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Encyclopedia > Marwan II

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The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
The Califate in 750
From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923
Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin

Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. He was the last Umayyad ruler to rule from Damascus. The Quran (Arabic: al-qurān literally the recitation; also called Al Qurān Al KarÄ«m or The Noble Quran; or transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith (Arabic: , Arabic pl. ... This article is not about the group of British engineering companies called Sira; see Sira (group of British companies). ... - Islamic jurisprudence, Fiqh (in Arabic and Persian: فقه) is made up of the rulings of Islamic jurists to direct the lives of the Muslim faithful. ... Sharia (Arabic: ; also SharÄ«ah, Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is the Arabic word for Islamic law, also known as the Law of Allah. ... // Historical Background of Sunni-Shia Split The principal issue upon which Islams first major sectarian split occurred centers on the question of leadership. ... Shia Islam (Arabic: or follower. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف tasÌ£awwuf) is a school of esoteric philosophy in Islam, which is based on the pursuit of spiritual truth as a definite goal to attain. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... This is a list of cities that various groups regard as holy. ... Islamic architecture is the entire range of architecture that has evolved from Islam as a social, cultural, political and religious phenomenon. ... Mediums of Islamic art Islamic art throughout history has been mainly abstract and decorative, portraying geometric, floral, Arabesque, and calligraphic designs. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (also called Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. ... Islamic religious leaders are persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, perform a prominent role within their community or nation. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... Jihad (jihād جهاد) is an Islamic term, from the Arabic root jhd (to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle), which connotes a wide range of meanings: anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islam and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ... As with any religion, various critics have found fault with Islam for theological, ethical, and political reasons. ... Download high resolution version (1229x1028, 292 KB)Middle East and Europe - The Caliphate in 750 (293K) The Califate in 750. ... Download high resolution version (1229x1028, 292 KB)Middle East and Europe - The Caliphate in 750 (293K) The Califate in 750. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Events Emperor Justinian II of the Bulgarians. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Events February - Hildeprand succeeds Liutprand as king of the Lombards. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria and is the oldest inhabited city in the world. ...


Marwan took the caliphate after his cousin Ibrahim abdicated and went into hiding. Before becoming caliph, Marwan had served as governor of Azerbaijan. In this capacity he fought a costly war against the Khazar Khaganate, winning a Pyrrhic victory but being unable to secure his conquests. Ibrahim ibn Al-Walid was an Umayyad caliph. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... A Pyrrhic victory (pronounced pirric) is a victory which is won at too great a cost for the victor. ...


Upon taking the caliphate, Marwan inherited an empire that was falling apart. Anti-Umayyad feeling had become very prevalent, especially in Iran and Iraq, and the Abbasids had gained a lot of followers. As such, Marwan's reign as caliph was almost entirely devoted to trying to keep the Umayyad empire together. An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ...


Marwan would not be able to do so. Despite some early victories, he would be decisively defeated by Abu al-'Abbas al-Saffah on the banks of the Zab River. At this battle alone, over 300 members of the Umayyad family died. Following this defeat, Marwan frantically searched for refuge. Hoping to find it in the west, he traveled to Egypt but was caught while crossing the Nile and he was killed. His death signalled the end of the Umayyads in the East, and almost signalled the end of the Umayyads. The aftermath of his death brought about mass-killing of Umayyads by the Abbasids. Almost all Umayyads were killed, except for a talented prince Abd ar-Rahman who would sneak into Spain and reestablish the Umayyad dynasty there. Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah (721 - 754) أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح was the first Abbasid caliph. ... Zab is the name given to two separate rivers that flow through Iran, Iraq and Turkey to become the two principal tributaries of the Tigris. ... The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin  Africa Mouth  the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The Nile (Arabic: النيل an-nÄ«l), in Africa, is one of the two... Abd ar-Rahman I (ruled 756-788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain for nearly three centuries. ...



Preceded by:
Ibrahim
Caliph
744–750
Succeeded by:
As-Saffah
Umayyad leader
744–750
Succeeded by:
Abd ar-Rahman I


Ibrahim ibn Al-Walid (Arabic: ابراهيم ابن الوليد ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah (721 - 754) أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح was the first Abbasid caliph. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd ar-Rahman I (ruled 756-788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled Spain for nearly three centuries. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marwan I - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (405 words)
Marwan's ascension pointed to a shift in the lineage of the Umayyad dynasty from descendants of Abu Sufyan to those of Hakam, both of whom were grandsons of Umayya (for whom the Umayyad dynasty is named).
Marwan took advantage of his relationship to the caliph and was appointed governor of Medina.
Marwan's short reign was marked by a civil war among the Umayyads as well as a war against Abdullah bin Zubayr who continued to rule over the Hejaz, Iraq, Egypt and parts of Syria.
Marwan II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (300 words)
Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (688-750) (Arabic: مروان بن محمد بن مروان بن الحكم) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed.
Marwan took the caliphate after his cousin Ibrahim abdicated and went into hiding.
Afterwards Marwan frantically searched for refuge; hoping to find it in the west, he traveled to Egypt, but was caught while crossing the Nile and killed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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