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Encyclopedia > Marvin Minsky
Marvin Lee Minsky
Marvin Minsky in 2002
Marvin Minsky in 2002
Born August 9, 1927
New York City
Residence USA
Nationality American
Field Cognitive science
Institution Massachusetts Institute of Technology (since 1958)
Alma Mater Harvard, BA Mathematics (1950)
Princeton, PhD Mathematics (1954)
Academic Advisor Albert W. Tucker
Notable Students Manuel Blum
Gerald Jay Sussman
Known for Artificial intelligence
Notable Prizes Turing Award (1969)
Japan Prize (1990)
IJCAI Award for Research Excellence (1991)
Benjamin Franklin Medal (2001)

Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as "Old Man Minsky", is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MIT's AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. Image File history File links Marvin_Minsky. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is organized into five schools and one college, containing 32 academic departments and 53 interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and programs. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, known today as the father of geometry; shown here in a detail of The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located in Princeton, New Jersey in the United States of America. ... Ph. ... Albert W. Tucker was chairman of the mathematics department at Princeton. ... Manuel Blum (born 26 April 1938 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1995 In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking. // Biography Blum attended MIT, where he received his bachelors... // Gerald Jay Sussman is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. ... The Japan Prize is awarded to people from all parts of the world whose original and outstanding achievements in science and technology are recognized as having advanced the frontiers of knowledge and served the cause of peace and prosperity for mankind. ... The IJCAI Award for Research Excellence is an biannual award given at the IJCAI conference to reasearcher in artificial intelligence as a recognition of excellence of their career. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. MIT is organized into five schools and one college, containing 32 academic departments and 53 interdisciplinary laboratories, centers and programs. ... Socrates (central bare-chested figure) about to drink hemlock as mandated by the court. ...

Contents

Biography

Marvin Minsky was born in New York City, where he attended The Fieldston School and the Bronx High School of Science. He later attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He served in the US Navy from 1944 to 1945. He holds a BA in Mathematics from Harvard (1950) and a PhD in the same field from Princeton (1954). He has been on the MIT faculty since 1958. He is currently Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, and Professor of electrical engineering and computer science. Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Manhattan Queens Brooklyn Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ... The Fieldston School, is the high school division of the Ethical Culture Fieldston School which was founded by Felix Adler. ... The Bronx High School of Science, commonly called Bronx Science, or just Science, is a specialized New York City public high school located in the Bedford Park section of the Bronx, with no tuition charges and admission by exam. ... Phillips Academy (also known as Andover, Phillips Andover, or simply P.A.) is a co-educational independent school for boarding and day students in grades 9-12. ...   Settled: 1642 â€“ Incorporated: 1646 Zip Code(s): 01810 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://andoverma. ... USN redirects here. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Princeton University is a coeducational private university located in Princeton, New Jersey in the United States of America. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


Minsky won the Turing Award in 1969, the Japan Prize in 1990, the IJCAI Award for Research Excellence in 1991, and the Benjamin Franklin Medal from the Franklin Institute in 2001. The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. ... The Japan Prize is awarded to people from all parts of the world whose original and outstanding achievements in science and technology are recognized as having advanced the frontiers of knowledge and served the cause of peace and prosperity for mankind. ... The IJCAI Award for Research Excellence is an biannual award given at the IJCAI conference to reasearcher in artificial intelligence as a recognition of excellence of their career. ... The Franklin Institute is the memorial to Benjamin Franklin, that serves to perpetuate his legacy; the museum contains many of Franklins personal effects. ...


Minsky's patents include the first head-mounted graphical display (1963) and the confocal scanning microscope (1961, a predecessor to today's widely used confocal laser scanning microscope). He developed with Seymour Papert the first Logo "turtle". Minsky also built, in 1951, the first randomly wired neural network learning machine, SNARC. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee (the inventor or assignee) for a fixed period of time in exchange for the regulated, public disclosure of certain details of a device, method, process or composition of matter (substance) (known as an invention) which... Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM or LSCM) is a valuable tool for obtaining high resolution images and 3-D reconstructions. ... Seymour Papert Seymour Papert (born March 1, 1928 Pretoria, South Africa) is an MIT mathematician, computer scientist, and prominent educator. ... Logo turtle graphic The Logo programming language is a functional programming language. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


Minsky wrote the book Perceptrons (with Seymour A. Papert), which became the foundational work in the analysis of artificial neural networks. Its criticism of unrigorous research in the field has been claimed as being responsible for the virtual disappearance of artificial neural networks from academic research in the 1970s. The perceptron is a type of artificial neural network invented in 1957 at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory by Frank Rosenblatt. ... An artificial neural network (ANN) or commonly just neural network (NN) is an interconnected group of artificial neurons that uses a mathematical model or computational model for information processing based on a connectionist approach to computation. ...

So it was claimed--but actually our mathematical analysis was to show why bigger perceptrons didn't get better at solving hard problems. And contrary to a popular rumor, almost all our theorems still apply to multilayer feedforward neural networks. But curiously, no one seems to have proved this, and Papert and I went on to other subjects . -- Marvin Minsky[citation needed]

Minsky was an adviser[1] on the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey and is referred to in the movie and book.

"Probably no one would ever know this; it did not matter. In the 1980s, Minsky and Good had shown how neural networks could be generated automatically—self replicated—-in accordance with any arbitrary learning program. Artificial brains could be grown by a process strikingly analogous to the development of a human brain. In any given case, the precise details would never be known, and even if they were, they would be millions of times too complex for human understanding."[citation needed]

In the early 1970s at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, Minsky and Seymour Papert started developing what came to be called The Society of Mind theory. The theory attempts to explain how what we call intelligence could be a product of the interaction of non-intelligent parts. Minsky says that the biggest source of ideas about the theory came from his work in trying to create a machine that uses a robotic arm, a video camera, and a computer to build with children's blocks. In 1986 Minsky published a comprehensive book on the theory which, unlike most of his previously published work, was written for a general audience. The Society of Mind is a theory of human intelligence developed by Marvin Minsky. ...


Affiliations

Marvin Minsky is affiliated with the following organizations:

Minsky is a critic of the Loebner Prize.[4] [5] Founded in 1964, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in the United States provides engineering leadership in service to the nation. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Extropianism, also reffered to as extropy, is a transhumanist philosophy characterized by a set of principles regarding extropy, defined by Dr. Max More in The Principles of Extropy. ... This bigfoot Dewar is custom-designed to contain four wholebody patients and six neuropatients immersed in liquid nitrogen at −196 degrees Celsius. ... The Loebner Prize is an annual competition that awards prizes to the Chatterbot considered the most humanlike for that year. ...


Trivia

  • Isaac Asimov has described Minsky as one of two people he has ever met who was flat out smarter than himself, the other being Carl Sagan.
In the days when Sussman was a novice, Minsky once came to him as he sat hacking at the PDP-6.
"What are you doing?" asked Minsky.
"I am training a randomly wired neural net to play Tic-tac-toe," Sussman replied.
"Why is the net wired randomly?", asked Minsky.
"I do not want it to have any preconceptions of how to play," Sussman said.
Minsky then shut his eyes.
"Why do you close your eyes?" Sussman asked his teacher.
"So that the room will be empty."
At that moment, Sussman was enlightened.
What I actually said was, "If you wire it randomly, it will still have preconceptions of how to play. But you just won't know what those preconceptions are." -- Marvin Minsky

Yale redirects here. ... Harold Bloom, Literary Critic Dr. Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... Isaac Asimov, Ph. ... Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, astrobiologist, and highly successful science popularizer. ... A koan (pronounced ) is a story, dialog, question, or statement in the history and lore of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, generally containing aspects that are inaccessible to rational understanding, yet that may be accessible to intuition. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Jargon File is a glossary of hacker slang. ... // Gerald Jay Sussman is the Panasonic Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... The PDP-6 (Programmed Data Processor-6) was a computer model developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in 1963. ... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ... Tic-tac-toe, also called noughts and crosses and many other names, is a paper and pencil game between two players, O and X, who alternate in marking the spaces in a 3×3 board. ...

Selected works

  • Neural Nets and the Brain Model Problem, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1954. The first publication of theories and theorems about learning in neural networks, secondary reinforcement, circulating dynamic storage and synaptic modifications.
  • Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines, Prentice-Hall, 1967. A standard text in computer science. Out of print now, but soon to reappear.
  • Semantic Information Processing, MIT Press, 1968. This collection had a strong influence on modern computational linguistics.
  • Perceptrons, with Seymour Papert, MIT Press, 1969 (Enlarged edition, 1988).
  • Artificial Intelligence, with Seymour Papert, Univ. of Oregon Press, 1972. Out of print.
  • Communication with Alien Intelligence, 1985
  • Robotics, Doubleday, 1986. Edited collection of essays about robotics, with Introduction and Postscript by Minsky.
  • The Society of Mind, Simon and Schuster, 1987. The first comprehensive description of the Society of Mind theory of intellectual structure and development. See also The Society of Mind (CD-ROM version), Voyager, 1996.
  • The Turing Option, with Harry Harrison, Warner Books, New York, 1992. Science fiction thriller about the construction of a superintelligent robot in the year 2023.
  • The Emotion Machine [2], Simon and Schuster, November 2006. ISBN 0-7432-7663-9

Seymour Papert Seymour Papert (born March 1, 1928 Pretoria, South Africa) is an MIT mathematician, computer scientist, and prominent educator. ... Out-of-print books may be found at libraries or specialty book stores. ... The Society of Mind is a theory of human intelligence developed by Marvin Minsky. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... 2023 (MMXXIII) will be a common year starting on Sunday. ...

References

  1. http://web.media.mit.edu/~minsky/
  1. ^ See [[1]this interview] for more.
  2. ^ http://www.extropy.org/directors.htm
  3. ^ http://www.alcor.org/AboutAlcor/meetsciadvboard.html
  4. ^ http://loebner.net/Prizef/minsky.html
  5. ^ http://archive.salon.com/tech/feature/2003/02/26/loebner_part_one/index4.html

See also

John McCarthy (born September 4, 1927, in Boston, Massachusetts, sometimes known affectionately as Uncle John McCarthy), is a prominent computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1971 for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence. ... Gerald Jay Sussman is the Matsushita Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT). ... Carl E. Hewitt is an Associate Professor (Emeritus) in the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... Terry A. Winograd Terry Allen Winograd (born February 24, 1946) is a professor of computer science at Stanford University. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Marvin Minsky

  Results from FactBites:
 
Minsky's Society of Mind (1414 words)
To make his point about brains as machines, Minsky asks us to imagine replacing each cell in a brain with a computer chip designed to perform the same functions and connected to the other chips exactly as the brain cells are connected.
Minsky has spent his life in a demanding field in which a theory of a process is as good as the program that one can write or the robot that one can build to instantiate it.
Minsky’s book is an example of operational thinking at its best and will doubtless serve as a roadmap for much of the work in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology in years to come.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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