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Encyclopedia > Marwanid
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Marwanid, (990-1085), was a Kurdish dynasty in Northern Mesopotamia and Armenia, centered around the city of Diyarbakır. Other cities under rule were Arzan, Mayyafarikin, Hisn-Kayfa (Hasankeyf), Khlat, Manzikert, Arjish. The founder of the dynasty was a Kurdish shepherd, Abu Shuja Badh bin Dustak. He left his cattle, took up arms and became a valiant chief of war, obtaining celebrity. When a member of the Iranian dynasty of Buyid, Adud al Dawla, who ruled the Islamic empire, died in 983, Badh took Mayyafarikin, a city of the North-Eastern Diyarbakır. Formerly it was Martyropolis, and nowadays it calls Silvan. He took Akhlat and Nisibis, too. The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... The Gutians (also: Quti, Kuti, Gurti, Qurti, Kurti) were a people of ancient Mesopotamia who lived primarily in the central Zagros Range, most probably an Aryan people. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... The Kayusid or House of Kayus (also Kâvos) or Kâvusakân(226-380) was a semi-independent Kurdish kingdom in central and southern Kurdistan established in 226 CE. The House of Kayus was established after an agreement between Kurdish principalities and kingdoms and the Persian Empire, following a... The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ... Hasanwayhid,(959-1015), was a Kurdish principality centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). ... The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and Nomaniya(in north-eastern Iraq). ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Badlis (1182-1847), was a Kurdish principality originated from the Rojaki tribe. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Badinan, was one of the more powerful and enduring Kurdish principalities. ... Soran Emirate (1399-1883 A.D) was a Kurdish principality in Southern Kurdistan Its Capital was the city of Rawanduz. ... Baban, (1649-1850), was a Kurdish principality and ruling family originated in the region of Pijder. ... The Kingdom of Kurdistan can refer to two kingdoms formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan. ... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... Qazi Mohammad, president of the Republic of Kurdistan The Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد ), officially Republic of Kurdistan, established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Soviet backed Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. ... The Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: حكومه تى هه ريمى كوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan, Arabic: اقلیم کردستان) is an autonomous, federally recognized political entity located in northern Iraq. ... Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana ÃŽranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3]) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... Turkish Kurdistan (Turkish: Türkiye Kürdistanı or Kuzey Kürdistan (Northern Kurdistan) or Kuzeybatı Kürdistan [4] (Northwestern Kurdistan), Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê [5] or Bakurê Kurdistanê [6] (North of Kurdistan) or Kurdistana Bakûr [7] (Northern Kurdistan) ) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey densely inhabited... About half of all Kurds live in Turkey, numbering some 15 million where they comprise an estimated 20%[1] of the total population of Turkey and are predominantly distributed in the southeastern corner of the country. ... Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... The Kurdistan newspaper Kurdish literature (in Kurdish: Wêjey kurdî) is a literature written in Kurdish language. ... Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish Classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). ... Kurdish dance (Kurdish: Govend) is a group of traditional hand-holding dances similar to those from the Balkans, Lebanon, and to Iraq. ... Kurdish women have traditionally played important roles in Kurdish history, society and politics. ... Events Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... Hasankeyf on the Tigris River Hasankeyf is in Batman Province, southeast Turkey — an area mainly settled by Kurds. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Events Hugh Capet, a distant relative of the last Carolingian king of the Franks, is crowned King of France, beginning the Capetian dynasty and, arguably, modern French history. ... In popular tradition and mythology, silvans (alternatively sylvans) are creatures or people associated with trees. ...

Contents

List of Marwanid Rulers

  1. Abu Shja Badh bin Dustak (983-990)
  2. Al-Hasan ibn Marwan (990-997)
  3. Mumahhid al-Dawla Sa’id (997-1011)
  4. Nasr al-Dawla Ahmad ibn Marwan (1011-1061)
  5. Nizam al-Dawla Nasr (1061-1079)
  6. Nasir al-Dawla Mansur (1079-1085)

Badh bin Dustak

He founded the Kurdish emirate and conquered Diyarbakır, as well as a variety of urban sites on the northern shores of Lake Van in Armenia. During the Phocas revolt, Bad took advantage of the mayhem inside Byzantium to raid the plain of Mus in Taron, an Armenian princedom annexed by Byzantium in 966. A van is a vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people. ... Byzantium, present day Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Mus can refer to: a genus, to which the mouse belongs a city in Turkey, capital of Mus Province Mus, a commune of the Gard département in France Mus, a spanish card game Also see: MUS This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same... Events April 14 or April 30 - Mieszko I, first duke of Poland, baptised a Christian Births Fujiwara no Michinaga, Japanese regent Deaths King Dubh I of Scotland Categories: 966 ...


Abu Ali Al-Hasan bin Marwan

Elias of Nisibis, a syriac chronicler, mentioned shortly the life of Abu ‘Ali al-Hasan. After the death of his uncle Badh, the elder son of Marwan came back to Hisn-Kayfa, married the widow of the old warrior chief. He fought the last Hamdanids, confused them and took again all the fortresses. Elias related the tragic end of this prince who was killed in Amed (Diyarbakır) in 997 by insurged inhabitants. His brother Abu Mansur Sa’id succeeded to him, under the name of Mumahhid al-Dawla. Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004). ... Kurdish name for the city of Diyarbakir. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ...


In 992, after Bad's death and a series of Byzantine punitive raids around Lake Van, Basil II was able to negotiate a lasting peace with the Kurdish emirate. In 1000 this deal was further solidified when Basil II offered Bad's nephew, Al-Hasan ibn Marwan, the title of magistros, the office of dux of the east, and the promise that imperial troops would assist the Marwanids if they came under outside attack.[1] Boleslaus I becomes Duke of Poland Battle of Conquereuil - Fulk Nerra defeats Conan I of Rennes, who is killed in the battle. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... A van is a vehicle used for transporting goods or groups of people. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ...


Mumahhid al-Dawla Sa’id

Mumahhid, a skilful diplomat, could make use of the Byzantines'ambitions, who were present in Northern-Anatolia. The relations of this prince with the Emperor Basil II (976-1025) were quite friendly. When Basil learnt the murderer of the Georgian potentate David III of Tao, who had left by testament his kingdom to the Byzantine empire, he stopped the campaign that he had begun in Syria for making sure of Arabian emirs' obedience and he crossed the Euphrates. He annexed David's state, received Mumahhid ed Daula merrily and made peace with him. Mumahhid ed Daula took advantage of peace for restoring the walls of his capital Maïpherqat (Mayyafarikin), the siege of his sovereignty, and made inscribe on it his name, that is still shining nowadays. Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... David of Tao as depicted on a bas-relief from the Oshki Monastery. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ...


Nasr al-Dawla Ahmad ibn Marwan

He was the third Marwan's son, acceded to the throne. As a clever politician, he could skilfully impose on the Buyid emir Sultan al-Dawla, the Fatimid caliph of Egypt Al Hakim and on the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. All of them sent him congratulations. They represented the great powers that surrendered the state-plug of Mayyafarikin. Elias of Nisibis has written that Nasr al-Dawla Ahmad bin Marwan, "the victorious emir", subdued Ibn Dimne, his vassal in Diyarbakır, in 1011. He signed with the Empire of Constantinople, a pact of mutual non-aggression, but violated it once or twice. The renown of this Kurdish Muslim prince grew so such that the inhabitants of al-Ruha, (Edessa)(present-day Sanli Urfa), at the west, called him for being released of an Arabian chief. Nasr al-Dawla b. Marwan took the city of Edessa in 1026, and added it to his possessions. This event has been reported by the famous western-Syriac author Abu’l Faradj Bar Hebraeus (1226-1286). So Nasr al-Dawla annexed Edessa, but the city was retaken by the Byzantine Empire in 1031. The long rule of Nasr al-Dawla Ahmad meaning the apogee of Marwanids' power. He built a new citadel on a hill of Mayyafarikin where stood the Church of Virgin, he built bridges and public baths. He restored the observatory. Some libraries fit out the mosques of Mayyafarikin and Amed. He invited well-known scholars, historians and poets to his royal court, among them Ibn al-Athir, ‘Abd Allah al-Kazaruni (poet), al-Tihami. He sheltered political refugees as the future Abbassid caliph Al-Muqtadi(1075-1099). Nasr al-Dawla b. Marwan, in 1054, had to acknowledge as his own liege Toghrul Beg the Seljuk, who ruled on the largest part of Jezira, but he kept his territories. This fine period of peace and good feelings between Kurds and Syriacs was rich in creations in the field of cultural life. It was dense for trade, active for arts and crafts, impressive in short. Nasr al-Dawla b. Marwan left in Diyarbakır monumental inscriptions that show still now the artistic brightness of its reign. The Buyid confederation existed within the Islamic empire from 945 to 1055. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... Events Emperor Sanjo ascends to the throne of Japan. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... Sanli Urfa (in Turkish Åžanlıurfa) is a city in eastern Turkey, and the provincial capital of Sanliurfa Province. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Events Archbishop Ariberto crowns Conrad II King of Italy in Milan. ... Events Carmelite Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II calls Imperial Diet of Cremona Births June 21 - King Boleslaus V of Poland (died 1279) Abul-Faraj, Syriac scholar (died 1286) Bar-Hebraeus, Syriac historian and bishop (died 1286) Deaths March 7 - William de Longespee, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, English... Events Margaret I of Scotland became queen of Scotland, end of Canmore dynasty. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Kurdish name for the city of Diyarbakir. ... Izz ad-DÄ«n Hassan Karam pour AthÄ«r (1160–1233), was a 13th century Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Al-Muqtadi (d. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Toğrül (Tuğril or Toghrïl Beg; ca 990 - September 4, 1063) was the third ruler of the Seljuk dynasty. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


Twilight

After Nasr al-Dawla's death, the Marwanids' power declined and grew weak. His second son, Nizam, succeeded him and ruled until 1079, then followed his son Nasir al-Dawla Mansur. The end of the Marwanid dynasty minced along, in a scent of treason. Ibn Jahir, a former vizir, left the Diyarbakır, and went to Baghdad. There, he could convince the sultan Malik Shah I (1072-1092), a grand-nephew of Toghrul Beg, and the famous vizir Nizam al-Mulk, to allow him for assaulting Mayyafarikin. When the city was taken, Ibn Jahir took off the great treasures that belonged to the Marwanids and detained them greedily for himself. Since and after, the Diyarbakır fell almost entirely under the direct rule of Seljukids. The last emir, Nasir al-Dawla Mansur, kept only the city of Jazirat Ibn ‘Umar (present-day Cizre in south-eastern Turkey). Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Events May 9 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th...


References

  1. Blaum, P., "A History of the Kurdish Marwanid Dynasty (983-1085), Part I", Kurdish Studies: An International Journal, Vol.5, No.1-2, Spring/Fall 1992, pp. 54-68.
  2. Blaum, P., "A History of the Kurdish Marwanid Dynasty (983-1085), Part II", Kurdish Studies: An International Journal, Vol.6, No.1-2, Fall 1993, pp. 40-65.
  3. The Kurdish Marwanid princes and Syriac scholars, by Ephrem-Isa Yousif.
  4. The Kurdish Marwanid princes and Syriac scholars
  5. Basil II, in An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors, by Catherine Holmes, 2003.
  6. Chronography of Elias bar-Sinaya, Metropolitan of Nisibe, edited and translated by L.J. Delaporte, Paris, 1910, P. 138.
  7. Bar Hébraeus, Chronique universelle, Mokhtassar al-Doual, Beirout, P. 180.
  8. al-Fâriqî, Ahmad b. Yûsuf b. `Alî b. al-Azrâq, Târîkh al-fâriqî (ed. Badawî `Abd al-Latîf `Awwad). Beirut: Dâr al-Kitâb al-Lubnânî, 1984. [English summary by H.F. Amedroz, "The Marwanid dynasty at Mayyafariqin in the tenth and eleventh centuries AD", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1903, 123-154].

 
 

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