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Encyclopedia > Martyr
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Saint Sebastian, an iconic image of martyrdom.
Saint Sebastian, an iconic image of martyrdom.

The term martyr (Greek μάρτυς "witness") initially signified a witness in the forensic sense, a person called to bear witness in legal proceedings. With this meaning it was used in the secular sphere as well as in both the Old Testament and the New Testament of the Bible.[1] The process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers (e.g. Josephus) that witnesses, especially of the lower classes, were tortured routinely before being interrogated as a means of forcing them to disclose the truth. During the early Christian centuries the term acquired the extended meaning of a believer who witnesses to his or her religious belief and on account of this witness endures suffering and death. The term in the English language is a loanword and used only with the extended meaning of someone who has been killed for their religious belief. The death of a martyr or the value attributed to it is called martyrdom. Martyr can refer to: Martyr, a person who is put to death or endures suffering because of a belief, principle or cause. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Sebastian” redirects here. ... This article is about witnesses in law courts. ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, being a martyr indicates a person who is killed for maintaining his or her religious belief, knowing that this will almost certainly result in imminent death (though without intentionally seeking death). Christian martyrs sometimes declined to defend themselves at all, in what they see as an imitation of Jesus' willing sacrifice. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Usage of "martyr" is also not uncommon among Arab Christians (i.e. anyone killed in relation to Christianity or a Christian community, e.g. Pierre Amine Gemayel), indicating that the English word "martyr" may not actually be a proper equivalent of its commonly ascribed Arabic translation. Pierre Amine Gemayel Pierre Amine Gemayel (Arabic: ‎; commonly known as Pierre Gemayel Jr. ...


Though often religious in nature, martyrdom can be applied to a secular context as well. The term is sometimes applied to those who use violence, such as those who die for a nation's glory during wartime. It may also apply to nonviolent individuals who are killed or hurt in the struggle for independence, civil rights etc (eg. Mahatma Gandhi). George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ...


The word "martyr" is also used ironically in casual conversation to refer to someone who seeks attention or sympathy by exaggerating the impact upon himself of some deprivation or work.

Contents

Term

St. George being broken on the wheel, St. Georg Stift, Tübingen, Germany.
St. George being broken on the wheel, St. Georg Stift, Tübingen, Germany.

During the early Roman Empire, the independent cities of Asia Minor made efforts to reward benefactors for their services, and to promote further civic generosity by means of public acclamations, eulogistic honorific decrees were addressed to the Roman authorities and read in public places before an audience. Such commendations are usually referred to in epigraphic sources as martyriai. Christians adopted the phrase "martyrs" in the "testimonies" for the act, suffering and self-sacrifice of the persecuted. The meaning that 'martyr' has today first appeared around 150 AD in Christian documents. The first instance is in the Martyrdom of Polycarp. Image File history File links Germany_Tübingen_St-Georg_Legend. ... Image File history File links Germany_Tübingen_St-Georg_Legend. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... A Stift can be: a German term (from the verb for to found) used specifically for a feudal entity under the secular rule of a prince of the church; also in compounds such as Hochstift a Nordic administrative jurisdiction, under a Stiftamtmand (Danish) This is a disambiguation page: a list... Tübingen, Neckar front Tübingen, a traditional university town of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is situated 20 miles southwest of Stuttgart, on a ridge between the River Neckar and the Ammer. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... The Martyrdom of Polycarp is one of the works of the Apostolic Fathers, and as such is one of the very few genuine such writings from the actual age of the persecutions. ...


In religion

Judaism

See also: Persecution of Jews

Martyrdom in Judaism is referred to by the Hebrew phrase Kiddush Hashem, meaning sanctification of God's name. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kiddush Hashem (קידוש השם sanctification of God or making Gods name holy in Hebrew) is a precept of Judaism as expressed in the Torah for any Jew to: To sanctify His Name Lev. ...


1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees recount numerous martyrdoms suffered by Jews resisting the Hellenizing of their Seleucid overlords, being executed for such crimes as observing the Sabbath, circumcising their children or refusing to eat pork or meat sacrificed to idols. First and Second Maccabees arose from the Pharisaic tradition, from which Christianity later diverged. The accounts of martyrs in these books influenced early Christianity's understanding of martyrs. 1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish (pre-Christian) author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. ... 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ...

But not long after the king sent a certain old man of Antioch, to compel the Jews to depart from the laws of their fathers and of God:
And to defile the temple that was in Jerusalem, and to call it the temple of Jupiter Olympius: and that in Gazarim of Jupiter Hospitalis, according as they were that inhabited the place.
And very bad was this invasion of evils and grievous to all.
For the temple was full of the riot and revellings of the Gentiles: and of men lying with lewd women. And women thrust themselves of their accord into the holy places, and brought in things that were not lawful.
The altar also was filled with unlawful things, which were forbidden by the laws.
And neither were the sabbaths kept, nor the solemn days of the fathers observed, neither did any man plainly profess himself to be a Jew.
But they were led by bitter constraint on the king's birthday to the sacrifices: and when the feast of Bacchus was kept, they were compelled to go about crowned with ivy in honour of Bacchus.
And there went out a decree into the neighbouring cities of the Gentiles, by the suggestion of the Ptolemeans, that they also should act in like manner against the Jews, to oblige them to sacrifice:
And whosoever would not conform themselves to the ways of the Gentiles, should be put to death: then was misery to be seen.
For two women were accused to have circumcised their children: whom, when they had openly led about through the city with the infants hanging at their breasts, they threw down headlong from the walls.
And others that had met together in caves that were near, and were keeping the sabbath day privately, being discovered by Philip, were burnt with fire, because they made a conscience to help themselves with their hands, by reason of the religious observance of the day.

A historical account by Rabbi Ephraim ben Yaakov (1132 - AD. 1200) describes Crusaders' massacres of Jews, including the massacre at Blois, where approximately forty Jews were killed following an accusation of ritual murder: This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Blois is a city in France, the préfecture (capital) city of the Loir-et-Cher département, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ...

"As they were led forth, they were told, 'You can save your lives if you will leave your religion and accept ours.' The Jews refused. They were beaten and tortured to make them accept the Christian religion, but still they refused. Rather, they encouraged each other to remain steadfast and die for the sanctification of God's Name." [1]

During the Spanish Inquisition, many of those executed were Jews who refused to convert to Christianity. Specifically, they were cryptic Jews, who had pretended to adopt Christianity in an attempt to avoid persecution.


Christianity

See also: Persecution of Christians and Christian martyrs

A Converted British Family sheltering a Christian Priest from the Persecution of the Druids, an imaginary scene of persecution by druids in ancient Britain painted by William Holman Hunt. ... Icon of St. ...

Martyrs before the Legalization of Christianity

Crucifixion of St. Peter, by Caravaggio
Crucifixion of St. Peter, by Caravaggio

Other than Jesus, John the Baptist, and the Holy Innocents, Eastern and western liturgical Christians revere Saint Stephen as the first martyr, or protomartyr. This term is also applied, with an appropriate description, to the first martyr of a given region: Saint Alban as the protomartyr of England or St. Francis Ferdinand de Capillas as the protomartyr of China. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (618x800, 120 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, aka Caravaggio: , Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (618x800, 120 KB) Summary Michelangelo Merisi, aka Caravaggio: , Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... St. ... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... “St. ... Saint Alban was the first Christian martyr (protomartyr) in Britain. ... Francis Ferdinand de Capillas (1607-1648), a Spanish Christian missionary to China. ...


During periods of persecution in early Christianity, Christians were crucified in the same manner as Roman political prisoners or fed to lions as a games spectacle. Accounts of these martyrdoms are found in Eusebius of Caesarea's Ecclesiastical History and in various Acts of the Martyrs. Some accounts describe these deaths as reenactments of mythological scenes; The First Epistle of Clement recounts how Christian women were martyred: Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, where the condemned is tied or nailed to a large wooden cross and left to hang until dead. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Eusebius is the name of several significant historical people: Pope Eusebius - Pope in AD 309 - 310. ... Acts of the Martyrs are accounts of the suffering and death of a martyr or group of martyrs. ... The Epistles of Clement often referred to as 1 Clement and 2 Clement were not accepted in the canonic New Testament but they are part of the Apostolic Fathers collection. ...

Through envy, those women, the Danaids and Dircae, being persecuted, after they had suffered terrible and unspeakable torments, finished the course of their faith with steadfastness, and though weak in body, received a noble reward.

The reenactment is clear for Dirce — she was killed by being tied to a wild bull. However, the Danaids' fate in Tartarus, of endlessly pouring water into a jug with holes, would not result in martyrdom. It has been suggested that the women, like the Danaids, were handed out to the victors in a footrace and therefore suffered rape prior to death. Dirce (double or cleft) was the wife of Lycus in Greek mythology, and sister in law to Antiope whom Zeus impregnated. ... Danaus, or Danaos (sleeper) was a Greek mythological character, twin brother of Aegyptus and son of Belus, a mythical king of Egypt. ...

A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki
A Christian Dirce, by Henryk Siemiradzki

Christians who were also Roman citizens were often beheaded; this was the fate of Saint Agnes and Saint Paul. Image File history File links Dirce. ... Image File history File links Dirce. ... Pochodnie Nerona Henryk Siemiradzki (1843-1902) was a Polish painter. ... For other uses, see Saint Agnes (disambiguation). ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


Although at all points Christians were in violation of the law for failure to worship the gods of the state, persecution was not consistent. In the Acts of Perpetua and Felicity, the raid to capture the Christians was not made to wipe out the Christians but explicitly to capture prisoners for a spectacle in the games; the capture of the patrician Perpetua was, in fact, an embarrassment, but her testimony made it impossible for the authorities to release her. Various Roman Emperors — Decius, Valerian, and Diocletian — ordered Christians to perform pagan sacrifices, but between the persecutions, Christians lived and worshipped unmolested. Orthodox Christian practice forbade the deliberate seeking out of martyrdom, but many Christians attempted to achieve martyrdom by turning themselves into the authorities, who did not always enforce the law. Among Christians, Vibia Perpetua is venerated as a martyr and saint. ... Bust of Traianus Decius. ... Valerian may mean: Valerian, two genera of garden plants Emperor Valerian I, Roman emperor 253-260 Valerian II, son of Gallienus (d. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


Christians embraced their martyrdom:

"Allow me to be eaten by the beasts—that is how I can reach God; I am God's wheat and I am ground by the teeth of wild beasts that I may be found pure bread of Christ.... Pray to Christ for me, that by these means I may become a sacrifice." —Ignatius to the Romans, Ignatius of Antioch.

The degree to which martyrdom might be invited while skirting the sin of suicide became a matter of debate among theologians. The Martyrdom of Polycarp, for instance, carefully pointed out that Polycarp had not sought out martyrdom but been arrested; another man, Quintus, had voluntarily come forward and had apostatized, which the writer cites as a warning against seeking martyrdom. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ...


Theological significance of martyrs

Icon of Ignatius of Antioch being eaten by lions

Martyrs were recognized as such because they preferred to die than to renounce their faith (i.e.apostatize). The Christian writer Tertullian (AD. 200) asserted that "the blood of martyrs is the seed of the Church." The term martyr only slowly became identified with those who died for the faith; in the earlier centuries, it was often used for anyone persecuted, even those who survived, but in time, martyr came to indicate someone who died from persecution, whereas the term confessor was used for those whose sufferings had not been fatal. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ...


The acts of the early Christian martyrs are important historical sources; for example, the Passio Sanctorum Scilitanorum is regarded as the oldest Christian text in Latin (text). Scillitan Martyrs, a company of early North African Christians who suffered under Marcus Aurelius in AD 180, and whose Acta are at once the earliest documents of the Church of Africa and the earliest specimen of Christian Latin. ...


The names of martyrs were enrolled in martyrologies, and the Feast of All Saints originally commemorated specifically all martyrs. Christians also preserved the physical remains of martyrs as relics, and commemorated the specific days of their deaths; both these practices were noted in the death of St. Polycarp. A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs, or, more exactly, of saints, arranged in the order of their anniversaries. ... The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Saints Day, All Hallows or Hallowmas (hallows meaning saints, and mas meaning Mass), is a feast celebrated in the honour of all the saints, known and unknown. ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ...


Roman Catholics[2] and the Eastern Orthodox[3] hold that those who witness to their Christian faith to the point of letting themselves be killed rather than renounce it are assured of salvation and access to heaven. For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ...


In the faith of these two traditions, which together represent the great majority of Christians, "Baptism of blood" brings about the same effects as "Baptism of water", namely, "By Baptism all sins are forgiven, original sin and all personal sins, as well as all punishment for sin. In those who have been reborn nothing remains that would impede their entry into the Kingdom of God, neither Adam's sin, nor personal sin, nor the consequences of sin, the gravest of which is separation from God."[4] Accordingly, Saint Augustine of Hippo commented: "He does an injury to a martyr who prays for him."[5] “Augustinus” redirects here. ...


Even some who die without explicitly witnessing for Christ are considered to be martyrs. The Holy Innocents "are considered to be martyrs because they not only died for Christ but instead of Christ",[6] "martyrs in fact though not in will."[7] Somewhat similarly, Saint Maximilian Kolbe is also considered a martyr.[8] He is one of the twentieth-century martyrs represented by statues over the Great West Door of Anglican Westminster Abbey, London.[9] The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... Maximilian Kolbe (January 8, 1894–August 14, 1941), also known as Maksymilian or Massimiliano Maria Kolbe and Apostle of Consecration to Mary, born as Rajmund Kolbe, was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz in Poland. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Martyred missionaries and converts after 312 AD

St Boniface baptizing and being martyred, from the Sacramentary of Fulda
St Boniface baptizing and being martyred, from the Sacramentary of Fulda

There was a renewal of Christian martyrdom after Julian the Apostate took the Roman throne in 361. Julian opposed the Christian religion in the empire and attempted to re-establish paganism in the form of Neoplatonism as the state religion. Among others, John and Paul were martyred under Emperor Julian. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (543x777, 230 KB) St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (543x777, 230 KB) St. ... A Catholic baptism Baptism is water purification ritual practiced in any of various religions including Christianity, Mandaeanism, and Sikhism, and has its origins with the Jewish ritual of mikvah. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... John and Paul ( Giovanni e Paolo) are saints in the Roman Catholic Church. ...


As the new religion expanded beyond the area of the derelict Roman Empire, the spread of Christianity entailed the spread of martyrdom. Martyrdom was suffered both by missionaries and by converts, for instance: For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Although a number of pagans were killed during the Northern Crusades and other violent campaigns aimed at imposing Christianity on non-Christian societies, these victims are normally not viewed within the context of martyrdom. Many Eastern Orthodox Christians where also victims of these crusades as well as the Fourth Crusade. St Rajden Saint Rajden the First-Martyr also known as Saint Razdhen of Tsromi (d. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Silver coffin of St. ... Mikhail Vsevolodovich (Михаил Всеволодович in Russian) (1179? - September 20, 1246) was the last prominent ruler of Kiev from the bloodline of Oleg Svyatoslavich. ... Saint Roque Father Roque González de Santa Cruz S.J. was born in Asunción, Paraguay on November 17, 1576. ... The Canadian Martyrs were eight Jesuit missionaries from Sainte-Marie among the Hurons, who were martyred in the 17th century in Canada and Upstate New York. ... The Martyrs of Japan refers to a group of Christians who were executed by crucifixion in 1597 at Nagasaki. ... Blessed Pedro Calungsod is a Filipino Roman Catholic martyr. ... The Roman Catholic faith came to Korea at the beginning of the 17th century, primarily through the work of lay catechists. ... The Martyrs of Uganda are a group of Roman Catholics and Protestants killed by Mwanga, ruler of Buganda. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ...


Persecution of dissenters and heretics

Boris and Gleb, the first East Slavic martyrs. An early 14th-century icon from Moscow.

In the High Middle Ages, many prominent cases of "martyrdom" had pronounced political overtones, as the Church used the concept to gain moral advantage in its ongoing struggle against the State. Some prominent examples include Thomas Becket (killed at the behest of King Henry II), Philip of Moscow (strangled on the orders of Ivan the Terrible), and the latter's son Tsarevich Demetrius (whose death was popularly attributed to Boris Godunov). Persecution of dissidents and the martyrdom that sometimes went with it (e.g., Albigensian Crusade) became institutionalised in the office of the inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church, and in the political systems of the State. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A medieval Russian icon of Boris and Gleb Boris and Gleb, Christian names Roman and David, were the first Russian saints. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... St Thomas Becket, St Thomas of Canterbury (c. ... Rulers with the title Henry II include: Henry II of Castile Henry II of England Henry II of France Henry II of Germany, also Holy Roman Emperor Henry II of Navarre Henry II, Duke of Saxony Henry II of Jerusalem (also Henry II of Cyprus) Henry II, Duke of Bavaria... Malyuta Skuratov approaching Metropolitan Philip in order to kill him (painting from 1898). ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Dmitriy Ivanovich, also known as Dmitry of Uglich and Dmitry of Moscow (Дмитрий Иванович, Дмитрий Угличский, Дмитрий Московский in Russian) (October 19, 1582 — May 15, 1591) was a Russian tsarevich, son of Ivan the Terrible and Maria Nagaya. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... This article is about the Inquisition of the Roman Catholic Church. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


The violent clashes of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation resulted in a new wave of atrocities and executions that were branded as "martyrdoms" by one of the sides: The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...

Arrest of an Old Believer leader, Feodosia Morozova.

Among the Orthodox, Patriarch Nikon's attempts to reform the Russian Orthodox Church led to the schism between it and the Old Believers, whose persecutions included execution. A peculiar form of martyrdom was the so-called "baptism by fire", a term which denotes the practice of mass self-immolations on the part of the Old Believers. Archpriest Avvakum and Boyarynya Morozova have been viewed as martyrs by the Old Believer community and as heretics by the official church. John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Michael Servetus. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... For the numerous educational institutions, see Thomas More College. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Mary I Queen of England and Ireland Mary I (18 February 1516–17 November 1558) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de jure) or 19 July 1553 (de facto) until her death. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... The Martyrs of Gorkum are a group of Roman catholics who suffered martyrdom for Catholicism in the Dutch town of Gorinchem or Gorcum. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Dutch Revolt, or Eighty Years War (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Location of KoÅ¡ice in Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Slovakia Region KoÅ¡ice Region Districts KoÅ¡ice I-IV City parts First mentioned 1230 Government  - Type City Council  - Mayor FrantiÅ¡ek Knapík Area  - City 243. ... Saint John Sarkander (Czech and Polish: Jan Sarkander) (1576 – 1620) was a Polish and Moravian priest. ... town hall with astronomical clock Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish OÅ‚omuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Hermogenes, or Germogen (before 1530 - February 17, 1612), was the Patriarch of Moscow from 1606. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Mary Dyer is led to the gallows Mary Barrett Dyer (1611? - June 1, 1660) was an English Quaker who was hanged in Boston, Massachusetts for repeatedly defying a law banning Quakers from the colony. ... Take from http://www. ... Take from http://www. ... A fragment of painting Boyarynya Morozova by Vasily Surikov depicting Feodosiyas arrest by the Nikonians in 1671. ... Nikon (Russian: Ни́кон, Old Russian: Нїконъ), born Nikita Minin (Никита Минин; May 7, 1605 Valmanovo, Russia—August 17, 1681), was the seventh patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the context of Russian Orthodox church history, the Old Believers (Russian: ) separated after 1666 - 1667 from the hierarchy of the Russian Orthodox Church as a protest against church reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon. ... Thích Quảng Đức pictured during his self-immolation. ... Avvakum Petrovich (1621-1682) was a Russian archpriest of the Kazan Cathedral on the Red Square who led the opposition to Patriarch Nikons reforms of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... A fragment of painting Boyarynya Morozova by Vasily Surikov depicting Feodosiyas arrest by the Nikonians in 1671. ...

Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.

Apart from the Old Believers, some other Christian and non-Christian sects originated in times of widespread persecution and martyrdom at the hands of other Christians trying to suppress their break-away sects. The Anabaptists, for instance, have embraced this part of their heritage to such an extent that Thieleman J. van Braght's book Martyrs Mirror, which describes the deaths of Anabaptist Martyrs in the 16th and 17th century, is still widely owned and read in Mennonite and Amish households (see Anabaptist persecution for more). Image File history File links Dirk. ... Image File history File links Dirk. ... Dirk Willems saves his pursuer Dirk Willems (??-1569) was an martyred Anabaptist who is most famous for his successful escape and subsequent reimprisonment after rescuing his pursuer, who had fallen through thin ice while chasing him. ... A sect is a small religious group that has branched off of a larger established religion. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... Thieleman J. van Braght was the Anabaptist author of the Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch. ... The Martyrs Mirror or The Bloody Theater, first published in 1660 in Dutch by Thieleman J. van Braght, documented the stories and testimonies of Christian martyrs, especially Anabaptists. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Mennonites are a group of... This article is about Old Order Amish, but also refers to other Amish sects. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ...


In Latter-Day Saint belief, Joseph Smith, Jr. and Hyrum Smith are considered martyrs. The Smith brothers were viciously shot by an armed mob while in Carthage Jail in 1844. The Latter-day Saints themselves suffered many persecutions in Missouri, with several men, women and children suffering death at the hands of Missourian mobs. The most infamous incident occurred at Haun's Mill, which resulted in the death of 17 men and a nine year old boy. Persecution followed the Latter-day Saints as they headed out to the State of Deseret in 1845. A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Hyrum Smith Hyrum Smith (February 9, 1800—June 27, 1844) was the older brother of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Hauns Mill massacre was an event in the history of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... The boundaries of the provisional State of Deseret (orange) as proposed in 1849. ...


Martyrdom in the 20th century

Statues of 20th-century martyrs on the façade above the Great West Door of Westminster Abbey. Those commemorated are Maximilian Kolbe, Manche Masemola, Janani Luwum, Grand Duchess Elizabeth of Russia, Martin Luther King, Jr., Óscar Romero, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Esther John, Lucian Tapiedi, and Wang Zhiming.
Statues of 20th-century martyrs on the façade above the Great West Door of Westminster Abbey. Those commemorated are Maximilian Kolbe, Manche Masemola, Janani Luwum, Grand Duchess Elizabeth of Russia, Martin Luther King, Jr., Óscar Romero, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Esther John, Lucian Tapiedi, and Wang Zhiming.

The 20th century again saw large numbers of Christians martyred by non-Christians, in persecutions by political authorities that have antipathy directed towards particular faiths, or religion in general. Some church historiansPDF (219 KiB) believe that there were more Christian martyrs in the 20th century than in the first nineteen centuries combined: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 275 pixelsFull resolution (1282 × 440 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 275 pixelsFull resolution (1282 × 440 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Maximilian Kolbe (January 8, 1894–August 14, 1941), also known as Maksymilian or Massimiliano Maria Kolbe and Apostle of Consecration to Mary, born as Rajmund Kolbe, was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz in Poland. ... She lived in Marishane, a small village next to Pietersburg. ... Janani Luwum (1922 – 1977), was the archbishop of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and Boga-Zaire (1974 – 1977). ... Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna as a nun after her husbands death Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna of Russia (Russian: ), née Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Elisabeth Alexandra Luise Alice of Hesse and by Rhine (1 November 1864–18 July 1918), was the wife of Grand... “MLK” redirects here. ... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, and a founding member of the Confessing Church. ... Miao pastor Wang Zhiming was little known outside his home in Wuding County, Yunnan at the time of his execution on December 29, 1973. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Soviet Union
An icon depicting the Romanov sainthood.

After the Russian Revolution, the sixth sector of the OGPU, led by Eugene Tuchkov, began arresting and executing bishops, priests, and devout worshippers, such as Metropolitan Veniamin in Petrograd in 1922 for refusing to accede to the demand to hand over church valuables (including sacred relics). Between 1917 and 1935, 130,000 Orthodox priests were arrested. Of these, 95,000 were put to death, executed by firing squad. Patriarch Tikhon anathematized the communist government, which further antagonized relations. Armenian Genocide photo. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by Catholics to the tens of thousands of people who were killed during the Spanish Civil War for their Christian faith. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... From the words νεο (neo, new) the Greek prefix for new and μάρτυς (martys), the Greek word for witness. The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr of the Eastern Orthodox church was originally given to martyrs under heretical rulers (the original martyrs being under pagans), then later to the Churchs martyrs... ‹ The template below (Religious persecution) has been proposed for deletion. ... From the words νεο (neo, new) the Greek prefix for new and μάρτυς (martys), the Greek word for witness. The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr of the Eastern Orthodox church was originally given to martyrs under heretical rulers (the original martyrs being under pagans), then later to the Churchs martyrs... The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are an extremist, terrorist, and ethnic fundamentalist Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... The Roman Catholic Trappist Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (O.C.S.O.) commemorate the 1996 martyrdom of their seven brother monks of Atlas, Algeria. ... Before and after the October Revolution of November 7, 1917 (October 25 Old Calendar) there was a movement within the Soviet Union to unite all of the people of the world under Communist rule (see Communist International). ... Image File history File links Romanovicon. ... Image File history File links Romanovicon. ... Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, his wife Tsarina Alexandra, and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei are saints of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and passion bearers of the Russian Orthodox Church. ... Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of strikes and anti-government violence against Tsar Nicholas II The Russian Revolution of 1917, which included: February Revolution, which resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia... Obedinennoe Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie (or OGPU) (Combined State Political Directorate, also translated as All Union State Political Board) was the name of the secret police in the Soviet Union in one of the stages of its development. ... The sixth department of the OGPU, Tuchkov is seated second from right Eugene Tuchkov, or Evgeniy Aleksandrovich Tuchkov (in Russian Евгегний Александрович Тучков) was the head of the anti-religious arm of the Soviet OGPU. Tuchkov was born in 1892 in the village of Teliakovo near Suzdal. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Vasily Belavin, Василий Иванович Белавин in Russian) Russian Orthodox patriarch of Moscow and all Russias (1917-1925). ...


In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev initiated his own campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church and forced the closure of about 12,000 churches. By 1985 fewer than 7,000 churches remained active. It is estimated that 50,000 clergy were executed by the end of the Khrushchev era. [10] Many thousands of victims of persecution became recognized in a special canon of saints known as the "new martyrs and confessors of Russia", including the family of the last Russian Tsar (see Romanov sainthood for details). Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... From the words νεο (neo, new) the Greek prefix for new and μάρτυς (martys), the Greek word for witness. The title of New Martyr or Neomartyr of the Eastern Orthodox church was originally given to martyrs under heretical rulers (the original martyrs being under pagans), then later to the Churchs martyrs... Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, his wife Tsarina Alexandra, and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei are saints of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad and passion bearers of the Russian Orthodox Church. ...

Fascist Regimes

During the reign of Adolf Hitler's National Socialism in Germany, and the Axis powers of World War II a large number of Christians, Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant were martyred, most remain nameless. Amongst the martyrs known to us are Maximilian Kolbe, Paul Schneider, Edith Stein, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, and Dusty Miller. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Maximilian Kolbe (January 8, 1894–August 14, 1941), also known as Maksymilian or Massimiliano Maria Kolbe and Apostle of Consecration to Mary, born as Rajmund Kolbe, was a Polish Conventual Franciscan friar who volunteered to die in place of a stranger in the Nazi concentration camp of Auschwitz in Poland. ... Paul Schneider (1897-1939) was a German Reformed Church pastor who was the first Protestant minister to be martyred by the Nazis. ... Edith Stein (October 12, 1891 – August 9, 1942) was a German philosopher, a Carmelite nun, martyr, and saint of the Catholic Church, who died at Auschwitz. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian, participant in the German Resistance movement against Nazism, and a founding member of the Confessing Church. ... Dusty Miller was a British P.O.W. in Thailand during Second World War. ...

The twentieth century was the great century of Christian martyrs, and this is true both in the Catholic Church and in other Churches and ecclesial communities.

Pope John Paul II -Memory and Identity, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2005, p.44 Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Memory and Identity was a book written by the late Pope John Paul II. Category: ...

Commemoration

A chapel of modern martyrs is maintained in the Corona at Canterbury Cathedral. There are many churches to the "new martyrs" in Russia, including a large neo-Byzantine complex in Butovo, Moscow and the Cathedral "on the Blood" in Yekaterinburg which commemorates the spot where the Ipatiev House used to stand. The new east end of Canterbury cathedral, named after the severed crown of Thomas Becket, whose shrine it was built to contain. ... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Ipatiev House once stood. ...


Islam

Main article: Martyr (shahid)
See also: Persecution of Muslims

In Arabic, a martyr is termed "shaheed" (literally, "witness"). The concept of the shaheed is discussed in the Hadith, the sayings of Muhammad; the term does not appear in the Qur'an in the technical sense, but the later exegetical tradition has read it to mean martyr in the few passages that it does appear in. The first martyr in Islam was the old woman Sumayyah bint Khabbab[2], the first Muslim to die at the hands of the polytheists of Mecca (specifically, Abu Jahl). A famous person widely regarded as a martyr - indeed, an archetypal martyr for the Shia - is Husayn bin Ali, who died at the hands of the forces of the second Umayyad caliph Yazid I at Karbala. The Shia commemorate this event each year at Aashurah. Shaheed (Arabic: شهيد Å¡ahÄ«d, plural: شهداء Å¡uhadā’) is a religious term in Islam, that literally means witness. It is a title that is given to a Muslim after his death, if he died during the fulfillment of a religious commandment, or during a war for the religion. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Shahid (شهيد, plural: شهداء) is a religious-Muslim term, that its literal meaning is witness. It is a title that is given to the Muslim after his death, if he died during fulfillment of a religious commandment, or during a war for the religion. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: ;, literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... this is a sahaba of Muhammad Sumayyah bint Khabbab was the slave of Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah and the mother of Ammar ibn Yasir. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Religion stubs ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Imaginary portrait of Husayn ibn Ali, by contemporary Iranian artist. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate First of all, this system is invalid and is unlawful Islamicly. ... Yazid Ibn Muawiyah Ibn Abu Sufyan (July 23, 645 - 683) (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ...


Muslims who die in a legitimate jihad bis saif (struggle with the sword, or Islamic holy war) are sometimes considered shahid. This usage became controversial in the late 20th century (due to the Islamic strictures against suicide), when it was sometimes applied to suicide bombers by various groups. There a huge controversy about the meaning of jihad in Islam, since Muhammad never claimed that suicide is equal to jihad; Jihad is an act of fighting for the Dar al Islam, either to defend it against an aggressor or to bring about its expansion. Where Muhammad explained, in hadith, that those who commit suicide are forbidden to even smell heaven. Many contend that these murders are contrary to the spirit of Islam. For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Holy war may refer to: Jihad, war fought to spread the religion of Islam. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death in addition to the attacks primary purpose (see suicide, suicide weapons). ... In Islamic theology and legal interpretations , the ultimate aim of Islam is to bring the whole world under the dominion of Islam. ...


Bahá'í Faith

Main article: Persecution of Bahá'ís

In the Bahá'í Faith, a martyr is one who sacrifices his or her life in the service of humanity in the name of God.[11] However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life, and instead explained that martyrdom is devoting oneself to service to humanity.[11] `Abdu'l-Bahá, Bahá'u'lláh's son and appointed interpreter, explained that the truest form of martyrdom is a life-long sacrifice to serve humanity in the name of God.[11] While the Bahá'í Faith exalts the station of its martyrs, martyrdom is not something that Bahá'ís are encouraged to pursue; instead one is urged to protect one's life.[12] The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global Baháí community. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...


During the history of the Bahá'í Faith there are many who are considered martyrs. The Bahá'í Faith grew out of a separate religion, Bábism, which Bahá'ís see as part of their own history. In Bábism, martyrdom had the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life and was seen as a public declaration of sincerity.[13] During the 1840s and 1850s the Báb claimed that he was the return of the Mahdi and gained a strong following.[14] The Persian clergy tried to stop the spread of the Bábí movement by denouncing the Bábís as apostates; these denouncements led to public executions of the Bábís, troop engagements against the Bábís, and an extensive pogrom where thousands of Bábís were killed.[14] In addition, the Báb himself was publicly executed in 1850.[14] The Bábís that were killed during these times are seen as martyrs by Bahá'ís, and the date of execution of the Báb, who Bahá'ís see as a Manifestation of God equal to that of Bahá'u'lláh, is considered a holy day in the Bahá'í calendar, as the Martyrdom of the Báb.[13][15] Also among the Bábí executions was the poetess Táhirih, who Bahá'ís consider the first woman suffrage martyr.[16] The history of the Baháí Faith represents over 150 years of growth, and this article will attempt to provide more of the details than is possible in a more general overview of the Baháí Faith The religion claims to be part of a long religious tradition begun by Adam, and... The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... Shrine of the Báb at night from above in Haifa, Israel. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... The Baháí Faith refers to what are commonly called prophets as Manifestations of God, or simply Manifestations (mazhar) who are directly linked with the concept of Progressive revelation. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... Táhirih (Arabic: ‎ The Pure One) or Qurratul-`Ayn (Arabic: ‎ Comfort of the Eyes) are both titles of Fátimih Baraghání (b. ...


After Bahá'u'lláh abstracted the meaning of martyrdom, gave it a new meaning, and abolished holy war, the Bábís who became Bahá'ís stopped seeking martyrdom as a public declaration of sincerity.[11] However, Bahá'ís continue to be persecuted in predominantly Muslim countries, especially in Iran where over 200 Bahá'ís were executed between 1978 and 1998.[17] Among these executions include two sets of nine people who were part of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Iran, the national governing body of the Bahá'ís, who were arrested and killed only for their religious beliefs.[18] The people who are killed just because they are Bahá'ís are also considered martyrs.[19][20] For other uses of the term, see Holy War. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Spiritual Assembly is a term given by `Abdul-Bahá to refer to elected leadership councils that govern the Baháí Faith. ...


Notes

A communist 'martyrs column' in Alappuzha, India
A communist 'martyrs column' in Alappuzha, India
  1. ^ See e.g. Alison A. Trites, The New Testament Concept of Witness, ISBN 0-521-60934-8 and ISBN 9780521609340.
  2. ^ "The baptism of blood (baptismus sanguinis) is the obtaining of the grace of justification by suffering martyrdom for the faith of Christ. ... martyrdom is believed to remit all sin and all punishment due to sin" (Baptism in Catholic Encyclopedia).
  3. ^ "If any man receive not Baptism, he hath not salvation; except only Martyrs, who even without the water receive the kingdom. For when the Saviour, in redeeming the world by His Cross, was pierced in the side, He shed forth blood and water; that men, living in times of peace, might be baptized in water, and, in times of persecution, in their own blood. For martyrdom also the Saviour is wont to call a baptism, saying, Can ye drink the cup which I drink, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?"(Cyril of Jerusalem quoted in Is There Salvation Outside of Orthodoxy?)
  4. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1263
  5. ^ Tr. lxxiv in Ioannem, quoted in Baptism in Catholic Encyclopedia
  6. ^ Feast of the Holy Innocents
  7. ^ Anglican site
  8. ^ BBC timelinePDF (103 bytes)
  9. ^ [http://www.westminster-abbey.org/tour/martyrs/1_mk.htm
  10. ^ Ostling, Richard. "Cross meets Kremlin" TIME Magazine. June 24, 2001. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,150718,00.html
  11. ^ a b c d Winters, Jonah (1997-09-19). "Conclusion", Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions. M.A. Thesis. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  12. ^ Taherzadeh, Adib (1987). The Revelation of Bahá'u'lláh, Volume 4: Mazra'ih & Bahji 877-92. Oxford, UK: George Ronald, pp. 57. ISBN 0853982708. 
  13. ^ a b Winters, Jonah (1997-09-19). "Meanings of Martyrdom in Babi Thought", Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shii and Babi Religions. M.A. Thesis. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  14. ^ a b c Affolter, Friedrich W. (2005). "The Specter of Ideological Genocide: The Bahá'ís of Iran". War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity 1 (1): 59– 89. 
  15. ^ National Spiritual Assembly of the United States (2006-03-05). The Badi Calendar. bahai.us. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  16. ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1944). God Passes By. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, pp. 75. ISBN 0877430209. 
  17. ^ International Federation for Human Rights (2003-08-01). Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran. fdih.org. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  18. ^ Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (2006-12). A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Bahá'ís of Iran. Iran Human Rights Documentation Center. Retrieved on 2007-01-23. 
  19. ^ Rivera, Ray (2006-01-30). Bahais Mourn Iranian Jailed for His Faith. Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.
  20. ^ A Dress for Mona. Retrieved on 2007-01-23.

Allepey Martyrs Column. ... Allepey Martyrs Column. ... , Church Paddy fields For the district with the same name, see Alappuzha District. ... Cyril of Jerusalem was a distinguished theologian of the early Church ( 315 - 386). ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Catholic Encyclopedia "Martyrs"
  • Foster, Claude R. jr.: Paul Schneider, the Buchenwald apostle : a Christian martyr in Nazi Germany ; a sourcebook on the German Church struggle; Westchester, Pennsylvania: SSI Bookstore, West Chester University, 1995; ISBN 1-887732-01-2

See also

Christian anarchism is any of several traditions which combine anarchism with Christianity. ... Icon of St. ... The Carthusian Martyrs were a group of monks of the London Charterhouse, the monastery of the Carthusian Order in central London, who were done to death by the English state from June 19, 1535 to September 20, 1537. ... The Chinese Martyrs were 120 Christian missionaries and laypeople martyred in China during the 19th and 20th centuries. ... // Historical Background In 711 CE, a Moorish army from North Africa invaded Visigoth Christian Spain. ... The Marian martyrs were Protestants executed for their beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England. ... Stone panels depicting the story of the Martyrs of Thailand, from the Our Lady of the Martyrs of Thailand Shrine in Mukdahan Province, Thailand. ... Through the centuries, Christians in Japan and Vietnam have been subjected to the various kinds of persecution. ... William Tyndale, just before being burnt at the stake, cries out Lord, ope the King of Englands eies in this woodcut from an early edition of Foxes Book of Martyrs. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian... Shaheed (Arabic: شهيد Å¡ahÄ«d, plural: شهداء Å¡uhadā’) is a religious term in Islam, that literally means witness. It is a title that is given to a Muslim after his death, if he died during the fulfillment of a religious commandment, or during a war for the religion. ... A martyrology is a catalogue or list of martyrs, or, more exactly, of saints, arranged in the order of their anniversaries. ... The Martyrology in Judaism is the story of the deaths (martyrdom) of several famous Rabbis (including Rabbi Akiva) by Romans, read both on Yom Kippur and Tisha bAv. ... Moody Bible Institute (MBI) was founded by evangelist and businessman Dwight Lyman Moody in 1886. ... The burning of Latimer and Ridley, from a book by John Foxe (1563). ... Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating pacifism. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Silence ) is a 1966 novel by Japanese author Shusaku Endo. ... Voice of the Martyrs (VOM) is the name of several related Christian organizations founded through the influence of Pastor Richard Wurmbrand in such countries as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. ...

External links

  • Fox's Book of Martyrs 16th century classic book, accounts of martyrdoms, full text.

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martyr (4806 words)
martyr came to be exclusively applied to those who had died for the faith.
martyr", but evidently employs the term in the broad sense in which the word is still sometimes applied to a person who has borne many and grave hardships in the cause of Christianity.
martyrs was their arrest by an officer of the law.
re:constructions - Martyr (534 words)
Consequently, the martyrs who died giving public proclamations of their faith like this were immediately recognized as belonging to the very highest order of Christian saints in heaven and were venerated by their fellow Christians for the special relationship they had with God.
"Martyr" implies a division, then, between two different perceived orders, the secular order of human beings and the divine order of God, and when the two are understood to be in opposition to each other, demands are made on individuals to declare which side they are on.
Martyrs invariably chose the private over the public, the sacred over the secular, and their suffering was considered an act of personal defiance.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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