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Encyclopedia > Martinique
Région Martinique
Flag of Martinique
(Unofficial region flag) (Region logo)
Location
Map of France highlighting the Region of Martinique
Administration
Capital Fort-de-France
Regional President Alfred Marie-Jeanne
(MIM) (since 1998)
Departments Martinique
Arrondissements 4
Cantons 45
Communes 31
Statistics
Land area1 1,128 km²
Population (Ranked 24th)
 - January 1, 2006 est. 399,000
 - March 8, 1999 census 381,427
 - Density (2006) 354/km²
1 French Land Register data, which exclude lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq. mi. or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers
France
Satellite view
Satellite view

Martinique is an island in the eastern Caribbean Sea, having a land area of 1,128 km². It is an overseas department of France. As with the other overseas departments, Martinique is also one of the twenty-six regions of France (being an overseas region) and an integral part of the Republic. As part of France, Martinique is part of the European Union, and its currency is the euro. Its official language is French, although almost all of its inhabitants also speak Antillean Creole (Créole Martiniquais). Martinique is pictured on all euro banknotes, on the reverse at the bottom of each note, right of the Greek ΕΥΡΩ (EURO) next to the denomination. Image File history File links Flag_of_Martinique. ... Image File history File links MartLogo. ... Snake flag of Martinique. ... Image File history File links LocationMartinique. ... Fort-de-France is the capital of Frances Caribbean département doutre-mer of Martinique. ... In France, the president of the regional council (French: Président du conseil régional) is the elected official who heads the conseil régional of a région, a state-level territory. ... Current political leader in Martinique Headline text Media:Example. ... The Martinican Independence Movement (Mouvement Indépendantiste Martiniquais) is a political party in the French Overseas Department of Martinique. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... Map of the 36,568 communes of metropolitan France. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... // The following are ranked lists of French régions. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3568x3918, 2328 KB) Martinique WorldWind Landsat7 boosted colors 14. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3568x3918, 2328 KB) Martinique WorldWind Landsat7 boosted colors 14. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Overseas region (French: Région doutre-mer), is a recent designation given to the overseas departments which have similar powers to those of the regions of metropolitan France. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Antillean Creole is a French-lexified creole language spoken primarily in the Lesser Antilles. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ...

Contents

Overview

  • Surface area: 1,128 km² (length 75 km, width 35 km)
  • Status: overseas department since 19 March 1946.
  • Prefectorial office: Fort-de-France (a total of 34 habitations).
  • Biggest towns: Fort-de-France (94,049 inhab, 25% of the population), Le Lamentin (35,460), Le Robert (21,240), Schœlcher (20,845), Sainte-Marie (20,098)
  • Population: 381,427 inhabitants after the census of 1999 (359,572 en 1990), estimated 399,000 in January 2005.
  • Population density: 338 inhab./km² (1999, estimated 354 in 2006)
  • Urban population: 42%
  • Life expectancy: 79 years (men) and 82 (women) (2000)
  • Official language: French
  • Principal religion: Roman Catholicism
  • GDP/inhab.: 14,283 (2000)
  • Total GDP: €5,496 million[citation needed]
  • Exports: €39 million (2002, cover of 14,1%)
  • Imports: €275 million euros (2002, deficit of €236 million)
  • Principal suppliers: Metropolitan France, European Union, Latin America
  • Unemployment rate: 23% (2004, (without taking into account "non-declared" revenues). 26,3% in 2000).

is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort-de-France is the capital of Frances Caribbean département doutre-mer of Martinique. ... Le Lamentin is the second-largest commune in the French overseas département of Martinique. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... SchÅ“lcher is the fourth-largest commune in the French overseas département of Martinique. ... Sainte-Marie Sainte-Marie is the fifth-largest commune in the French overseas département of Martinique. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...

Politics

All inhabitants of Martinique are French citizens with full political and legal rights. Country name: conventional long form: Department of Martinique conventional short form: Martinique local long form: Departement de la Martinique local short form: Martinique Data code: MB Dependency status: overseas department of France Government type: NA Capital: Fort-de-France Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France) Independence: none (overseas department... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... This article is about law in society. ...


Martinique sends four deputies to the French National Assembly and two senators to the French Senate. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: ) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... The Senate (in French : le Sénat) is the upper house of the Parliament of France. ...


History

Main article: History of Martinique


The island was under Britain's command during the Seven Years' War from 1762 to 1763; during the French Revolutionary Wars from 1794 to 1802; and again during the Napoleonic wars from 1809 to 1814. The last British governor was General Sir Charles Wale. Christopher Columbus was the first European to discover Martinique in 1502, on his fourth and last New World voyage. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... Combatants Great Britain Austria Prussia Spain[1] Russia Sardinia Ottoman Empire Portugal Dutch Republic[2] France The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts, from 1792 until 1802, fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Napoleon's wife, Joséphine, was born in Martinique to a family of the wealthy Creole elite. The ruins of the Habitation de la Pagerie where she spent her childhood can still be visited in Trois-Ilets, across the bay from Fort-de-France, the island's capital. Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Joséphine de Beauharnais (nee Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus the first Empress of the French. ... Look up Creole, creole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Les Trois-Îlets is a commune of the Martinique overseas département of France. ... Fort-de-France is the capital of Frances Caribbean département doutre-mer of Martinique. ...


During the French Revolution, severe conflicts rapidly broke out, developing into civil war. In 1789, a slave rebellion was put down. The following year open war broke out when monarchists, who wanted freedom from revolutionary France, massacred troops faithful to the Parisian revolutionary government. The royalist faction gained the upper hand in 1791 and declared the independence of Martinique followed by refusal to grant rights to the free people of colour. In 1793, the republican-Parisian faction gained support from the revolutionary government in Saint Lucia, which prompted the monarchists to invite British occupation in 1794. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Slavery was banned in 1869. People from India and China were brought to work the sugar cane plantations. Slave redirects here. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Mount Pelée erupted in 1902, killing 26,000 to 36,000 people and destroying Saint-Pierre. Not to be confused with the similarly named volcano on Io. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Saint-Pierre was the former capital of Frances Caribbean département doutre-mer of Martinique. ...


During World War II the island was controlled by the Vichy regime from 1940-1943; later it was under the Free French Forces. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to...


An important role in the independence movement was played by Aimé Césaire, a famous poet and essayist. Martinique was the home of Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925December 6, 1961), an author, essayist, psychoanalyst, and anti-colonialist revolutionary, who was strongly influenced by Césaire. Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 25, 1913) is a French poet, author and politician. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a French author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Environment

The north of the island is mountainous and lushly forested. It features dramatic pitons and mornes. The most dominating of the island's many beautiful mountains is the infamous volcano Mount Pelée. The volcanic ash has created beautiful grey and black sand beaches in the north, contrasting markedly from the white sands of Les Salines in the south. Not to be confused with the similarly named volcano on Io. ...


The south is more easily traversed, though still features some impressive geographic features. Because it is easier to travel and because of the many beautiful beaches, the south receives the bulk of the tourist traffic. The beaches from Pointe de Bout, through Diamant (which features right off the coast the beautiful Roche de Diamant), St. Luce, the town of St. Anne all the way down to Les Salines are very popular.


Demographics

Historical population

Historical population
1700
estimate
1738
estimate
1848
estimate
1869
estimate
1873
estimate
1878
estimate
1883
estimate
1888
estimate
1893
estimate
24,000 74,000 120,400 152,925 157,805 162,861 167,119 175,863 189,599
1900
estimate
1954
census
1961
census
1967
census
1974
census
1982
census
1990
census
1999
census
2005
estimate
203,781 239,130 292,062 320,030 324,832 328,566 359,572 381,427 399,000
Official figures from past censuses and INSEE estimates.

Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ...

Culture

Main article: Culture of Martinique
See also: Music of Martinique and Guadeloupe

As an overseas "département" of France, Martinique's culture blends French and Caribbean influences. The city of Saint-Pierre (destroyed by a volcanic eruption of Mount Pelée), was often referred to as the Paris of the Lesser Antilles. Following traditional French custom, many businesses close at midday, then reopen later in the afternoon. The official language is French, although many Martinicans speak Antillean Creole. Mostly based on French, Martinique's Créole also incorporates a few elements of English, Spanish, Portuguese, and African languages. Originally passed down through oral storytelling traditions, it continues to be used more often in speech than in writing. ... The former French colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe are small islands in the Caribbean. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the similarly named volcano on Io. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Location of the Lesser Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean Islands of the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles, also known as the Caribbees,[1] are part of the Antilles, which together with the Bahamas and Greater Antilles form the West Indies. ... Antillean Creole is a French-lexified creole language spoken primarily in the Lesser Antilles. ...


Most of Martinique's population is descended from African slaves brought to work on sugar plantations during the colonial era. Today, the island enjoys a higher standard of living than most other Caribbean countries. The finest French products are easily available, from Chanel fashions to Limoges porcelain. Studying in the métropole is common for young adults. For the rest of the French, Martinique has been a vacation hotspot for many years, attracting both upper-class and more budget-conscious travellers. Not to be confused with Channel. ...


Martinique has a hybrid cuisine, mixing elements of French, African, and Asian traditions. One of its most famous dishes is the Colombo, a unique curry of chicken, meat or fish with vegetables, spiced with a distinctive masala of Bengali or Tamil origins, acidulated with tamarind and often containing wine, coconut milk, and rum. There is also a strong tradition of créole desserts and cakes, often employing pineapple, rum, and a wide range of local ingredients. Massala redirects here. ... Tamil cuisine is one of the oldest vegetarian culinary heritages in the world. ...


Martinique in Popular Culture

Martinique was the main setting and location of the 1944 film To Have and Have Not starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall. Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To Have and Have Not cover To Have and Have Not is a 1937 novel by Ernest Hemingway about Harry Morgan, a fishing boat captain who runs contraband and guns between Cuba and Florida. ... Bogart redirects here. ... Betty Joan Perske (born on September 16, 1924), better known as Lauren Bacall, is a Golden Globe– and Tony Award–winning, as well as Academy Award–nominated, American film and stage actress. ...


Miscellaneous topics

Economy - overview: The economy is based on trade. ... Snake flag of Martinique. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 170,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 15,000 (1997) Telephone system: domestic facilities are adequate domestic: NA international: microwave radio relay to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Saint Lucia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 14, shortwave 0 (1998) Radios... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Military of France has a very long history, greatly influential in World history, of serving its country. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... The French Air Force is the air force branch of the French Armed Forces. ... Gendarmes Gendarmes guarding the Paris Hall of Justice Gendarmerie motorcyclists police the roads and autoroutes of rural France. ... Railways: 0 km (2002) Highways: total: 2,105 km (2000) paved: NA km unpaved: NA km Waterways: none Ports and harbors: Fort-de-France, La Trinite Merchant marine: none (2002 est. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (born June 25, 1913) is a French poet, author and politician. ... Scouting in Martinique is administered by the Scouts de France as an overseas branch or region known as the Scouts de Martinique. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a French author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Edouard Glissant, born in Martinique in 1928, is a writer of novels, theatre, poetry, literary criticism, and is recognised as one of the most influential figures in Caribbean thought and cultural commentary. ... Créolité is a literary movement first developed in the 1980s by Martinican writers Patrick Chamoiseau, Jean Bernabé and Raphaël Confiant. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... Ronny Turiaf (born January 13, 1983 in Le Robert, Martinique) is a French basketball player, selected in the second round (37th pick overall) of the 2005 NBA Draft by the Los Angeles Lakers. ... Patrick Chamoiseau is a Martinican author known for his work in the créolité movement. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

References

Coordinates: 14°40′N, 61°00′W The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only continent without a native population. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Martinique - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (727 words)
Martinique is an island in the eastern Caribbean Sea, having a total area of 1,128 km².
Martinique is divided into arrondissements, cantons, and communes.
Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands.
Martinique national football team - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (169 words)
The Martinique national football team is in fact the regional team of French Overseas Departement Martinique and is controlled by the Ligue de Football de Martinique.
As a full part of French Republic, Martinique is not a member of FIFA, and is therefore not eligible to enter the World Cup, but they do compete in CONCACAF competitions; they made three Gold Cups, even getting to the quarterfinals in 2002.
Another claim to fame for Martinique is that Arsenal's Thierry Henry's second "nationality" is Martiniquais.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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