judah "in the hill country".[9] Once Mary arrived at the house and greeted Elizabeth, Elizabeth proclaimed Mary as "the mother of [her] Lord", and Mary recited a song of thanksgiving commonly known as the Magnificat from its first word in Latin.[10] After three months, Mary returned to her house.[11] According to the Gospel of Luke, a decree of the Roman emperor Augustus required that Joseph and his betrothed should proceed to Bethlehem for an enrollment, see Census of Quirinius. While they were there, Mary gave birth to Jesus; but because there was no place for them in the inn, she had to use a manger as a cradle.[12] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (899x972, 190 KB)Visitation, from Altarpiece of the Virgin (St Vaast Altarpiece) by Jacques Daret c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (899x972, 190 KB)Visitation, from Altarpiece of the Virgin (St Vaast Altarpiece) by Jacques Daret c. ... The Visitation, from Altarpiece of the Virgin by Jacques Daret, 1434-1435. ... The Visitation is a Catholic feast day (2 July) commemorating the visit of the Virgin Mary to Elizabeth as recorded in the Gospel of Luke. ... The Visitation in the Book of Hours of the Duc of Berry For the David and the Giants album, see Magnificat (album) The Magnificat (also known as the Song of Mary) is a canticle frequently sung (or said) liturgically in Christian church services. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... The Census of Quirinius refers to the enrollment of the Roman Provinces of Syria and Iudaea for the purpose of taxation taken during the reign of the Roman Emperor Augustus when Publius Sulpicius Quirinius was appointed governor of Syria. ... Manger: A person that stands for freedom and all that is right, wants to be a god person against others, And you can call him a Funfreak A manger is a trough or box of carved stone or wood construction used to hold food for animals (as in a stable). ...


After eight days, the boy was circumcised and named Jesus, in accordance with the instructions that the "angel of the Lord" had given to Joseph after the Annunciation to Mary. These customary ceremonies were followed by Jesus' presentation to the Lord at the Temple in Jerusalem in accordance with the law for firstborn males, then the visit of the Magi, the family's flight into Egypt, their return after the death of King Herod the Great about 2/1 BC and taking up residence in Nazareth.[13] Mary apparently remained in Nazareth for some thirty years. She is involved in the only event in Jesus' adolescent life that is recorded in the New Testament: at the age of twelve, Jesus having become separated from his parents on their return journey from the Passover celebration in Jerusalem was found among the teachers in the temple.[14] Probably some time between this event and the opening of Jesus' public ministry Mary was widowed, for Joseph is not mentioned again. The Feast of the Circumcision of Our Lord is a feast day formerly celebrated by the Roman Catholic Church on 1 January as a holy day of obligation (a day on which Catholics must attend Mass). ... For other uses, see Magi (disambiguation). ... Herod the Great. ... Pasch redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

"Marriage at Cana" by Giotto

After Jesus' baptism by John the Baptist and his temptations by the devil in the desert, Mary was present when Jesus worked his first public miracle at the marriage in Cana by turning water into wine at her intercession.[15] Subsequently there are events when Mary is present along with Jesus' "brothers" (James, Joseph, Simon and Judas) and unnamed "sisters".[16] Mary is also depicted as being present during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with her sister Mary of Clopas (possibly identical with the mother of James the younger and Joseph mentioned in Matthew 27:55, cf. Mark 15:40), and Mary Magdalene (John 19:25-26), to which list Matthew 27:56 adds "the mother of the sons of Zebedee", presumably the Salome mentioned in Mark 15:40, and other women who had followed Jesus from Galilee and ministered to him (mentioned in Matthew and Mark). Mary, cradling the dead body of her Son, while not recorded in the Gospel accounts, is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "pity". Image File history File links Giotto_-_Scrovegni_-_-24-_-_Marriage_at_Cana. ... Image File history File links Giotto_-_Scrovegni_-_-24-_-_Marriage_at_Cana. ... There are several things that have been named Giotto: Giotto di Bondone an Italian painter. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Bold text St. ... This article refers to a place mentioned in the New Testament. ... Marriage at Cana The Marriage at Cana is an event reported by the Gospel of John but not by any of the Synoptic Gospels. ... Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... This article is about the disciple of Jesus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A pietà (pl. ...


According to Acts, Mary is the only one of about 120 people gathered, after the Ascension, in the Upper Room on the occasion of the election of Matthias to the vacancy of Judas, to be mentioned by name, other than the twelve Apostles and the candidates (Acts 1:12-26, especially v. 14; though it is said that "the women" and Jesus' "brothers" were there as well, their names are not given. From this time, she disappears from the Biblical accounts, although it is held by some Christian groups that she is again portrayed as the heavenly Woman of Revelation (Revelation 12:1). The Acts of the Apostles is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... Cenacle is the traditional Latin term for the Upper Room, or the site of The Last Supper. ... Saint Matthias is the Apostle chosen by the remaining eleven apostles to replace Judas Iscariot, following Judas betrayal of Jesus and suicide (Acts 1:21 - 26). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Her death is not recorded in Scripture.


Ancient Non-Christian Sources

The Church Father Origen wrote an apologetic work refuting the claims of Celsus, a late second-century eclectic Greek philosopher and polemic writer against Christianity. Preserved in Origen's work is the claim of Celsus that Jesus was an illegitimate child of a certain Roman soldier named Panthera from Mary, who had been turned out by her husband because she was convicted of unfaithfulness.[17] These claims are related to the references in the Talmud to the figure of Ben-Pandera.[citation needed] According to the early third century Acts of Pilate, a Christian apocryphal work, the elders of the Jews stated to Pilate during the trial of Jesus that he had been conceived through fornication.[18] Tiberius Iulius Abdes Pantera (c. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article is about references to the name Yeshu in classical Jewish rabbinic literature. ... The Acts of Pilate (Latin Acta Pilati) is a book of the New Testament apocrypha. ...


Later Christian writings and traditions

According to the Gospel of James, which, though not part of the New Testament, contains stories about Mary considered "plausible" by some Orthodox and Catholic Christians, she was the daughter of Joachim and Anna. Before Mary's conception, Anna had been barren, and her parents were quite old when she was conceived. They gave her to service as a consecrated virgin in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much like Hannah took Samuel to the Tabernacle as recorded in the Old Testament (Tanakh, Hebrew Bible). This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ...

Filippo F. Venuti (1896), L'Assunzione della Vergine.

According to tradition, Mary died while surrounded by the apostles (in either Jerusalem or Ephesus) between three and fifteen years after Christ's ascension. When the apostles later opened her tomb they found it empty and concluded that she had been bodily assumed into Heaven. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (550 × 786 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (550 × 786 pixel, file size: 102 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


The House of the Virgin Mary near Ephesus, Turkey is believed by some to be the place where Mary lived until her assumption into Heaven. The Gospel of John states that Mary went to live with the Disciple whom Jesus loved (John 19:27), who is traditionally identified as John the Apostle. Irenaeus and Eusebius of Caesarea wrote in their histories that John went later to Ephesus,[19] which may provide the basis for the early belief that Mary also lived in Ephesus with John. Pope John Paul II visited the House of the Virgin Mary in 1979. ... Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K... Jesus and the Beloved Disciple, polychromed and gilded wood, c 1320 The phrase the disciple whom Jesus loved or Beloved Disciple is used several times in the Gospel of John, but in none of the other accounts of Jesus. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ...


"Mary's Tomb", a tomb in Jerusalem, is attributed to Mary, but it was unknown until the 6th century. A tomb in the Kedron Valley attributed to Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Mary in the Qur'an

And We Made son of Mary and his mother a Sign ... ([Qur'an 23:50]) This article is about the Islamic perspective on Mary. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Mary, mother of Jesus, enjoys a singularly distinguished and honored position amongst women in the Qur'an: The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


She is the only woman directly named in the Book; declared (uniquely along with Jesus) to be a Ayat Allah or Sign of God to mankind [Qur'an 23:50]}; as one who "guarded her chastity" [Qur'an 66:20]; an obedient one [Qur'an 66:12]; chosen of her mother and dedicated to Allah whilst still in the womb to God [Qur'an 3:36]; uniquely (amongst women) Accepted into service by Allah [Qur'an 3:37]; cared for by (one of the prophets as per Islam) Zakariya (Zacharias) [Qur'an 3:37]; that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al-Mihrab (understood to be the Holy of Holies), and was provided with heavenly 'provisions' by Allah [Qur'an 3:37]; a Chosen One [Qur'an 3:42]; a Purified One [Qur'an 3:42]; a Truthful one [Qur'an 5:75]; a fulfillment of Prophecy [Qur'an 66:12]; a vessel for the Spirit of God breathed into her [Qur'an 66:12]; her child conceived through "a Word from God" [Qur'an 3:45]; and "exalted above all women of The Worlds/Universes" [Qur'an 3:42]. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Zəḫarya, Tiberian Hebrew Zəḵaryāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. ... A Holy of Holies is the most sacred place within a sacred building. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The Qur'an relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places Sura 3 and Sura 91 [Qur'an 3:35] and [Qur'an 91:16]. Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


The account given in Sura 19 [Qur'an 19:1] The Qur'an is nearly identical with that in the Gospel according to Luke, and both of these (Luke, Sura 19) begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya (Zecharias) and Good News of the birth of Yahya (John), followed by the account of the annunciation. Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ...


The account in Sura 3[Qur'an 3:1] of the Qur'an tracks the accounts in Apocrypha, namely the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew and the Gospel of James, regarding the use of "rods" to determine a guardian/husband after she reached the age of puberty [Qur'an 3:44], and, the account of the scandal caused upon the discovery of her with child [Qur'an 19:27], neither of which are recorded in the canonical Gospels. Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Apocrypha (from the Greek word , meaning those having been hidden away[1]) are texts of uncertain authenticity or writings where the authorship is questioned. ... The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew is a part of the New Testament apocrypha, and sometimes goes by the name of The Infancy Gospel of Matthew. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Christian and Muslim Marian Doctrines

The Birth of the Virgin, by Francisco de Zurbarán

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2668, 352 KB) Description: Title: de: Geburt der Jungfrau Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 141 × 109 cm Country of origin: de: Spanien Current location (city): de: Los Angeles Current location (gallery): de: Princeton University Other notes: de: Urspr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2668, 352 KB) Description: Title: de: Geburt der Jungfrau Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 141 × 109 cm Country of origin: de: Spanien Current location (city): de: Los Angeles Current location (gallery): de: Princeton University Other notes: de: Urspr. ... Francisco Zurbarán (November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664), was a Spanish painter, born at Fuente de Cantos in Extremadura. ...

Immaculate Conception of Mary

Main article: Immaculate Conception

Roman Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary, namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. The Roman Rite of the Catholic Church has a liturgical feast by that name, kept on 8 December. Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... The Feast of the Immaculate Conception Originally called the Conception of Mary; under the name of Immaculate Conception, the observance in the West celebrates the Roman Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ...


The corresponding feast in other rites may go by other names, such as, in the Byzantine Rite, the Feast of the Conception by St. Anna of the Most Holy Theotokos. However, the dogma of the Immaculate Conception is part of the teaching of the Catholic Church, and the title of "The Immaculate Conception" has been given to many Eastern Catholic church buildings, including the cathedral in Detroit of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.[20] The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The Feast of the Immaculate Conception Originally called the Conception of Mary; under the name of Immaculate Conception, the observance in the West celebrates the Roman Catholic dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is a successor church to the acceptance of Christianity by Prince Volodymyr (also Vladimir) in Kyiv (Kiev), in 988. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ...


Eastern Orthodox tend to reject the Immaculate Conception, principally because their understanding of ancestral sin (the Greek term corresponding to the Latin "original sin") differs[citation needed] from that of the Roman Catholic Church, but also on the basis that without original sin (i.e. fallen human nature), Mary would have likewise been separated from the rest of us by a special condition. Some Orthodox believe that Mary was conceived like any one of us, inherited the sin of Adam, but was cleansed from it when Christ (God incarnate) took form within her. This, coupled with the belief that she never committed any sin made her the perfect vessel. Nevertheless, this remains an area on which the Orthodox Church has not made any definitive statement, so a variety of views may be found.


Most Protestants[citation needed] reject the idea that Mary was saved from sin from her very first moment, since this is impossible according to Protestant theology and, in their view, lacks scriptural warrant. Catholics may argue[citation needed] that nothing is impossible by God, and the Annunciation seems to imply she was perserved without sin.


Virgin Birth of Jesus

Mary, depicted as Virgin of Guadalupe
Main article: Virgin Birth of Jesus

The Apostles' Creed and Nicene Creed both refer to Mary as "the Virgin Mary". This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit, and not through intercourse with Joseph or anyone else. That she was a virgin at this time is affirmed by Eastern Christianity, Roman Catholicism and many Protestants. Rejection of this is considered heretical by virtually all traditional Christian groups. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (788x1233, 253 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (788x1233, 253 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Apostles... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 7:14. The Hebrew word almah that appears in this verse, and the Greek word parthenos that Jews used to translate it in the Greek Septuagint that Matthew quotes here, have been the subjects of dispute for almost two millennia. This disagreement is related to the question of whether Isaiah 7:14 is a prophecy of Jesus' birth. Regardless of the meaning of this verse, it is clear that the authors of the Gospels of Matthew and Luke consider Jesus' conception not the result of intercourse and assert that Mary had "no relations with man" before Jesus' birth.[21] The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ...


People who are neither Christian nor Muslim generally doubt that Mary was a virgin when she gave birth to Jesus. In the second century, the polemicist Celsus (recorded in Origen's Contra Celsum 1.28-32) claimed that Mary had relations with a Roman soldier and then married Joseph who protected her from the harsh Jewish laws of the time which would have sentenced her to death by stoning for such an act.[22] Celsus (Greek: ) was a 2nd century Greek philosopher and opponent of Christianity. ... Contra Celsus, or (probably better Latin) Contra Celsum, is the title of a major work by the Church Father Origenes, refutating the anti-christian writings of Celsus the Platonist. ...


Some scholars of the historical Jesus deny the Virgin Birth, regarding the nativity of Jesus to be an early Christian story invented to liken Jesus to Moses (the Massacre of the Innocents) and to show him fulfilling prophecy (the return from Egypt, etc.). Fellows of the Jesus Seminar almost unanimously agreed that Mary conceived Jesus through natural means, namely sexual intercourse with a man. They speculate that the father could have been "Joseph or some unknown male who either seduced or raped the young Mary".[23] This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... The Jesus Seminar is a research team of about 200 New Testament scholars founded in 1985 by the late Robert Funk and John Dominic Crossan under the auspices of the Westar Institute. ...


Other scholars, such as Bart D. Ehrman, suggest the historical method can never comment on the likelihood of supernatural occurrences. While parthenogenesis (virginal conception) is not unknown in lower animals, it does not occur naturally in human beings or other mammals, and produces females only, genetical clones of the mother. Bart D. Ehrman is a New Testament scholar and an expert on early Christianity. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth. ...


As Mary is portrayed as a model for Christians, her being both a virgin and a mother is showing God giving us two choices: to remain chaste (the Holy Orders) or to become parents.


Virgin birth of Jesus in the Qur'an

The Qur'an says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Sura 3 and 19 of The Qur'an wherein it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin: Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ...

(Remember) When the angels said O Mary! Allah Gives thee Good News of a son through a Word from Him! His name shall be the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, honoured in this world and in the next, and of those who Are Granted Nearness to Allah! (3.45)

And he shall speak to the people in the cradle, and when of middle age, and he shall be of The Righteous (3.46)

She said My Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me? He Said, That is as it shall be. Allah Creates what He Pleases. When HE decrees a thing HE says to it "Be" and it is! (3.47)

Perpetual virginity

Those who believe that Mary remained a virgin after the birth of Jesus, including Eastern and Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholics (and thus an absolute majority of Christians),[24] put forward the following considerations on the question.[25] The New Testament has several references to the "brothers" and "sisters"[26] of Jesus, who, however, are nowhere referred to as Mary's children. Aramaic, the language spoken by Jesus and his disciples, lacked a specific word for "cousin", so that the word "brother" was used instead. This is true also of Hebrew, and there are several places in the Old Testament that use the word "brother" to mean nephew or cousin.[27] Accordingly, the Hebrew word for "brother" is often translated in modern English versions of the Bible by such words as "kinsman". The same holds for Biblical Greek. While classical Greek had specific words for relations, whether generic, such as συγγενῆς (kinsman), or particular, such as ἀνεψιός (a word that originally meant "cousin", but that then took on the meaning of "nephew"), the word ἀδελφός (brother) is frequently used in Biblical Greek instead of both classes of words. The account of the loss of the twelve-year-old Jesus in Jerusalem (Luke 2:41-52) is interpreted to mean that Jesus was an only child.[28] When dying on the cross, Jesus entrusted his mother to the beloved disciple, an action interpreted as signifying that Mary had no other children,[29] since if there were any, one would have expected them to take her into their home.[30] Some interpret the reference to "brothers" of Jesus as a reference to cousins, since two of them are held to be sons of another Mary described as a "sister"[31] of Jesus' mother. Another proposed explanation is that Jesus' "brothers" were sons of Joseph by a previous wife; these stepbrothers of Jesus would have been regarded as his half-brothers by the people who knew them and who, unaware of Jesus' divine origin, assumed him to be Joseph's son. Belief in the perpetual virginity of Mary was so firmly held that, at the time of the Protestant Reformation, two of its most prominent leaders of the Reformation, Luther and Zwingli also defended the teaching,[32] and John Calvin argued against the necessity of seeing Jesus' "ἀδελφοί" (brothers) as Mary's sons.[33] John Wesley too wrote: "I believe that He (Jesus) was ... born of the blessed Virgin Mary, who, as well after as before she brought Him forth, continued a pure and unspotted virgin."[34] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... The eight words of Jesus on the cross are a traditional collection of eight short phrases uttered by Jesus at his crucifixion gathered from the four Gospels. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ...


Despite the beliefs of these Reformers, by the 17th century the Catholic and Protestant churches came to see Mary as a major point of division, and Protestant theologians began arguing that Mary did not remain a virgin and that the "brothers" of Jesus were indeed his biological half-brothers, sons of Mary and Joseph; arguing that the word for "brother" is distinct in Greek from the word for "cousin", also used in the New Testament (ανεψιος, Col. 4.10), [35] Some Catholics reply that in Biblical usage "brother" has a wider semantic range than in English and might mean cousin, or that Joseph may have been a widower, making the brothers step-brothers.[36] It is also said[37] that Jesus' brothers were not believers (John 7:5) until after the resurrection (Acts 1:14), so some believe[citation needed] Jesus entrusted Mary to the beloved disciple (traditionally St. John), for that reason. The Church Fathers pointed to the following as demonstrating Mary's perpetual virginity: John the Apostle (Hebrew: Johanan ;Greek Ιωάννης, see names of John) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ...

And the Lord said to me; This gate shall be closed, it shall not be opened, and no man shall come through it, for the Lord God of Israel comes through it, and it shall be closed. (Ezekiel 44:2)

Muslims also believe that Mary remained a virgin for her entire life.

This painting, attributed to Bartolome Murillo, depicts Mary's Assumption into heaven with her body and soul.

This shows Marys assumption into heaven with her body and soul. ... This shows Marys assumption into heaven with her body and soul. ... Murillo Bartolomé Estéban Murillo (January 1, 1618 _ April 3, 1682) was a Spanish painter from Seville. ...

Dormition and Assumption

Main article: Assumption of Mary

For Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics alike Mary's assumption into heaven is seen as an instance of the resurrection of the body. The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Roman Catholicism

The belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary was formally declared to be dogma by Pope Pius XII in 1950. Pope Pius XII states in Munificentissimus Deus: "[W]e pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory. Hence if anyone, which God forbid, should dare willfully to deny or to call into doubt that which we have defined, let him know that he has fallen away completely from the divine and Catholic Faith." This is an example of an invocation of papal infallibility. Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Munificentissimus Deus (Latin for The most bountiful God) is the name of an Apostolic constitution written by Pope Pius XII. It defines ex cathedra the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at...


The Feast of the Assumption is celebrated on August 15. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Statue of Santa Marija Assunta, by Attard, Malta.

The promulgated dogma is not worded so as to force the issue as to whether she experienced death prior to her Assumption, as there is held to be no theological basis for doing so. As stated by Ludwig Ott (Bk. III, Pt. 3, Ch. 2, §6) "the fact of her death is almost generally accepted by the Fathers and Theologians, and is expressly affirmed in the Liturgy of the Church", to which he adduces a number of helpful citations, and concludes that "for Mary, death, in consequence of her freedom from original sin and from personal sin, was not a consequence of punishment of sin. However, it seems fitting that Mary's body, which was by nature mortal, should be, in conformity with that of her Divine Son, subject to the general law of death." In keeping with the historical consensus of the Church, Pius XII himself almost certainly rejected the notion of Mary's "immortality" (the idea that she never suffered death), preferring the more widely accepted understanding that her assumption took place after her physical death. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attard - Saint Marys Statue I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 315 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Attard - Saint Marys Statue I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


In Eastern Christianity

In the Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic and Oriental Orthodox traditions, the Ever-Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, died, after having lived a holy life. Eastern Christians do not believe in the immaculate conception, on the contrary believing that she was the best example of a human lifestyle. Eleven of the apostles were present and conducted the funeral. St Thomas was delayed and arrived a few days later. Wanting to venerate the body, the tomb was opened for St Thomas. It was revealed that the body of the Theotokos was gone. It was their conclusion that she had been taken, body and soul into heaven. While every Orthodox Christian believes this to be true, the Orthodox have never formally made it a doctrine. It remains a holy mystery. The Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholics celebrate this event on the 15th of August. The Oriental Orthodox celebrate it on August 22. The feast day of the Dormition ("falling asleep") of the Theotokos is preceded by a two week fasting period. Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... According to Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, the body of Mary, the mother of Jesus, venerated by these denominations as the Blessed Virgin Mary or Theotokos, respectively, was taken into Heaven along with her soul after her death. ...


Anglican Recognition of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Mary's special position within God's purpose of salvation as "God bearer" (theotokos) is recognised in a number of ways by some Anglican Christians. The Church affirms in the historic creeds that Jesus was born of the Virgin Mary, and celebrates the feast days of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. This feast is called in older prayer books the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary on 2 February. The Annunciation of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin on March 25 was from before the time of Saint Bede until the 18th century New Year's Day in England. The Annunciation is called the "Annunciation of our Lady" in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. Anglicans also celebrate in the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin on May 31, though in some provinces the traditional date of July 2 is kept. The feast of the St. Mary the Virgin is observed on the traditional day of the Assumption, August 15. The Nativity of the Blessed Virgin is kept on September 8. The Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple (also known as Candlemas or Feast of the Purification of the Virgin) celebrates an early episode in the life of Jesus. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... The Feast of the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple (also known as Candlemas or Feast of the Purification of the Virgin) celebrates an early episode in the life of Jesus. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bede, commonly known as the Venerable Bede, (c. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Visitation, from Altarpiece of the Virgin (St Vaast Altarpiece) by Jacques Daret The Visitation is the visit of the Virgin Mary to Elizabeth as recorded in the Gospel of Luke 1:39-56. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Nativity of Jesus, see Nativity of Jesus. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary is kept in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, on December 8. In certain Anglo-Catholic parishes this feast is called the Immaculate Conception. Again, the Assumption of Mary is believed in by most Anglo-Catholics, but is in considered a pious opinion by moderate Anglicans. Protestant minded Anglicans reject the celebration of these feasts. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Look up assumption in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Piety is a desire and willingness to perform religious duties. ...


Prayer to and with the Blessed Virgin Mary varies according to churchmanship. Low Church Anglicans rarely invoke the Blessed Virgin except in certain hymns, such as the second stanza of Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones. Anglo-Catholics, however, frequently pray the rosary, the Angelus, Regina Caeli, and other litanies and anthems of Our Lady. The Anglican Society of Mary maintains chapters in many countries. The purpose of the society is to foster devotion to Mary among Anglicans. In Anglican parlance, churchmanship is the general emphasis on doctrine, discipline, political outlook, and liturgical practice by adherents of the Church of England, particularly in certain historical periods. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... Ye watchers and ye holy ones is a popular Anglican hymn written by John Riley. ... ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... The Angelus is a devotion in memory of the Incarnation. ... Queen of Heaven is a Roman title of the Ancient Egyptian Goddess Isis in antiquity and Blessed Virgin Mary in Roman Catholicism. ... Society of Mary, SM, is a Roman Catholic religious order of brothers and priests called the Marianists or Marianist Brothers. ...


Christian Veneration of Mary

The oldest-known image of Mary depicts her nursing the Infant Jesus. Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome (2nd century)

Catholic, Orthodox and some Anglican Christians venerate Mary, as do the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Orthodox, a communion of churches that has been traditionally deemed monophysite (such as the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt and the Ethiopian Tewahedo Church). This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. Additionally it includes composing poems and songs in Mary's honor, painting icons or carving statues of her, and conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints. She is also one of the most highly venerated saints in both the Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Churches; several major feast days are devoted to her each year. (See Liturgical year.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x696, 97 KB) Summary Title: Virgin and Child with Balaam the Prophet Date: Late 2nd century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x696, 97 KB) Summary Title: Virgin and Child with Balaam the Prophet Date: Late 2nd century. ... The worlds oldest-known image of Mary depicts her nursing the Infant Jesus. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... Tewahedo Church may refer to any of the following: The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about...


Protestants have generally paid only a small amount of reverence to the Blessed Virgin compared to their Anglican, Catholic, and Orthodox counterparts, often arguing that if too much attention is focused on Mary, there is a danger of detracting from the worship due to God alone.

Virgin and Child. Wall painting from the catacombs, Rome (4th century).

By contrast, certain documents of the Second Vatican Council, such as chapter VIII of the Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium [2] describe Mary as higher than all other created beings, even angels: "she far surpasses all creatures, both in heaven and on earth"; but still in the final analysis, a created being, solely human - not divine - in her nature. On this showing, Catholic traditionalists would argue that there is no conflation [3] of the human and divine levels in their veneration of Mary. Image File history File links VirgenNino. ... Image File history File links VirgenNino. ... Catacombs Paris Catacombs Rome - entrance Catacombs Rome - entrance (detail) Catacombs Lima. ...


The major origin and impetus of veneration of Mary comes from the Christological controversies of the early church - many debates denying in some way the divinity or humanity of Jesus Christ. So not only would one side affirm that Jesus was indeed God, but would assert the conclusion that Mary was "Mother of God", although some Protestants prefer to use the term "God-bearer".[citation needed] Catholics and Protestants agree however, that "Mother of God" is not intended to imply that Mary in any way gave Jesus his Divinity.

Virgin taken from a mural in the Iglesia de Jesus de Miramar in Havana, Cuba.

Both Catholics and Orthodox, and especially Anglicans, make a clear distinction between such veneration (which is also due to the other saints) and adoration which is due to God alone. (The term worship is used by some theologians to subsume both sacrificial worship and worship of praise, e.g. Orestes Brownson in his book Saint Worship. The word "worship", while commonly used in place of "adoration" in the modern English vernacular, strictly speaking implies nothing more than the acknowledgement of "worth-ship" or worthiness, and thus means no more than the giving of honor where honor is due (e.g. the use of "Your Worship" as a form of address to judges in certain English legal traditions). "Worship" has never been used in this sense in Catholic literature when referring to the veneration of the Blessed Virgin). Mary, they point out, is not divine, and has only such powers to help as are granted to her by God in response to her prayers. Such miracles as may occur through Mary's intercession are ultimately the result of God's love and omnipotence. Traditionally, Catholic theologians have distinguished three forms of honor: latria, due only to God, and usually translated by the English word adoration; hyperdulia, accorded only to the Blessed Virgin Mary, usually translated simply as veneration; and dulia, accorded to the rest of the saints, also usually translated as veneration. The Orthodox distinguish between worship and veneration but do not use the "hyper"-veneration terminology when speaking of the Theotokos. Protestants tend to consider "dulia" too similar to "latria". Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Taken in August 2007 Mural in church. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Adoration (Latin) is to give homage or worship. ... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... Orestes Augustus Brownson (1803-1876) was a New England intellectual and activist, preacher and labor organizer. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Judges may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible more than one judge. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Latria is a Greek term used in Catholic theology to mean adoration, which is the highest form of worship or reverence and is directed only to God. ... (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλια dulia) In traditional Christian churches (for example, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), veneration, or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring... (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλια dulia) In traditional Christian churches (for example, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), veneration, or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring...

Gabriel making the Annunciation to Mary. Painting by El Greco (1575)

The surge in the veneration of Mary in the High Middle Ages owes some of its initial impetus to Bernard of Clairvaux. Bernard expanded upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramental ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more personally held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. In opposition to the rationalist approach to divine understanding that the schoolmen adopted, Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary; "the Virgin that is the royal way, by which the Savior comes to us." Bernard played the leading role in the development of the Virgin cult, which is one of the most important manifestations of the popular piety of the twelfth century. In early medieval thought the Virgin Mary had played a minor role, and it was only with the rise of emotional Christianity in the eleventh century that she became the prime intercessor for humanity with the deity. (Cantor 1993 p 341) Download high resolution version (803x1066, 200 KB)The Annunciation by El Greco 1570-1575 Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (803x1066, 200 KB)The Annunciation by El Greco 1570-1575 Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: http://www. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ...


Some early Protestants venerated and honored Mary. Martin Luther said Mary is "the highest woman", that "we can never honour her enough", that "the veneration of Mary is inscribed in the very depths of the human heart", and that Christians should "wish that everyone know and respect her". John Calvin said, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor." Zwingli said, "I esteem immensely the Mother of God", and, "The more the honor and love of Christ increases among men, so much the esteem and honor given to Mary should grow". Thus the idea of respect and high honour was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Catholics for blurring the line, between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being, and religious service given to another creature. The Catholic practice of celebrating saints' days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints they considered (and consider) to be idolatry. With the exception of some portions of the Anglican Communion, Protestantism usually follows the reformers in rejecting the practice of directly addressing Mary and other saints in prayers of admiration or petition, as part of their religious worship of God. Protestants will not typically call the respect or honor that they may have for Mary veneration because of the special religious significance that this term has in the Catholic practice. The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Idolatry is a major sin in the Abrahamic religions regarding image. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ...


Today's Protestants acknowledge that Mary is "blessed among women" (Luke 1:42) but they do not agree that Mary is to be venerated. She is considered to be an outstanding example of a life dedicated to God. Indeed the word that she uses to describe herself in Luke 1:38 (usually translated as "bond-servant" or "slave")[38] refers to someone whose will is consumed by the will of another - in this case Mary's will is consumed by God's. Rather than granting Mary any kind of "dulia", Protestants note that her role in Scripture seems to diminish - after the birth of Jesus she is hardly mentioned. From this it may be said that her attitude paralleled that of John the Baptist who said "He must become greater; I must become less" (John 3:30)


Joint Anglican-Roman Catholic document

On May 16, 2005, the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches issued a joint 43-page statement, "Mary: Hope and Grace in Christ" (also known as the Seattle Statement) on the role of the Virgin Mary in Christianity as a way to uphold ecumenical cooperation despite differences over other matters. The document was released in Seattle, Washington, by Alexander Brunett, the local Catholic Archbishop, and Peter Carnley, Anglican Archbishop of Perth, Western Australia, co-chairmen of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... “Seattle” redirects here. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... The Most Reverend Dr Peter Carnley AO (1937-) was the Archbishop of Perth, Australia from 1981 to 2005 and was Primate of the Anglican Church of Australia from 2000 until July 2005. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Anglican and Roman Catholic International Commission ARCIC is an on-going process of dialogue between the Anglican and the Roman Catholic Churches, which seeks to identify common ground between the two. ...


The joint document is said to seek a common understanding to help both churches agree on the theological reasoning behind the Catholic dogmas, despite Anglicans not accepting the papal authority that underpins them. Carnley has reportedly said that Anglican concerns that dogmas about Mary are not provable by scripture would "disappear", with the document discussing that Anglicans would stop opposition to Roman Catholic teachings of the Immaculate Conception (defined in 1854) and the Assumption of Mary (defined in 1950) as being "consonant" with the Biblical teachings. The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ...


Cinematic Portrayals

Mary has been portrayed in several films:

Linda Darnell Monetta Eloyse Darnell, better known as Linda Darnell (born October 16, 1923; died April 10, 1965), was a American film actress. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1942 books | Books starting with S | 1943 films | Best Picture Oscar Nominee | Best Actress Oscar (film) | Best Supporting Actor Oscar Nominee (film) | Best Supporting Actress Oscar Nominee (film) ... The Miracle Of Our Lady Of Fatima is a feature length film made in 1952. ... Siobhán McKenna (May 24, 1922 - November 16, 1986), was a Irish stage and screen actress. ... King of Kings is a 1961 American motion picture epic made by Samuel Bronston Productions and distributed by MGM. It is a retelling the story of Jesus from his birth to his crucifixion and Resurrection. ... Olivia Hussey (born Olivia Osuna on April 17, 1951 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is an Anglo-Argentine actress perhaps best known for her role as Juliet in Franco Zeffirellis 1968 film version of Romeo and Juliet. ... Picture of Robert Powell playing Jesus of Nazareth. ... Verna Bloom (born August 7, 1939), is an American actress. ... The Last Temptation of Christ, (in Greek O Teleutaios Peirasmos, Ο Τελευταίος Πειρασμός) also published as The Last Temptation, is a novel written by Nikos Kazantzakis, first published in 1951. ... Pernilla August as Shmi Skywalker in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ... Mary, Mother of Jesus (1999) is a made-for-telvision Biblical film that retells the story of Jesus through the eyes of Mary, his mother. ... Maia Morgernstern (b. ... This article is about the film. ... Keisha Castle-Hughes (born March 24, 1990) is an Academy Award-nominated New Zealand actress. ... The Nativity Story, previously titled Nativity, is a 2006 film starring Keisha Castle-Hughes, the Oscar-nominated actress of The Whale Rider and Shohreh Aghdashloo, the Oscar-nominated supporting actress of House of Sand and Fog. ...

See also

Look up Appendix:Names derived from Miryam in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... “Our Lady” redirects here. ... The Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic doctrine which asserts that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved by God from the stain of original sin at the time of her own conception. ... In the culture and practice of some Christian Churches - mainly, but not solely, the Roman Catholic Church - a shrine to the Virgin Mary or Marian shrine is a shrine marking an apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary, or a site on which is centered a historically... The Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary is a Christian prayer originally approved in 1587 by Pope Sixtus V. It is also known as the Litany of Loreto, for its first-known place of origin, the Shrine of Our Lady of Loreto, where its usage was recorded as early as... Apparition of The Virgin to St Bernard by Filippino Lippi (1486) Oil on panel, 210 x 195 cm Church of Badia, Florence A Marian apparition is an event in which the Virgin Mary is supposed to have supernaturally appeared to one or more persons, typically Catholics, in various settings. ... The following Marian devotions are intercessions to God through the mediation of Mary, the mother of Jesus, or acts of devotions focusing on Mary . ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Dormition of the Virgin redirects here. ... The Virgin Mary is a loved and admired by Muslims. ... 13th c. ... The Annunciation - Convent of San Marco, Florence Hortus Conclusus is a Latin term, meaning literally closed off garden, and is an attribute of Medieval and Renaissance art in images of the Virgin Mary. ... The plague Column of the Virgin Mary Immaculate in Kutná Hora, the Czech Republic, built between 1713 and 1715 Marian columns were built in honour to the Virgin Mary, often in thanksgiving for ending a plague or some other help. ... May crowning is a traditional Roman Catholic ritual that occurs on or about 1 May every year. ... See also Mary (mother of Jesus) Andrey Rublevs Virgin of Vladimir, 1410(?). Madonna is a medieval Italian term for a noble or otherwise important woman. ... The Black Madonna of Częstochowa, Poland A Black Madonna or Black Virgin is a statue or painting of Mary in which she is depicted with dark or black skin. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ See 18-25&src=! Matthew 1:16, 18-25 and 2:1-7&src=! Luke 1:26-56, 2:1-7.
  2. ^ See 25&src=! Matthew 1:18, 25 and Luke 1:34-35.
  3. ^ The Hebrew text is ambiguous as to whether the woman in question is a "young woman" or a "virgin"; Matthew, following the Jewish Septuagint translation into Greek gives "virgin" unambiguously.
  4. ^ Denziger §111a
  5. ^ Luke 1:5 and Luke 1:36
  6. ^ (1990) New Bible Dictionary. Inter-varsity Press, p746. ISBN 0851106307. 
  7. ^ An event described by Christians as the Annunciation,Luke 1:35.
  8. ^ Matthew 1:18-25 - Matthew's account of the Nativity of Jesus.
  9. ^ Luke 1:39.
  10. ^ Luke 1:46-56.
  11. ^ Luke 1:56-57.
  12. ^ Luke 2:1 and following.
  13. ^ Matthew 2.
  14. ^ Luke 2:41-52.
  15. ^ John 2:1-11.
  16. ^ Matthew 13:54–56 {{{3}}}; &verse=6:3&src=! Mark 6:3; Acts 1:14 {{{3}}}. These are also described as "relatives", see below.
  17. ^ Origen, Contra Celsum 1.28, 1.32
  18. ^ Acts of Pilate 2, "And Pilate, calling these twelve men who said that He was not born of fornication, says to them: I adjure you by the health of Caesar, to tell me whether it be true that you say, that he was not born of fornication. They say to Pilate: We have a law against taking oaths, because it is a sin; but they will swear by the health of Caesar, that it is not as we have said, and we are liable to death. Pilate says to Annas and Caiaphas: Have you nothing to answer to this? Annas and Caiaphas say to Pilate: These twelve are believed when they say that he was not born of fornication; all the multitude of us cry out that he was born of fornication, and that he is a sorcerer, and he says that he is the Son of God and a king, and we are not believed." Roberts-Donaldson translation
  19. ^ Irenaeus, Adversus haereses III,1,1; Eusebius of Caesarea, Church History, III,1
  20. ^ For other Eastern Catholic churches dedicated to the Immaculate Conception in Pennsylvania alone, see The Unofficial Directory of Eastern Catholic Churches in Pennsylvania
  21. ^ Matthew 1:18, Matthew 1:25, Luke 1:34
  22. ^ Also see: Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (Biblical Seminar Series, No 28), Jane Schaberg, ISBN 1-85075-533-7.
  23. ^ Robert W. Funk and the Jesus Seminar. The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus. HarperSanFrancisco: 1998. p. 533
  24. ^ http://www.adherents.com/adh_branches.html#Christianity
  25. ^ Fr. John Hainsworth, The Ever-Virginity of the Mother of God, from Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, retrieved May 2007; Why is Mary Considered Ever-Virgin? from Orthodox Christian Information Center, retrieved May 2007; William Saunders, "Brothers and Sisters of Jesus", from EWTN.com, retrieved May 2007; "Mary: Virgin and Ever Virgin", from Catholicapologetics.org, retrieved May 2007; Father Mateo-Catholic Information Network, "Our Lady's Lifelong Virginity: Some Answers", CIN.com, retrieved May 2007
  26. ^ Matthew 13:56 and Mark 6:3
  27. ^ Jason Evert, "How To Explain The Perpetual Virginity of Mary", from Catholic.com, retrieved May 2007
  28. ^ Why is Mary Considered Ever-Virgin?
  29. ^ Why is Mary Considered Ever-Virgin?; Perpetual Virginity of Mary; Was Mary a Perpetual Virgin?
  30. ^ "It is hard to imagine why Jesus would have disregarded family ties and made this provision for his mother if these four (who are mentioned as "brothers" of Jesus) were also her sons" (If Mary is still a virgin, who are the "Brothers of the Lord"?); Jesus "would have had surviving siblings who would have taken care of her. It would be surprising for Jesus to release his brothers from their obligation to their mother, especially because he criticized the Pharisees for neglecting the support of their own parents in Matthew 15:3-6" (Was Mary a Perpetual Virgin?); etc.
  31. ^ a word with the same ambiguity as "brother"
  32. ^ {http://www.davidmacd.com/catholic/martin_luther_on_mary.htm Martin Luther, Founder of the Reform, Speaks on Mary]
  33. ^ Commentary on Matthew, Mark, Luke, volume 1, volume 2
  34. ^ Wesley’s Letters: 1749
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ See, for instance, If Mary is still a virgin, who are the "Brothers of the Lord"?; The "Brothers" of Jesus/Mary's Perpetual Virginity; Brethren of the Lord; Perpetual Virginity
  37. ^ (1990) New Bible Dictionary. Inter-varsity Press, p550. ISBN 0851106307. 
  38. ^ Doulos - Strong's Concordance

The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ... On the Detection and Overthrow of the So-Called Gnosis, commonly called Against Heresies (Latin: Adversus haereses), is a five volume work written by St. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... James Strong (1822-1894) Strongs Concordance (strictly Strongs Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible) is a concordance of the King James Bible (KJV) that was constructed under the direction of Dr. James Strong (1822–1894) and first published in 1890. ...

Further reading

  • Brownson, Orestes, Saint Worship and the Worship of Mary, Sophia Institute Press, 2003, ISBN 1-928832-88-1
  • Cronin, Vincent, Mary Portrayed, London: Darton, Longman & Todd, Ltd., 1968, ISBN 0-87505-213-4
  • Epie, Chantal. The Scriptural Roots of Catholic Teaching, Sophia Institute Press, 2002, ISBN 1-928832-53-9
  • Graef, Hilda. Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion, London: Sheed & Ward, 1985, ISBN 0-7220-5221-9
  • Marley, Stephen, The Life of the Virgin Mary, Lennard Publishing, 1990, ISBN 1852910240
  • Miravalle, Mark. Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing, 1993, Second Edition 2006, soft, 220 pages ISBN 1-882972-06-6
  • Newman, Barbara. God and the Goddesses, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003, ISBN 0812219112
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. Mary Through the Centuries: Her Place in the History of Culture, Yale University Press, 1998, hardcover, 240 pages ISBN 0-300-06951-0; trade paperback, 1998, 240 pages, ISBN 0-300-07661-4
  • Visions and prophecies of the Divine Feminine, Melbourne: Noyce Publishing, 2006
  • Fox, Fr. Robert J., Catechism on Mary, Immaculate Heart of Mary, Mary Through the Ages Fatima Family Apostolate
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Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ... Stephen Marley is a British author and video game designer, best known for his Chia Black Dragon series. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mary, mother of Jesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6051 words)
Mary is frequently referred to by the Orthodox Church and related traditions within the Catholic Church as Theotokos, a title recognized at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431.
Mary is also depicted as being present during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with her sister Mary of Clopas (possibly identical with the mother of James the younger and Joseph mentioned in Matthew 27:55, cf.
Mary, cradling the dead body of her Son, while not recorded in the Gospel accounts, is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "piety".
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Virgin Mary (12531 words)
Mary's Divine motherhood is based on the teaching of the Gospels, on the writings of the Fathers, and on the express definition of the Church.
Mary behaved in the upper room in Jerusalem as she had behaved in the grotto at Bethlehem; in Bethlehem she had carried for the Infant Jesus, in Jerusalem she nurtured the infant Church.
Mary is there drawn with the Divine Infant in her lap, she with hands extended in prayer, he with his hand in the attitude of blessing.
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