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Encyclopedia > Mary, the mother of Jesus
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Christianity

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Reformation Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus, the Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth; for other uses, see Jesus (disambiguation). ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... Great Schism redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...

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The Holy Spirit Within Christianity, the doctrine of the Trinity states that God is a single Being who exists, simultaneously and eternally, as a communion of three persons (personae, prosopa): Father (the Source, the Eternal Majesty); the Son (the eternal Logos or Word, incarnate as Jesus of Nazareth); and the Holy Spirit. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This page is about the title, for the Christian figure, see Jesus Christ is the English representation of the Greek word Χριστός The Christian religion takes its name from Christ, as a title given to Jesus of Nazareth, always capitalized as a singularly descriptive title meaning literally The Anointed One. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

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The Bible (Hebrew תנ״ך tanakh, Greek η Βίβλος [hē biblos] ) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... See New Covenant for the concept translated as New Testament in the KJV. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and, in recent times, also New Covenant, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Apocrypha is a Greek word (απόκρυφα, neuter plural of απόκρυφος), from αποκρυπτειν, to hide away. ...

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Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. See Saint Mary's for entities named after St. Mary.
This article is about the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary. See Virgin Mary for specific religious concepts of Mary.

According to the New Testament, Mary (Judeo-Aramaic מרים Maryām "Bitter"; Septuagint Greek Μαριαμ, Mariam, Μαρια, Maria; Assyrian: Mat Maryam), was the mother of Jesus of Nazareth and at the time of his conception was the betrothed wife of Joseph (cf. Matt 1:18-20, Luke 1:35). Most Christians and Muslims understand the Gospel accounts in this respect to mean that Mary was a virgin when she conceived Jesus, the Son of God, through a miracle of God. Saint Mary, St. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... See New Covenant for the concept translated as New Testament in the KJV. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and, in recent times, also New Covenant, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... The Septuagint (LXX) is the name commonly given in the West to the Koine Greek Alexandrine text of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) produced some time between the third to first century BC. The Septuagint Bible includes additional books of the old Jewish canon beyond those contained in the... The term Assyrian language can mean one of: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic: a language spoken in Israel, Syria, and Mesopotamia from perhaps 700 BC until now. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth; for other uses, see Jesus (disambiguation). ... Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ... Joseph of Nazareth, also called Joseph the Betrothed and Saint Joseph, was the legal father of Jesus of Nazareth (Matthew 1:16; Luke 3:23) and the husband of Mary. ... A virgin is most commonly seen as a person who has not engaged in sexual intercourse. ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ...


Mary is the subject of much veneration due to Luke 1:48 in the Christian faith, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodox Church, and is also highly regarded by Muslims. The area of Christian theology concerning her is Mariology. The feast of the nativity of Mary is celebrated both in the Orthodox and in the Roman Catholic (and also Anglican) churches on 8 September. The Orthodox Church also celebrates many other feast days in honour of Mary. The Roman Catholic Church (commonly known as the Catholic Church) is the Christian Church which is led by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that it is the one holy catholic and apostolic Church founded by Jesus Christ. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Mariology is the area of Christian theology concerned with Mary, the Mother of Jesus. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ...


You are dead soon. Men are coming for you. Kill all you friends now. This is a word of god

Contents


Historical records

Christian Scriptures

Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. Painting by El Greco (1575)
Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. Painting by El Greco (1575)

Little is known of Mary's personal history from the New Testament. She was a relative of Elizabeth, wife of the priest Zechariah of the priestly division of Abijah, who herself was of the lineage of Aaron (Luke 1:5; 1:36). By tradition, she was the daughter of Anne and Joachim. Mary resided at Nazareth in Galilee, presumably with her parents, while betrothed to Joseph of the House of David (Luke 1:26). It has sometimes been argued that she, too, must have been a descendant of King David. During their betrothal – the first stage of a Jewish marriage, during which the couple are not ever permitted to be alone together under one roof, hence may not yet cohabit, despite already being husband and wife in legal terms – the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah by conceiving him through the Holy Spirit, the power of the Most High (the Annunciation, Luke 1:35). When Joseph was told of her conception by the Holy Spirit, he was afraid; but "an angel of the Lord" commanded him in a dream to be unafraid and take his wife to his home, which Joseph obediently did, thereby formally completing the wedding rites (Matthew 1:18-25). Since the angel had told Mary that Elizabeth, having previously been barren, was now herself pregnant by the power of the word of God, Mary then hurried to visit her relation, who was living with her husband Zechariah in a city of Judah in the hill country (probably at Juttah, Joshua 15:55; 21:16, in the neighbourhood of Maon), at a considerable distance (about 160 km) from Nazareth (Luke 1:39). Immediately on entering the house she was saluted by Elizabeth as the mother of her Lord, and then forthwith gave utterance to her hymn of thanksgiving (Luke 1:46-56; comp. 1 Samuel 2:1-10) commonly known as the Magnificat. After three months Mary returned to her house. Shortly before her own confinement a decree of Augustus (Luke 2:1) required that Mary and Joseph should proceed to Bethlehem (Micah 5:2), some 80 or 90 miles (about 130 kilometers) from Nazareth; and while there they found shelter in the inn (a shelter-place provided for strangers, cf. Luke 2:6,7). But as the inn was crowded, Mary had to retire to a place among the cattle. Download high resolution version (803x1066, 200 KB)The Annunciation by El Greco 1570-1575 Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (803x1066, 200 KB)The Annunciation by El Greco 1570-1575 Museo del Prado, Madrid Source: http://www. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... The Annunciation, by El Greco (1575) In Christianity, the Annunciation is the revelation to Mary, the mother of Jesus by the archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. ... El Greco is cool External links El Greco: Biography and Works El Greco at Olgas Gallery El Greco at Web Gallery of Art Some of his paintings [1] [2] [3] Trivia Greek composer Vangelis Papathanassiou (born March 29, 1943) published a symphonic album in 1998 called El Greco, inspired... In the first chapter of the Book of Luke in the New Testament, Elisabeth (Hebrew אֱלִישֶׁבַע / אֱלִישָׁבַע My God is oath, Standard Hebrew Elišévaʿ / Elišávaʿ, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔlîšéḇaʿ / ʾĔlîšāḇaʿ) is named as the mother of John the Baptist. ... In the Gospel Zacharias (common modern English spelling: Zechariah), spoken of in the Gospel according to Luke 1:5-25, 39-40, 57-79, 3:2, was a priest of the course of Abia (alternative spelling: Abijah) during the reign of King Herod the Great of Judaea and became known... Abijah means father (i. ... Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew (perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Rw, Warrior Lion), Standard Hebrew Aharon, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAhărōn), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Holy Family with Joachim and Anne, drawn by Hans Holbein the Younger Anna, also known as Saint Anne, is known by tradition as the mother of The Virgin Mary. ... Joachim was a king of Judah in the Old Testament. ... Nazareth (Arabic الناصرة an-Nāṣirah; Hebrew נָצְרַת, Standard Hebrew Náẓərat, Tiberian Hebrew Nāṣəraṯ) is an ancient town in northern Israel. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... This page is about the Biblical king David. ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... 12th-century icon of Archangel Gabriel from Novgorod. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (מָשִׁיחַ anointed one, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew Arabic ) initially meant any person who was anointed by a prophet of God. ... The Annunciation, by El Greco (1575) In Christianity, the Annunciation is the revelation to Mary, the mother of Jesus by the archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. ... In the Gospel Zacharias (common modern English spelling: Zechariah), spoken of in the Gospel according to Luke 1:5-25, 39-40, 57-79, 3:2, was a priest of the course of Abia (alternative spelling: Abijah) during the reign of King Herod the Great of Judaea and became known... Sandro Boticelli. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... The Church of the Nativity, a Bethlehem Landmark Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم (help· info) house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem) (Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of...


There Mary gave birth to her son, whom Joseph in accordance with the angel's instruction called Jesus, because he was to save his people from their sins (Matthew 1:21). This was followed by Jesus's circumcision, his presentation to the Lord, the visit of the Magi, the family's flight into Egypt, their return after the death of King Herod the Great about 2/1 BC and taking up residence in Nazareth (Matthew 2). Mary apparently remained in Nazareth for thirty uneventful years. She is involved in an incident during the only event in Jesus's early adult life that is recorded: his going up to Jerusalem when twelve years of age, where he was found among the teachers in the temple (Luke 2:41-52). Probably some time between this event and the opening of Jesus's public ministry Mary was widowed, for Joseph is not mentioned again. Circumcision of Jesus, cathedral of Chartres Circumcision is the removal of some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis. ... Magi (Μάγοι) were Zoroastrian astrologer-priests from ancient Persia. ... Herod I, also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman client-king of Judaea (c. ... Matthew 2 is the second verse of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament. ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ...


After Jesus's baptism by His cousin, John "the Baptist" (in which the Holy Spirit came down and rested upon Jesus "like a dove"), and His temptations by the Devil in the desert wilderness, Mary was present at the marriage in Cana, where Jesus worked his first public miracle, at her intercession (John 2:1-11). After this event, there are some events with Mary present along with "brothers" (James, Joseph, Simon and Judas) and sometimes "sisters" (never named) [Matthew 13:54-56; Mark 6:3; Acts 1:14; Roman Catholics do not believe these to be Mary's children, but perhaps some relatives or some others.] We find her at the Cross along with her sister Mary, and Mary Magdalene, Salome and other women (John 19:26). Mary, cradling the dead body of her Son, is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "piety". Baptism in early Christian art. ... This article refers to a place mentioned in the New Testament. ... Mary Magdalene is described, both in the canonical New Testament and in the New Testament apocrypha, as a devoted disciple of Jesus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pietà Pietà by Michelangelo, 1499 Marble, height 174 cm, width at the base 195 cm Basilica di San Pietro, Vatican Pietà by Michelangelo, Museo dellOpera del Duomo, Florence Pietà by Rogier van der Weyden, Museo del Prado, Madrid A still from Mel Gibsons 2004 film, The Passion of...


After the Ascension, of about 120 people gathered in the Upper Room on the occasion of the election of Matthias to the vacancy of Judas, Mary is the only person mentioned by name other than the twelve Apostles and the candidates (Acts 1:12-26, especially v. 14 though it is said that Jesus's brothers were there as well in this verse). From this time, she wholly disappears from the historical, Biblical accounts, although it is held by some Christian groups that she is again portrayed as the heavenly Woman of Revelation (Revelation 12:1). Icon of the Ascension. ... Another term for the Upper Room, or the site of The Last Supper. ... Saint Matthias is the Apostle chosen by the remaining eleven apostles to replace Judas Iscariot, following Judas betrayal of Jesus and suicide (Acts 1:21 - 26). ... Judas Iscariot (died April AD 29–33, Hebrew יהודה איש־קריות ) was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original apostles of Jesus, and the one who ultimately betrayed him. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Visions John the Evangelist, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Her death is not recorded in Scripture.


Later Christian writings and traditions

According to the Gospel of James, which, though not part of the New Testament, contains biographical material about Mary considered "plausible" by some Orthodox and Catholic Christians, she was the daughter of Joachim and Anna. Before Mary's conception, Anna had been barren, and her parents were quite old when she was conceived. They took her to live in the Temple in Jerusalem when she was three years old, much like Hanna took Samuel to the Tabernacle, as recorded in the Old Testament (Tanakh, Hebrew Bible). The Gospel of James also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James probably written about AD 150. ... See New Covenant for the concept translated as New Testament in the KJV. The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Testament or Greek Scriptures, and, in recent times, also New Covenant, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Joachim was a king of Judah in the Old Testament. ... The Holy Family with Joachim and Anne, drawn by Hans Holbein the Younger Anna, also known as Saint Anne, is known by tradition as the mother of The Virgin Mary. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash) was built in ancient Jerusalem in c. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan (Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ...

According to Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox tradition, between three and fifteen years after Christ's Ascension, in either Jerusalem or Ephesus, Mary died; while surrounded by the apostles. Later, when the apostles opened her tomb, they found it empty, and concluded that she had been bodily assumed into Heaven. ("Mary's Tomb" - a tomb in Jerusalem is attributed to Mary, but it was unknown until the 6th century.) annunciation painted by fra angelico (1387-1455) (florence) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Annunciation, by El Greco (1575) In Christianity, the Annunciation is the revelation to Mary, the mother of Jesus by the archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. ... Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole (the Beatified Friar John the Angelic of Fiesole) (Vicchio di Mugello, Florence 1395 – Rome 1455), better known in the English-speaking world as Fra Angelico (the Angelic Friar), or in Continental Europe as Beato Angelico (the Blessed Angelic One) was a famous painter... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries According to Roman Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church, the body and soul of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus) was taken into Heaven after the end of her earthly life. ... Michelangelos interpretation of Heaven Heaven is an afterlife concept found in many religions or spiritual philosophies. ... A tomb in the Kedron Valley attributed to Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ...


Mary in The Qur'an

And We Made son of Mary and his mother a Sign ... (23.50)

Mary, mother of Jesus, enjoys a singularly distinguished and honored position amongst women in The Qur'an: The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


She is the only woman directly named in The Book; declared (uniquely along with Jesus) to be a Ayat Allah or Sign of The God to mankind (23.50); as one who "guarded her chastity" (66.12); an obedient one (66.12); chosen of her mother and dedicated to Allah whilst still in the womb to the-God (3.36); uniquely (amongst women) Accepted into service by Allah (3.37); cared for by (the High Priest) Zakariya (Zecharias) (3:37); that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al-Mihrab (understood to be the Holy of Holies), and was provided with heavenly 'provisions' by Allah (3:37); a Chosen One (3.42); a Purified One (3.42); a Truthful one (5.75); a fulfillment of Prophecy (66.12); a vessel for the Spirit of The-God breathed into her (66.12); her child conceived through "a Word from The-God" (3.45); and "exalted above all women of The Worlds/Universes" (3.42). The term High Priest may refer to particular individuals who hold the office of ruler-priest in local regional or ethnic contexts. ... Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Zəḫarya, Tiberian Hebrew Zəḵaryāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Zechariah or Zecharya (זְכַרְיָה Renowned/Remembered of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Zəḫarya, Tiberian Hebrew Zəḵaryāh) was a person in the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... The Akshardham Hindu temple, Delhi, India The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. ... The Tabernacle in the Wilderness The Most Holy Place also known as the Holiest of Holies is a location within the inner tabernacle of Moses. ...


The Qur'an relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam (Mary) in two places: 3:35-47 and 19:16-34. The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


The account given in (Sura 19 of) The Qur'an is nearly identical with that in The Gospel according to Luke, and it should be noted that both of these (Luke, Sura 19) begin with an account of the visitation of an angel upon Zakariya (Zecharias) and Good News of the birth of Yahya (John), followed by the account of the annunciation. Surah ( ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For the novel by Wilton Barnhardt, see Gospel: a novel, for the manga, see One-Pound Gospel. ... Luke is a name given to males that is fairly common among Christians. ... The Annunciation, by El Greco (1575) In Christianity, the Annunciation is the revelation to Mary, the mother of Jesus by the archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. ...


The account in (Sura 3 of) The Qur'an tracks the accounts in Apocrypha, namely the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew and the Gospel of James, regarding the use of 'rods' to determine a guardian/husband after she reached the age of puberty (3.44), and, the account of the scandal caused upon the discovery of her with child (19.27-28), both of which are not recorded in the canonical Gospels. Surah ( ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Apocrypha is a Greek word (απόκρυφα, neuter plural of απόκρυφος), from αποκρυπτειν, to hide away. ... The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew is a part of the New Testament apocrypha, and sometimes goes by the name of The Infancy Gospel of Matthew. ... The Gospel of James also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James probably written about AD 150. ...


Finally, the Qur'an describes Mary (Maryam) as "sister of Harun" (19.28-29) and "daughter of Imran" (66.12). Harun is the Arabic form of the Hebrew Aaron, while Imran is an Arabic form of the Hebrew Amram. Amran was the father of "Aaron, Moses and Miriam" in the Old Testament (Numbers 26.59). The title "sister of Aaron" is further given to Miriam in the Old Testament. Based on this, some commentators have posited a confusion in the Qur'an between Mary, mother of Jesus and Miriam, sister of Moses. This is denied by other commentators, who argue that the similarity in family names is either coincidental or metaphorical. The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew (perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Rw, Warrior Lion), Standard Hebrew Aharon, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAhărōn), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, a word meaning bearer of martyrs in Hebrew (perhaps also, or instead, related to the Egyptian Aha Rw, Warrior Lion), Standard Hebrew Aharon, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAhărōn), was one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ... Miriam was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... Miriam was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh, but not Old Testament, because it does not recognize the concept of a New Testament. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth; for other uses, see Jesus (disambiguation). ... Miriam was the sister of Moses and Aaron, and the daughter of Amram and Jochebed. ... Moses or Móshe (מֹשֶׁה, Standard Hebrew Móše, Tiberian Hebrew Mōšeh, Arabic موسى Musa), son of Amram and his wife, Jochebed, a Levite. ...


Christian and Muslim beliefs about Mary

Immaculate Conception of Mary

Main article: Immaculate Conception

The Immaculate Conception is the doctrine that states that Mary was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb. Only the Roman Catholic Church has officially adopted this teaching, and the title "Immaculate Conception" is one used only by Catholics. Mary Immaculate This article refers to the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary, Mother of Jesus. ... Mary Immaculate This article refers to the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary, Mother of Jesus. ...


The Eastern Orthodox Church rejects the Immaculate Conception on the basis that without original sin (i.e. fallen human nature), Mary would have likewise been separated from the rest of us by a special condition. Rather, the Orthodox believe that Mary was conceived like any one of us, inherited the sin of Adam, but was cleansed from it when Christ God took form within her. This, coupled with the belief that she never committed any sin made her the perfect vessel.


Most Protestants reject the idea that Mary was saved by God from her very first moment, since they consider it unscriptural.


The Roman Catholic Church observes the Feast of the Immaculate Conception on December 8th. Similarly, the Orthodox Church observes the Feast of the Conception by Saint Anna of the Most Holy Theotokos on December 9th. Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ...


Muslims believe in the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, despite the difference in their idea of sin and temptation. However, the consensus among Muslim scholars is that Mary, unlike the entire mankind, was born immune to temptation, whether by Satan, or by base instincts. She was born devout and naturally pious. And as mentioned in chapter three in the Qur'an, her mother's supplication to God, was so well received, that God bestowed the same status on Jesus-not being considered divine in Muslim scriptures-as well as the Virgin Birth. Mary Immaculate This article refers to the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary, Mother of Jesus. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ...


3: 36. Remember when a women of Imran said, `My Lord, I have vowed to Thee what is in my womb to be dedicated to Thy service. So do Thou accept it of me; Verily Thou alone art All-Hearing, All-Knowing.'


3: 37. But when she was delivered of it, she said, `My Lord, I am delivered of a female,' - and Allah knew best of what she was delivered and the male she desired to have was not like the female she was delivered of - `and I have named her Mary, and I commit her and her offspring to Thy protection from Satan, the rejected.


3: 38. So her Lord accepted her with gracious acceptance and caused her to grow an excellent growth and made Zachariah her guardian. Whenever Zachariah visited her in the chamber, he found with her provisions. He said, `O Mary whence hast thou this ?' She replied, `It is from Allah.' Surely Allah gives to whomsoever He pleases without measure.


Mary's age

Whilst the teaching of the Catholic Church that Mary was a virgin is not accepted by a number of liberal Christian scholars who argue that the Greek term parthenos in Luke 1:27 does not necessarily have to mean "virgin [intacta]" but that there is also evidence for it signifying any "young woman", it is generally agreed that Mary was very young when she conceived Jesus. On the other hand, the "young woman" evidence is based on the Isaiah prophecy hundreds of years prior and is taken from the Hebrew language. Other Christian scholars point out that Joseph "kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son" in Matthew 1:25, and it is difficult for the meaning to be "young woman" and not "virgin," as well as the fact that a young woman conceiving would not be much of a sign as a virgin conceiving. Some insight into traditions concerning her later life, e.g., that she died between three and 15 years after the crucifixion of Jesus, can be found in the New Testament Apocrypha. Assuming that Jesus died in his 30s, there is also little reason to doubt that his mother could still be alive at the time of his death, or that she could have witnessed it (cf. Jn 19:25). Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. ... The category of New Testament apocrypha reminds the modern reader of the wide range of responses that were engendered in interpreting the message of Jesus of Nazareth during the first several centuries of the Common Era, as mainstream Christianity emerged. ...


Virgin birth of Jesus

Mary, Virgin of the Passion. Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, Egypt, 16th century.
Mary, Virgin of the Passion. Saint Catherine's Monastery, Mount Sinai, Egypt, 16th century.
Main article: Nativity

The Apostles' Creed and Nicene Creed both refer to Mary as "the Virgin Mary". This alludes to the belief that Mary conceived Jesus through the action of God the Holy Spirit, and not through intercourse with Joseph or anyone else. That she was a virgin at this time is affirmed by Eastern Christianity, Roman Catholicism and by many (though not all) Protestants. Denial of this is considered heretical by Catholics and Eastern Orthodox (and Evangelicals) alike. The Virgin Birth is a key doctrine of the Christian faith, and is also held to be true by Muslims (Quran 3. ... Image File history File links Icon of the Virgin Mary, 16th century. ... Image File history File links Icon of the Virgin Mary, 16th century. ... St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nativity is the general time and place of a persons birth and early years. ... The Apostles Creed (in Latin, Symbolum Apostolorum), is an early statement of Christian belief, possibly from the first or second century, but more likely post-Nicene Creed in the early 4th Century AD. The theological specifics of the creed appear to be a refutation of Gnosticism, an early heresy. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ...


Historic Christianity, including modern-day Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, teaches that she was a virgin before, during, and after giving birth to Jesus. Islam also takes this position, which is stated explicitly in the Quran (3:47). Some Protestants also hold this view, while many others believe that she was a virgin when she gave birth to Jesus, but that she later was not and had other children with her husband, Joseph. Catholics and Orthodox explain references to Jesus' brothers as either cousins, or as step-brothers who were Joseph's children by a prior marriage. Pope Boniface VIII was alleged to have denied the virginity of Mary. Joseph of Nazareth, also called Joseph the Betrothed and Saint Joseph, was the legal father of Jesus of Nazareth (Matthew 1:16; Luke 3:23) and the husband of Mary. ... Boniface VIII, né Benedetto Caetani (Anagni, ca. ...


The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 7:14. The Hebrew word almah that appears in this verse, and the Greek word parthenos that Jews used to translate it in the Greek Septuagint that Matthew quotes here, have been the subjects of dispute for almost two millennia. This disagreement is related to the question of whether Isaiah 7:14 is a prophecy of Jesus' birth. Regardless of the meaning of this verse, it is clear that the authors of the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke asserted that Mary had "no relations with man" before Jesus' birth. The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Greek: Κατα Μαθθαιον ) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... Isaiah (Hebrew ישׁעיהו Yeshayahu or Yəša‘ăyāhû) is a book of the Jewish Hebrew Bible as well as the Christian Old Testament, containing prophecies attributed to Isaiah. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally: according to Matthew, Greek: Κατα Μαθθαιον ) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ...


Persons who are neither Christians nor Muslims generally doubt that Mary was a virgin when she gave birth to Jesus. A common view by some non-Christian sources speculates that Mary had relations with a Roman soldier and then married Joseph who protected her from the harsh Jewish laws of the time which would have sentenced her to death by stoning for such an act. This version is recorded by Origen in the third century and attributed to Celsus of the second century, who said he heard it from a Jew, in Origen's Contra Celsum 1.28-32. Also see: Illegitimacy of Jesus: A Feminist Theological Interpretation of the Infancy Narratives (Biblical Seminar Series, No 28), Jane Schaberg, ISBN 1850755337.


Virgin birth of Jesus in the Qu'ran

The Qur'an quite decisively declares that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth, but that neither she nor her son were divine, but merely "honoured servants" (21.26). The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Sura 3 and 19 of The Qur'an wherein it is written that Allah/The-God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin: The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The Annunciation, by El Greco (1575) In Christianity, the Annunciation is the revelation to Mary, the mother of Jesus by the archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth; for other uses, see Jesus (disambiguation). ... Surah ( ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...

(Remember) When the angels said O Mary! Allah Gives thee Good News of a son through a Word from Him! His name shall be the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, honoured in this world and in the next, and of those who Are Granted Nearness to Allah! (3.45)

And he shall speak to the people in the cradle, and when of middle age, and he shall be of The Righteous (3.46)

She said My Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me ? He Said, That is as it shall be. Allah Creates what He Pleases. When HE decrees a thing HE says to it "Be" and it is! (3.47)

The Qur'an also declares that one of the reasons (amongsts many listed) for the punishments of The-God upon the People of The Book -- "Allah has sealed their hearts" (4.155) -- is for their "uttering a monsterous lie against Mary" (4.156). This is generally understood to refer to the accusations of wanton unchastity which was directed by some against Mary in her lifetime and which remain recorded in the Talmud. The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ...


Sura 5 Signs 116-119 of The Qur'an includes the Prophecy of the Judgement Day where "Jesus son of Mary" will be questioned by Allah as regards to those who worship him and Mary, and that Jesus will deny them: Surah ( ) is the Arabic term for chapter of the Quran. ... This article is about the Signs Signs, see Signs (disambiguation). ... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Prophecy, in a broad sense, is the prediction of future events. ... The term Judgement Day may refer to: The Last Judgement; the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to Heaven or to Hell) by a divine tribunal at the end of time. ...

And when ALLAH will say O Jesus, son of Mary, didst thou say to men: Take me and my mother for two gods beside ALLAH ? He will answer Holy art Thou! I could never say that which I had no right. If I had said it, Thou wouldst have surely known it. Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I know not what is in Thy mind. It is Thou alone Who Art the Knower of all hidden things

I said nothing to them except that which Thou didst command me - Worship Allah (The-God), my Lord and your Lord. And I was a witness over them as long as I remained among them, but since Thou didst cause me to die, Thou, hast been the Watcher over them, and Thou art Witness over all things

If Thou punish them, they are Thy servants; and if Thou forgive them, Thou surely art the Mighty, the Wise.

Allah Will Say This is a Day when only The Truthful shall profit by their truthfulness. For them are Gardens beneath which streams flow; therein shall they abide forever. Allah Is well Pleased with them, and they are well pleased with HIM! That indeed is the Supreme Triumph!

Theotokos ("Mother of God")

Virgin and Child. Wall painting from the early Christian catacombs, Rome, 4th century.
Virgin and Child. Wall painting from the early Christian catacombs, Rome, 4th century.
Main article: Theotokos

At the Third Ecumenical council, the Council of Ephesus (against the Nestorians), A.D. 431, it was decided that it was entirely appropriate to refer to Mary as the Theotokos, to emphasize that Mary's child, Jesus Christ, was in fact God (Denziger §111a). That Council clarified that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God" (ibid.), thus affirming what had always been held as true: e.g. St. Ignatius of Antioch, ca. A.D. 110 (Jurgens §42); Alexander of Alexandria, A.D. 328 (Jurgens §680); among other references from similar sources. She is often referred to as "Theotokos" in Eastern Orthodox hymns. Image File history File links VirgenNino. ... Image File history File links VirgenNino. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ...


The Qur'an quite decisively declares that neither Mary nor her son Jesus were divine, but merely "honoured servants" (21.26). The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Perpetual virginity

Main article: Perpetual virginity of Mary

That Mary remained a virgin after the birth of Jesus is a doctrinal stance of the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Of the early fathers of the Church, only Tertullian seems to have questioned the teaching. The Perpetual Virginity of Mary is a Catholic and Orthodox doctrine of faith which states that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicized as Tertullian, (ca. ...


The question of Mary's virginity is related to the interpretation of the New Testament references to Jesus' "brothers". Those who defend the doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity point out that Aramaic, the language spoken by Christ and his disciples, lacked a specific word for "cousin," so that the word "brother" was used instead. This is also true in Hebrew, and there are several places in the Old Testament that use the word "brother" to mean nephew or cousin. Others argue that Jesus' "brothers" were sons of Joseph by a previous wife - and thus Jesus' stepbrothers, who would have been regarded as his half-brothers by the people Jesus and Mary lived alongside, who were unaware of Jesus' divinity and assumed him to be the son of Joseph. The fact that Jesus had sisters is more difficult to explain, and lends credence to the use of the word 'brothers' as being actual step-brothers to Jesus (sons of Joseph and Mary.)(For more details, see this section of the article on James the Just.) Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... For people and places called Saint James, see the disambiguation page. ...


The most prominent leaders of the Reformation, Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin also defended the perpetual virginity of Mary against those who questioned it. But by the 17th century, the Catholic and Protestant churches came to see Mary as a major point of division, and Protestant theologians began arguing that Mary did not remain a virgin and that the "brothers" of Jesus were indeed his half-brothers, sons of Mary and Joseph. Today most Protestants reject the doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity. They find no explicit scriptural mention of Mary not having other children, and consequently, with the evidence in the Bible that she did have other children, find no scriptural basis for the doctrine of perpetual virginity. Proponents claim there is implicit evidence of Jesus being without living brothers or sisters at the time of his crucifixion in that Jesus entrusts his mother to John. They say this would not be done if a relative of Mary were able to take her into his or her own family. However, it is also said that Jesus' brothers were not believers (John 7:5) until after the resurrection (Acts 1:14), so some believe Jesus entrusts Mary to John, the beloved apostle, for that reason. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... The eight words of Jesus on the cross are a traditional collection of eight short phrases uttered by Jesus at his crucifixion gathered from the four Gospels. ...


Islam teaches that Mary conceived Jesus as a virgin, but that Jesus had a single parent (Mary) and was not the Son of God. Muslims also believe that Mary remained a virgin for her entire life.


Dormition and Assumption

This image depicts Mary's Assumption into heaven with her body and soul.
This image depicts Mary's Assumption into heaven with her body and soul.
Main article: Assumption of Mary

For Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics alike, Mary's assumption, i.e., the lifting up of her body into Heaven after her death, is seen as a concrete and present instance of the resurrection of the body, a belief integral to Christian theology and found in the creeds. This shows Marys assumption into heaven with her body and soul. ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries According to Roman Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church, the body and soul of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus) was taken into Heaven after the end of her earthly life. ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries According to Roman Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church, the body and soul of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus) was taken into Heaven after the end of her earthly life. ... It has been suggested that Resurrection of the dead be merged into this article or section. ...


The Doctrine in Anglicanism

Most Anglicans have a higher regard for St.Mary than other Protestants. Nevertheless, mainly dulia is applied to her honour. There are, however, optional feast days, that, while not binding, are celebrated by some Anglicans, such as the Assumption. The Assumption is celebrated on August 15. Anglicanism also denies that Mary was conceived without sin.T he tradition of the Anglican Church holds that Mary died, and that after her death and burial, she was not resurrected but that her soul was transported to heaven without her body. (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλια dulia) In traditional Christian churches (for example, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), veneration, or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring God who made them and...


The doctrine in Roman Catholicism

The belief in the corporeal assumption of Mary was formally declared to be dogma by Pope Pius XII in 1950; Roman Catholics must therefore hold the doctrine as true. Pope Pius XII states in Munificentissimus Deus: "[W]e pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory. Hence if anyone, which God forbid, should dare willfully to deny or to call into doubt that which we have defined, let him know that he has fallen away completely from the divine and Catholic Faith." This is an example of an invocation of papal infallibility. The Feast of the Assumption is celebrated on August 15. // Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organization to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Munificentissimus Deus (Latin: The most bountiful God) is the name of an Apostolic constitution written by Pope Pius XII. It defines ex cathedra the dogma of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... In Roman Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that the Pope is preserved from error when he solemnly promulgates, or declares, to the Church a decision on faith or morals. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ...


The promulgated dogma is not worded so as to force the issue as to whether she experienced death prior to her Assumption, as there is no theological basis for doing so. Ludwig Ott (Bk. III, Pt. 3, Ch. 2, §6) states that "the fact of her death is almost generally accepted by the Fathers and Theologians, and is expressly affirmed in the Liturgy of the Church," to which he adduces a number of helpful citations, and concludes that "for Mary, death, in consequence of her freedom from original sin and from personal sin, was not a consequence of punishment of sin. However, it seems fitting that Mary's body, which was by nature mortal, should be, in conformity with that of her Divine Son, subject to the general law of death." In keeping with the historical consensus of the Church, Pius XII himself almost certainly rejected the notion of Mary's "immortality" (the idea that she never suffered death) in favor of the more widely accepted understanding that her assumption took place after her physical death.


The doctrine in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy

The tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church holds that Mary died, and that after her death and burial, she was not resurrected but that her body was miraculously transposed into heaven, as were the bodies of Enoch, Moses and Elijah. This two-fold event is celebrated as the Dormition ("falling asleep") of the Theotokos. The Feast of the Dormition is celebrated on August 15, and is preceded by a fourteen day fast from meat and dairy products, the third longest fast of the liturgical year after Great Lent and Winter Lent. Despite the great importance of this feast in the Orthodox liturgical calendar, it is not considered a matter of dogma as in the Catholic Church (dogmatization of the Dormition for the Roman Catholic Church was formalized by a Roman Catholic pope after the Great Schism, whose authority Eastern Orthodoxy did not recognize). The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pasch). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... Advent (from the Latin Adventus, sc. ... The term Great Schism refers to either of two splits in the history of Christianity: Most commonly, it refers to the great East-West Schism, the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Roman Catholicism in the eleventh century (1054). ...


Religious attitudes towards Mary

Veneration of Mary: Divisions Among Christians

The oldest-known image of Mary depicts her nursing the Infant Jesus. 2nd century, Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome.
The oldest-known image of Mary depicts her nursing the Infant Jesus. 2nd century, Catacomb of Priscilla, Rome.

Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican Christians venerate Mary, as do the non-Chalcedonian or Oriental Orthodox, a communion of churches that has been traditionally deemed monophysite (such as the Coptic Orthodox Church of Egypt and the Ethiopian Tewahedo Church). This veneration especially takes the form of prayer for intercession with her Son, Jesus Christ. Additionally it includes composing poems and songs in Mary's honor, painting icons or carving statues representing her, slighty kneeling before such images as a token of respect to the one portrayed by them, and conferring titles on Mary that reflect her position among the saints. She is also one of the most highly venerated saints in both the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Church; several major feast days are devoted to her each year. (See Liturgical year.) Protestants have generally payed only a small amount of rerverence to the Blessed Virgin than their Anglican, Catholic, and Orthodox cousins, often arguing that if too much attention is focused on Mary, there is a danger of detracting from the worship due to God alone. By contrast, certain documents of the Second Vatican Council, such as chapter VIII of the dogmatic constitution Lumen Gentium [1] describe Mary as higher than all other created beings, even angels: "she far surpasses all creatures, both in heaven and on earth"; but still in the final analysis, a created being, solely human - not divine - in her nature. On this showing, Catholic traditionalists would argue that there is no conflation [2] of the human and divine levels in their veneration of Mary. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x696, 97 KB) Summary Title: Virgin and Child with Balaam the Prophet Date: Late 2nd century. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x696, 97 KB) Summary Title: Virgin and Child with Balaam the Prophet Date: Late 2nd century. ... // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλια dulia) In traditional Christian churches (for example, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), veneration, or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring God who made them and... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... Tewahedo Church may refer to any of the following: The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Maria Magdalene in prayer. ... In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ...

Moses and the Burning Bush: Nicolas Froment, 1476: a major commission from René I of Naples for the cathedral at Aix-en-Provence shows the apparition in the Burning Bush as the Blessed Virgin in a bower of flaming roses.
Moses and the Burning Bush: Nicolas Froment, 1476: a major commission from René I of Naples for the cathedral at Aix-en-Provence shows the apparition in the Burning Bush as the Blessed Virgin in a bower of flaming roses.

The major origin and impetus of veneration of Mary comes from the Christological controversies of the early church - many debates denying in some way the divinity or humanity of Jesus Christ. So not only would one side affirm that Jesus was indeed God, but would assert the conclusion that Mary was the mother of God, although Protestants like to use the term God-bearer better. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x1045, 162 KB)Moses and The Burning Bush, Nicholas Froment, 1476 Central panel of tryptich for Rene of Provence Cathedrale Saint Sauveur, Aix-en-Provence File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (624x1045, 162 KB)Moses and The Burning Bush, Nicholas Froment, 1476 Central panel of tryptich for Rene of Provence Cathedrale Saint Sauveur, Aix-en-Provence File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert... René dAnjou, René I of Naples (René I the Good, French Le bon roi René) (January 16, 1409–July 10, 1480), was Duke of Anjou, Count of Provence (1434–1480), Count of Piedmont, Duke of Bar (1430–1480), Duke of Lorraine (1431–1453), King of Naples (1438–1442; titular... Aix (prounounced eks), or, to distinguish it from other cities built over hot springs, Aix-en-Provence is a city in southern France, some 30 km north of Marseille. ...


Both Roman Catholics and Orthodox, and especially Anglicans, make a clear distinction between such veneration (which is also due to the other saints) and adoration which is due to God alone. (The term worship is used by some theologians to subsume both sacrificial worship and worship of praise, e.g. Orestes Brownson in his book Saint Worship. The word "worship", while commonly used in place of "adoration" in the modern English vernacular, strictly speaking implies nothing more than the acknowledgement of "worth-ship" or worthiness, and thus means no more than the giving of honor where honor is due [e.g. the use of "Your Worship" as a form of address to judges in certain English legal traditions]. "Worship" is sometimes used in this sense in Catholic literature when referring to the veneration of the Blessed Virgin). Mary, they point out, is not divine, and has only such powers to help as are granted to her by God in response to her prayers. Such miracles as may occur through Mary's intercession are ultimately the result of God's love and omnipotence. Roman Catholicism distinguishes three forms of honor: latria, due only to God, and usually translated by the English word adoration; hyperdulia, accorded only to the Blessed Virgin Mary, usually translated simply as veneration; and dulia, accorded to the rest of the saints, also usually translated as veneration. The Orthodox distinguish between worship and veneration but do not accept a sort of "hyper"-veneration only for the Theotokos. Protestants and Anglicans consider hyperdulia to be rivaling to latria, and Anglicans are content to give St.Mary only dulia, or "honour." Adoration (Latin ad, to, and as, mouth; i. ... Worship usually refers to specific acts of religious praise, honour, or devotion, typically directed to a supernatural being such as a god or goddess. ... Orestes Augustus Brownson (1803-1876) was a New England intellectual and activist, preacher and labor organizer. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The vernacular is the native language of a country or locality. ... The term, Judges, may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible or to the office of judge. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK... Latria is a Greek term used in Catholic theology to mean adoration, which is the highest form of worship or reverence and is directed only to God. ... (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλια dulia) In traditional Christian churches (for example, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), veneration, or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring God who made them and... (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλια dulia) In traditional Christian churches (for example, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), veneration, or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring God who made them and... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ...


The surge in the veneration of Mary in the High Middle Ages owes some of its initial impetus to Bernard of Clairvaux. Bernard expanded upon Anselm of Canterbury's role in transmuting the sacramental ritual Christianity of the Early Middle Ages into a new, more personally held faith, with the life of Christ as a model and a new emphasis on the Virgin Mary. In opposition to the rational approach to divine understanding that the schoolmen adopted, Bernard preached an immediate faith, in which the intercessor was the Virgin Mary. "the Virgin that is the royal way, by which the Savior comes to us." "Bernard played the leading role in the development of the Virgin cult, which is one of the most important manifestations of the popular piety of the twelfth century. In early medieval thought the Virgin Mary had played a minor role, and it was only with the rise of emotional Christianity in the eleventh century that she became the prime intercessor for humanity with the deity." (Cantor 1993 p 341) Bernard of Clairvaux, in a medieval illuminated manuscript Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (Fontaines, near Dijon, 1090 – August 21, 1153 in Clairvaux) was a French abbot and theologian who was the main voice of conservatism during the intellectual revival of Western Europe called the Renaissance of the 12th century. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109), a widely influential medieval philosopher and theologian, held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ...

Image from 17th century Peruvian cult
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Image from 17th century Peruvian cult

Some early Protestants venerated and honored Mary. Martin Luther said Mary is "the highest woman," that "we can never honour her enough," that "the veneration of Mary is inscribed in the very depths of the human heart," and that we should "wish that everyone know and respect her." John Calvin said, "It cannot be denied that God in choosing and destining Mary to be the Mother of his Son, granted her the highest honor." Zwingli said, "I esteem immensely the Mother of God," and, "The more the honor and love of Christ increases among men, so much the esteem and honor given to Mary should grow." Thus the idea of respect and high honour was not rejected by the first Protestants; but, they came to criticize the Catholics for blurring the line, between high admiration of the grace of God wherever it is seen in a human being, and religious service given to another creature. The Roman Catholic practice of celebrating saints' days and making intercessory requests addressed especially to Mary and other departed saints they considered (and consider) to be idolatry. With the exception of some portions of the Anglican Communion, Protestantism usually follows the reformers in rejecting the practice of directly addressing Mary and other saints in prayers of admiration or petition, as part of their religious worship of God. Protestants will not typically call the respect or honor that they may have for Mary veneration because of the special religious significance that this term has in the Catholic practice. 17th century Peruvian Mary-cult photo. ... 17th century Peruvian Mary-cult photo. ... In religion and sociology, a cult is a cohesive group of people (often a relatively small and new religious movement) devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture or society considers to be far outside the mainstream. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ...

  • Norman F. Cantor, The Civilization of the Middle Ages 1993

Joint Anglican-Roman Catholic document

Our Lady of Vladimir, one of the holiest medieval representations of the Virgin.
Our Lady of Vladimir, one of the holiest medieval representations of the Virgin.

On May 16, 2005, the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches issued a joint 43-page statement, "Mary: Hope and Grace in Christ" (also known as the Seattle Statement) on the role of the Virgin Mary in Christianity as a way to uphold ecumenical cooperation despite differences over other matters. The document was released in Seattle, Washington, by Alexander Brunett, the local Catholic Archbishop, and Peter Carnley, Anglican Archbishop of Perth, Western Australia, co-chairmen of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC). Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Download high resolution version (456x681, 221 KB)Our Lady of Vladimir (12th century), the holy protectress of Russia, now in the Tretyakov Gallery. ... Theotokos of Vladimir Our Lady of Vladimir, more accurately termed the Virgin of Vladimir or the Theotokos of Vladimir (Russian: Владимирская Богоматерь) is one of the most venerated Orthodox icons. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... This article is about the city. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... The Most Reverend Dr Peter Carnley AO (b. ... Perth is the state capital and most populous city of Western Australia. ... Anglican and Roman Catholic International Commission ARCIC is an on-going process of dialogue between the Anglican and the Roman Catholic Churches, which seeks to identify common ground between the two. ...


The joint document is said to seek a common understanding to help both churches agree on the theological reasoning behind the Catholic dogmas, despite Anglicans not accepting the papal authority that underpins them. Carnley has reportedly said that Anglican concerns, that dogmas about Mary are not provable by scripture, would "disappear", with the document discussing that Anglicans would stop opposition to Roman Catholic teachings of the Immaculate Conception (defined in 1854) and the Assumption of Mary (defined in 1950) as being "consonant" with the Biblical teachings. Mary Immaculate This article refers to the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary, Mother of Jesus. ... An assumption is a proposition that is assumed, i. ...


Non-Abrahamic worship of Mary

Some followers of non-Abrahamic religions, particularly followers of Wicca, link Mary to the Earth Mother of various Neo-pagan traditions. Some Buddhists have even been known to link Mary to Kwan-Yin, a Bodhisattva of compassion venerated by various Chinese Buddhist faiths. Followers of Santería identify Mary (as Our Lady of Regla) with the goddess Yemaja. A Neopagan pentacle, which is a pentagram enclosed by a circle: a symbol used by many Wiccans. ... The Earth Mother is a motif that appears in many mythologies. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Kuan Yin (Pinyin: Guanyin; also written Kwan Yin or in other variants which hyphenate or remove the space between the two words) is the bodhisattva of compassion as venerated by East Asian Buddhists. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... Lukumí or Regla de Ocha, most widely known as Santeria, is a set of related religious systems that fuse Catholic beliefs with traditional Yorùbá beliefs. ... In Yorùbá mythology, Yemoja is a mother goddess; patron deity of women, especially pregnant women; and the Ogun river (the waters of which are said to cure infertility). ...


Mary and Shakespeare

In sixteenth-century England, veneration of Mary was a central issue in public controversy about the sense of Scriptural text, religious images, and religious practices in Christian life. Some leading figures in sixteenth-century England considered pilgrimages to Marian shrines and praying the rosary to be un-Scriptural, "superstitious", and/or idolatrous. From 1535 to 1538, under orders from Henry VIII, all Christian shrines in England were destroyed because Protestant reformers believed they were a corrupting spiritual influence. Many of these destroyed shrines were Marian, and they included the highly-popular shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham, as well as other centres at Ipswich, Worcester, Doncaster, and Penrise. The shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham had been visited in pilgrimage by two of Henry's six wives, Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn, both of whom were dead by the time the shrine was destroyed in 1538. Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary Beads The Rosary (from Latin rosarium, crown of roses), is an important and traditional devotion of the Catholic Church consisting of a set of prayer beads and a system of set prayers. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Map sources for Walsingham at grid reference TF934368 This refers to the town, for other uses see Walsingham (disambiguation) Walsingham (full name Little Walsingham) is a small market town (population 864) in Norfolk, England, famed for its religious shrines in honour of the Virgin Mary. ... The recently-widowed young Catherine of Aragon, by Henry VIIs court painter, Michael Sittow, c. ... A portrait of Anne painted some years after her death Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (c. ... Events Treaty of Nagyvarad. ...


At the same time, "Mary" rose dramatically in popularity, as a given name for baby girls in sixteenth-century England. About 1500, in Warwick County, England, perhaps only 1% of baby girls were named Mary. By 1600, the share of baby girls named Mary had risen to about 10%.[3] This change is remarkable, in light of extensive government efforts during that same time-period to extirpate veneration of Marian images, and to direct Christian worship to the written word.


William Shakespeare had keen appreciation for the controversy over the "sense of Mary" in Christian life. Concern about the relationship between words and images, and players, shadows, and real persons, pervades Shakespeare's work. His play, Romeo and Juliet, Act 1, Scene 5, includes a dialogue, formally organized as a sonnet, that uses Marian pilgrimage to figure Romeo's wooing of Juliet. The last scene in The Winter's Tale includes instructions from Paulina, that place Perdita in the position of asking the statue of Hermione for intercessory prayer, much as a pilgrim to a Marian shrine might have prayed before an image of Mary. Turmoil about the sense of Mary in sixteenth-century English history is closely-related to the development of Shakespeare's theatre, according to some critics. William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, commonly referred to as Romeo and Juliet, is a play by William Shakespeare concerning the fate of two young lovers who would do anything to be together. ... The Winters Tale is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... A critic (from Greek κριτικός, kritikós - one who discerns, from Ancient Greek κριτής, krités, a judge) is a person who offers judgement or analysis, value judgement, interpretation, or observation. ...


Portrayals

Mary has been portrayed in several films:

Linda Darnell Monetta Eloyse Darnell, better known as Linda Darnell (born October 16, 1923; died April 10, 1965), was a American film actress. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1942 books | Books starting with S | 1943 films | Best Picture Oscar Nominee | Best Actress Oscar (film) | Best Supporting Actor Oscar Nominee (film) | Best Supporting Actress Oscar Nominee (film) ... The Miracle Of Our Lady Of Fatima is a feature length film made in 1952. ... Siobhán McKenna (May 24, 1922 - November 16, 1986), was a Irish stage and screen actress. ... King of Kings is a Samuel Bronston-produced epic retelling the story of Jesus from his brith to his cruxificion and resurrection. ... Olivia Hussey (born Olivia Osuna on April 17, 1951 in Buenos Aires Argentina) is a British actress who appeared as Juliet in Zeffirellis 1968 movie version of Romeo and Juliet. ... This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). ... The Last Temptation of Christ is a novel written by Nikos Kazantzakis, first published in December 1960. ... Pernilla August as Shmi Skywalker in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ... Mary, Mother of Jesus (1999) is a made-for-telvision Biblical film that retells the story of Jesus through the eyes of Mary, his mother. ... Maia Morgernstern (b. ... The Passion of the Christ (2004) is a film about the last twelve hours of the life of Jesus Christ. ...

See also

This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The following Prayers to Mary are Catholic prayers to Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture sometimes displayed in homes. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... Mary Immaculate This article refers to the dogma of the immaculate conception of Mary, Mother of Jesus. ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries According to Roman Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church, the body and soul of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Mary, the mother of Jesus) was taken into Heaven after the end of her earthly life. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ... Our Lady the Garden Enclosed, statue in the hermitage church of Warfhuizen. ... Brasil, Jacareí: A photograph claimed to be of the Virgin Mary, miraculously produced. ... A Virgin Mary shrine is a shrine marking an apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... Our Lady of Fatima Our Lady of Fatima (pron. ... Our Lady of Guadalupe Our Lady of Guadalupe or the Virgin of Guadalupe is a Roman Catholic icon and arguably Mexicos most popular image: Nobel laureate Octavio Paz is quoted as saying that the Mexican people, after more than two centuries of experiments, have faith only in the Virgin... In Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Christianity, Joy of all who Sorrow is a title given to the Theotokos (Mary, the mother of Jesus). ... The plague Column of the Virgin Mary Immaculate in Kutná Hora, the Czech Republic, built between 1713 and 1715 Marian columns were built in honour to the Virgin Mary, often in thanksgiving for ending a plague or some other help. ...

External links

Further reading

  • Orestes Brownson, Saint Worship and the Worship of Mary, Sophia Institute Press, 2003, ISBN 1928832881
  • Chantal Epie, The Scriptural Roots of Catholic Teaching, Sophia Institute Press, 2002, ISBN 1928832539
  • William A. Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers
  • Jaroslav Pelikan, Mary Through the Centuries: Her Place in the History of Culture, Yale University Press, 1998, hardcover, 240 pages ISBN 0300069510; trade paperback, 1998, 240 pages, ISBN 0300076614
  • Hilda Graef, Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion, London: Sheed & Ward, 1985, ISBN 0722052219
  • Barbara Newman, God and the Goddesses, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003
  • John Noyce, Visions and prophecies of the Divine Feminine, Noyce Publishing, 2006

Footnotes


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mary, mother of Jesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6051 words)
Mary is frequently referred to by the Orthodox Church and related traditions within the Catholic Church as Theotokos, a title recognized at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431.
Mary is also depicted as being present during the crucifixion standing near "the disciple whom Jesus loved" along with her sister Mary of Clopas (possibly identical with the mother of James the younger and Joseph mentioned in Matthew 27:55, cf.
Mary, cradling the dead body of her Son, while not recorded in the Gospel accounts, is a common motif in art, called a "pietà" or "piety".
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Blessed Virgin Mary (12531 words)
Mary's Divine motherhood is based on the teaching of the Gospels, on the writings of the Fathers, and on the express definition of the Church.
Mary behaved in the upper room in Jerusalem as she had behaved in the grotto at Bethlehem; in Bethlehem she had carried for the Infant Jesus, in Jerusalem she nurtured the infant Church.
Mary is there drawn with the Divine Infant in her lap, she with hands extended in prayer, he with his hand in the attitude of blessing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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