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Encyclopedia > Marxists Internet Archive

The Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a volunteer based non-profit organization that maintains a multi-lingual Internet archive of Marxist writers and other similar authors (Socialists, etc.) on the website http://www.marxists.org. For other uses of the word Archive, see Archive (disambiguation) Archives refers to a collection of records with specific characteristics, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Marxism is the social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... For information on mainstream political parties using the term Socialist, see Social democracy and Democratic socialism, For the governments of the USSR, the PRC, and others, see: Communist state, Other variants of Socialism include Marxism, Communism, and Libertarian Socialism. ...


Early beginnings

The archive was created in 1990 when a worker - known only by his Internet nickname, Zodiac - started archiving Marxism by transcribing the works of Marx and Engels into E-Text. In 1993 the accumulated text was posted on a website for the first time. Volunteers joined and helped spread and mirror the main archive. However, the main website and its mirrors were on academic servers and by 1995 almost every university closed down the mirrors. This article is about the year. ... Marxs view of history, which came to be called the materialist interpretation of history (and which was developed further as the philosophy of dialectical materialism) is certainly influenced by Hegels claim that reality (and history) should be viewed dialectically, through a clash of opposing forces. ... The term Engels could refer to more than one thing: Friedrich Engels, German socialist Engels, Russia, formerly known as Pokrovsk This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An e-text (from electronic text; sometimes written as etext) is, generally, any textual information that is available in a digitally encoded human-readable format and read by electronic means, but more specifically it refers to files in the ASCII text file format. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...

By 1996 the website, Marx.org, was hosted on a commercial internet service provider. This was followed by an increased activity from the volunteers. In the following years, a conflict developed between the volunteers working on the website and Zodiac, who retained control of the project. This resulted in a split. 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... An Internet service provider (ISP, also called Internet access provider) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ...

In July 1998 the present form of the Marxists Internet Archive (marxists.org) was created. This lead to a further increase in activity and an enlargement of the scope of the archive.-Source 1998(MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


The website, and the group of volunteers working on it, has dramatically changed since its early beginnings. Now the Marxists Internet Archive is a recognized repository for both Marxist and non-Marxist writers. A repository is a central place where data is stored and maintained. ...


The MIA is controlled by a steering committee. The Committee decides issues such as the categorization of writers, modifications to the bylaw's (By 3/4 majority), financial issues of all kinds, and similar matters. A committee is a (relatively) small group that can serve one of several functions: Governance: in organizations too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a committee (such as a Board of Directors) is given the power to make decisions. ... A Bylaw (sometimes also seen as By-Law or ByLaw) was originally the Viking town law in the Danelaw. ...

Administrators are volunteers who assume additional responsibilities over certain section(s) of MIA.-Sourcef

Legal Status

The MIA is a non-profit, 501(c)(3) organization. A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ...


According to the MIA charter, it's content will always be offered 100% free. All the material stored in the archives is either Public Domain, under the GNU Free Documentation License, or used with the copyright holders' permission. Any work created by MIA volunteers is under the Creative Commons Attribute, share-alike 2.0 license.-Source A charter is a document bestowing certain rights on a town, city, university or institution; sometimes used as a loan of money. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... GNU logo The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free content, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU project. ... Version 2 of Some Rights Reserved logo Some Rights reserved logo No Rights reserved logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-12-02, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...

Continuity of the archive

Eight mirrors exist of the website. A CD/DVD archive (containing the material on the website) is also sold, although many copies are distributed every year free of charge to individuals and groups in poorer countries. Also, local distribution networks for the CD version of the archives have been established in areas of India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan in which internet access is scarce or prohibitively expensive. Mirror (computing) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... DVD (sometimes called Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s...

These measures are not only meant to allow easy access to the material in the archive, but also as a way of ensuring the continuity of the archive. As they put it: “If the Archive is shut down by a publishing conglomerate or the government, having this information widely dispersed around the world, essentially untraceable, with the content entirely intact, is a great thing.”-Source

Archive style

Most of material on the website is formatted in HTML, and the style of the documents is determined with CSS, although PDF format is sometimes used, especially for languages which don't yet have computer fonts or OCR software available. In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ... In computing, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... OCR can mean: Optical character recognition. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...

The markup and style of the archive varies from one section to the other, depending on the volunteers who work there, but all are built on a common a basic document template.

Division of the archive

Although the website is called the Marxists Internet Archive, it has outgrown the limits of that name and now has several sections:

Marxist Writers

This section contains all Marxist writers from Marx and Engels onward. The most notable writers beside Marx and Engels are Lenin, Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg and Che Guevara. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish language Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish-born German Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Che Guevara Ernesto Rafael Guevara de la Serna (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara or el Che, was an Argentinian-born physician and Marxist revolutionary best known for his prominent role as a guerrilla leader during the Cuban Revolution. ...

The archive plans to contain all deceased Marxist writers' works, which includes fiction and non-fiction work, regardless of whether it was written on Marxism or not. The Three Graces, here in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility in Greek mythology. ... Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is composed of facts, true or untrue. ...

History Archive

This section contains documents on historical subjects that have relevance to Marxism. Most notable are the sub-sections about the Soviet Union and the Paris Commune. There are documents on 9 historical subjects in total. The term Paris Commune originally referred to the government of Paris during the French Revolution. ...

Subject Archive

This section is for Special Subject Collections; Most notable is the Philosophy subject archive, which contains a massive collection of over 120 thinkers, from 1600 to 2000. About 24 subjects are available. These five broad types of question are called analytical or logical, epistemological, ethical, metaphysical, and aesthetic respectively. ... // Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned at the stake for heresy in Rome July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the... This article is about the year 2000. ...

Reference Writers

This section is a guide to writers relevant to understanding the concepts of Marxism. Divided into two main parts:

// What is science? There are various understandings of the word science. According to empiricism, scientific theories are objective, empirically testable, and predictive — they predict empirical results that can be checked and possibly contradicted. ... These five broad types of question are called analytical or logical, epistemological, ethical, metaphysical, and aesthetic respectively. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... For other people named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... For otheruses, see Tocqueville (disambiguation) Alexis de Tocqueville (July 29, 1805 - April 16, 1859) was a French political thinker and historian. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Area  - Total  - % water Largest on the planet 22,402,200 km² ?% Population  - Total  - Density 3rd before collapse 293,047,571 (July... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Definitions of anarchism on Wikiquote Anarchism derives from the Greek αναρχία (without archons (rulers)). Thus anarchism, in its most general meaning, is the belief that rulers are unnecessary and should be abolished. ... Utopian Socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... Portrait of Sir Thomas More, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1527). ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин), (May 30, 1814–June 13, 1876) was a well-known Russian anarchist contemporaneous to Karl Marx. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Communism refers to a theoretical system of social organization and a political movement based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. ... The Comintern (from Russian Коммунистичекий Интернационал (Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional) – Communist International), also known as the Third International, was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919 by Lenin, Trotsky and the Russian Communist Party (bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie... Maoism or Mao Tse-tung Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ...

Encyclopedia of Marxism

The Encyclopedia of Marxism is a reference guide to Marxism, the working class, and proletarian revolution in the world. It contains definitions of Marxist terms, short biographies and historical material. The encyclopedia provides the following elements to the whole archive: Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon, 1902 An encyclopedia (alternatively encyclopaedia) is a written compendium of knowledge. ... A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political revolution in which the working class overthrows (or attempts to overthrow) capitalism. ...

  • Glossary of terms.
  • Brief biographies.
  • Events and organizations.

Multi-lingual archives

The MIA aims to provide an archive of Marxist works in many languages. As of mid-December, 2005, the MIA provides content in 41 languages. Some of these archives have only a few documents by Marx and Engels, while others are more extensive - for example, the Chinese language section has the complete collected Works of Marx, Engels and Lenin. Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...

See also

This is a list of projects related to digital libraries. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Marxism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3761 words)
Although there are still many Marxist revolutionary social movements and political parties around the world, since the collapse of the Soviet Union and its satellite states, relatively few countries have governments which describe themselves as Marxist.
From a Marxist perspective, the actually-existing basic classes in today's advanced economies are the capitalist class, the new middle classes who engage in both labour and managerial responsibilities, self-employed proprietors, the working class and a lower "lumpenised" stratum.
It is common to speak of Marxian rather than Marxist theory when referring to political study that draws from the work of Marx for the analysis and understanding of existing (usually capitalist) economies, but rejects the more speculative predictions that Marx and many of his followers made about post-capitalist societies.
  More results at FactBites »



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