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Encyclopedia > Martin of Tours
Martin of Tours

Statue of Saint Martin cutting his cloak in two. Chateau "Höchster Stadtschloß", Frankfurt.
Saint, "the Merciful"
Born c. 316, Hungary
Died November 11, 397, Candes, France
Canonized pre-congegation
Feast 11 November
Saints Portal

Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. Around his name much legendary material accrued and he has become one of the most familiar and recognizable Roman Catholic saints. Some of the accounts of his travels may have been interpolated into his vita to give credence to early sites of his cult. His life was recorded by a contemporary, the hagiographer Sulpicius Severus. He is the patron saint of soldiers. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1621, 564 KB) Beschreibung Description: Source: private Author: EvaK Date: 2006-07-16 Permission: GNU-FDL / CC-BY 2. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events Council of Carthage: Definitive declaration of the biblical canon Candida Casa founded by Saint Ninian. ... Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she qualifies for this. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events Council of Carthage: Definitive declaration of the biblical canon Candida Casa founded by Saint Ninian. ... This is a list of the bishops and archbishops of Tours: 1 Gatianus ca 249-301 vacant 301-338 2 Lidorius 338-370 3 St. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... Location map of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia Santiago de Compostela (also Saint James of Compostela) is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are usually depicted as having halos. ... Vita or VITA can refer to any of a number of things: Vita (Latin for life) can also refer to a brief biography, often that of a saint (i. ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Saint Sulpicius Severus (born around 360, died between 420 and 425), wrote the earliest biography of Saint Martin of Tours. ...

Contents

Early life

Martin was named after Mars, the god of war, which Sulpicius Severus interpreted as "the brave, the courageous". He was born at Sabaria, Pannonia (modern Szombathely, Hungary). His father was a senior officer (tribune) in the Imperial Horse Guard, a unit of the Roman army, and was later stationed at Ticinum, Cisalpine Gaul (modern Pavia, Italy), where Martin grew up. Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... Szombathely (Latin Savaria/Sabaria, German Steinamanger) is a city in Hungary, population 79,753 (2001). ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Szombathely (Latin Savaria/Sabaria, German Steinamanger, Slovenian Sombotel) is a city in Hungary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ticinum (the modern Pavia) is an ancient city of Gallia Transpadana, founded on the banks of the river of the same name (now the Ticino river) a little way above its confluence with the Padus (Po). ... Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its...


At the age of ten, he went to the church against the wishes of his parents and became a catechumen or candidate for baptism. At this time, Christianity had been made a legal religion (in 316), but it was by no means the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. It had many more adherents in the Eastern Empire, whence it had sprung, and was concentrated in cities, brought along the trade routes by converted Jews and Greeks (the term 'pagan' literally means 'country-dweller'). Christianity was still far from accepted amongst the higher echelons of society, and in the army the cult of Mithras would have been stronger. Although the conversion of the Emperor Constantine, and the subsequent programme of church-building, gave a greater impetus to the spread of the religion, it was still a minority faith. When Martin was fifteen, as the son of a veteran officer, he was required to join a cavalry ala himself and thus, around 334 was stationed at Ambianensium civitas or Samarobriva in Gaul (modern Amiens, France). It is therefore likely that he joined the equites catafractarii Ambianenses, a unit of cataphracti listed in the Notitia Dignitatum. In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... Mithras and the Bull: fresco from the mithraeum at Marino, Italy, (3rd century AD) Mithras was the central god of Mithraism, a syncretic Hellenistic mystery religion of male initiates that developed in the Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and was practiced in the Roman Empire from... Constantine. ... Ala, Alares, Alarii. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... The Cataphracti (from the Greek, κατάφρακτοι) were a late Roman and Byzantine military unit of heavy armored horsemen, adopted from Eastern parts of the Roman Empire (Nikonorov 1985a) and from the Sarmatians (Tacitus, Histories i. ... The Notitia Dignitatum is a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries. ...

The Charity of St. Martin, by Jean Fouquet

Image File history File links La_charité_de_saint_Martin. ... Image File history File links La_charité_de_saint_Martin. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ...

The Legend of the Cloak

While Martin was still a soldier at Amiens he experienced the vision that became the most-repeated story about his life. He was at the gates of the city of Amiens with his soldiers when he met a scantily dressed beggar. He impulsively cut his own military cloak in half and shared it with the beggar. That night he dreamed of Jesus wearing the half-cloak Martin had given away. He heard Jesus say to the angels: "Here is Martin, the Roman soldier who is not baptised; he has clad me." (Sulpicius, ch 2). In a later embellishment, when Martin woke his cloak was restored, and the miraculous cloak was preserved among the relic collection of the Merovingian kings of the Franks. Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging includes the various methods used by persons to obtain money, food, shelter, or other necessities from people they encounter during the course of their travels. ... A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat – it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable outfit or uniform. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... For other uses of the term Merovingian, see Merovingian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ...


Countering the Arians

The dream confirmed Martin in his piety and he was baptized at the age of 18.[1] He served in the military for another two years until, just before a battle with the Gauls at Worms in 336, Martin determined that his faith prohibited him from fighting, saying, "I am a soldier of Christ. I cannot fight." He was charged with cowardice and jailed, but in response to the charge, he volunteered to go unarmed to the front of the troops. His superiors planned to take him up on the offer, but before they could, the invaders sued for peace, the battle never occurred, and Martin was released from military service.[2] // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ...


Martin declared his vocation and made his way to the city of Tours, where he became a disciple of Hilary of Poitiers, a chief proponent of Trinitarian Christianity, opposing the Arianism of the Visigothic nobility. When Hilary was forced into exile from Poitiers, Martin returned to Italy, converting an Alpine brigand on the way, according to his biographer Sulpicius Severus, and confronting the Devil himself. Returning from Illyria, he was confronted by the Arian archbishop of Milan Auxentius, who expelled him from the city. According to the early sources, he decided to seek shelter on the island then called Gallinaria, now Isola d'Albenga, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, where he lived the solitary life of a hermit. Tours is a city in France, the préfecture (capital city) of the Indre-et-Loire département, on the lower reaches of the river Loire, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. ... Hilarius or Hilary (c. ... The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ... The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... Saint Sulpicius Severus (born around 360, died between 420 and 425), wrote the earliest biography of Saint Martin of Tours. ... The Devil is a title given to the supernatural entity, who, in Christianity, Islam, and other religions, is a powerful, evil entity and the tempter of humankind. ... Illyria Illyria (disambiguation) Illyria (Anc. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... Auxentius (fl. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Onuphrius lived as a hermit in the desert of Upper Egypt in the late 4th century A hermit (from the Greek erēmos, signifying desert, uninhabited, hence desert-dweller) is a person who lives to some greater or lesser degree in seclusion and/or isolation from society. ...


With the return of Hilary to his see in 361, Martin joined him and established a monastery nearby, at the site that developed into the Benedictine Ligugé Abbey. He traveled and preached through Western Gaul: "The memory of these apostolic journeyings survives to our day in the numerous local legends of which Martin is the hero and which indicate roughly the routes that he followed." (Catholic Encyclopedia). A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... This article is about the Roman Catholic order; see also Benedictine Confederation and Benedictine. ... Ligugé Abbey, also St. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...

St Martin as a bishop: modern icon in the chapel of the Eastern Orthodox Monastery of the Theotokos and St Martin, Cantauque, Provence.
St Martin as a bishop: modern icon in the chapel of the Eastern Orthodox Monastery of the Theotokos and St Martin, Cantauque, Provence.

In 371 Martin was acclaimed bishop of Tours, where he impressed the city with his demeanor, and by the enthusiasm with which he had temples demolished or burnt, altars smashed and sculpture defaced. It is an indication of the depth of the Druidic folk religion compared to the veneer of Roman culture in the area, that "when in a certain village he had demolished a very ancient temple, and had set about cutting down a pine-tree, which stood close to the temple, the chief priest of that place, and a crowd of other heathens began to oppose him; and these people, though, under the influence of the Lord, they had been quiet while the temple was being overthrown, could not patiently allow the tree to be cut down" (Sulpicius, Vita ch. xiii). Sulpicius affirms that he withdrew from the press of attention in the city to live in Marmoutier (Majus Monasterium), the monastery he founded, which faces Tours from the opposite shore of the Loire. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 48 KB) Description St Martin de Tours. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 48 KB) Description St Martin de Tours. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Events Martin of Tours becomes Bishop of Tours _ year approximate Baekje forces storm the Goguryeo capital in Pyongyang Births Valentinian II - titular Roman emperor - year approximate Deaths August 1 - St Eusebius of Vercelli St Hilarion - year approximate Lucifer of Cagliari - bishop King Gogugwon of Goguryeo Categories: 371 ... This is a list of the bishops and archbishops of Tours: 1 Gatianus ca 249-301 vacant 301-338 2 Lidorius 338-370 3 St. ... Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... Marmoutier is a commune of the Bas-Rhin département, in France. ... Monastery of St. ... Loire is a département in the east-central part of France occupying the Loire Rivers upper reaches. ...


Martin's order at Marmoutier

Sulpicius Severus described the severe restrictions of the life of Martin among the cave-dwelling cenobites who gathered around him, a rare view of a monastic community that preceded the Benedictine rule: Cenobite may mean: Cenobitic, a follower of a Cenobitic monastic tradition Cenobite (Hellraiser), a demon in Clive Barkers Hellraiser This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Benedict of Nursia left the comfort of the life of a student in Rome in about the year 500 A.D. to seek holiness. ...

Many also of the brethren had, in the same manner, fashioned retreats for themselves, but most of them had formed these out of the rock of the overhanging mountain, hollowed into caves. There were altogether eighty disciples, who were being disciplined after the example of the saintly master. No one there had anything which was called his own; all things were possessed in common. It was not allowed either to buy or to sell anything, as is the custom among most monks. No art was practiced there, except that of transcribers, and even this was assigned to the brethren of younger years, while the elders spent their time in prayer. Rarely did any one of them go beyond the cell, unless when they assembled at the place of prayer. They all took their food together, after the hour of fasting was past. No one used wine, except when illness compelled them to do so. Most of them were clothed in garments of camels' hair. Any dress approaching to softness was there deemed criminal, and this must be thought the more remarkable, because many among them were such as are deemed of noble rank. (Sulpicius, Vita, X)

Defender of the Priscillianists

His role in the matter of the followers of Priscillian was especially remarkable. Priscillian and his partisans, who had been condemned by the First Council of Saragossa, had fled; furious charges were brought before Emperor Magnus Maximus by some bishops of Hispania, led by Bishop Ithacius. Although greatly opposed to the heretics, Martin hurried to the Imperial court of Trier on an errand of mercy to remove them from the secular jurisdiction of the emperor. Maximus at first acceded to his entreaty, but, when Martin had departed, yielded to the solicitations of Ithacius and ordered Priscillian and his followers to be beheaded (385), the first Christians executed for heresy. Deeply grieved, Martin refused to communicate with Ithacius, until pressured by the Emperor. Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... Magnus Maximus. ... Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... The use of the term heresy in the context of Christianity is less common today, with some notable exceptions: see for example Rudolf Bultmann and the character of debates over ordination of women and gay priests. ...

St Martin leaves the life of chivalry and renounces the army (fresco by Simone Martini)
St Martin leaves the life of chivalry and renounces the army (fresco by Simone Martini)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2433, 451 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Martin of Tours Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x2433, 451 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Martin of Tours Basilica of San Francesco dAssisi ... Petrachs Virgil (title page) (c. ...

The shrine and the cult

St Martin's popularity can be partially attributed to his adoption by successive royal houses of France. Clovis (Cholodovech), King of the Salian Franks, one of many warring tribes in sixth century France, promised his Christian wife Clotilda that he would be baptised if he was victorious over the Alemanni; he credited the intervention of St Martin with his success, and with several following triumphs, including the defeat of Alaric II. As a result, Clovis was able to move his capital to Paris, and he is considered to be the 'Founder of France'. The cult of St Martin continued to be closely identified with the Merovingian monarchy, and survived the passage of power to their successors, the Carolinginian dynasty.


The Abbey of St Martin at Tours was one of the most prominent and influential establishments in Dark Age and Medieval France. Charlemagne awarded the position of Abbot to his friend and adviser, the great English scholar and educator Alcuin. At this time the Abbot was able to Travel between Tours and the court at Trier in Germany and always stay overnight at one of his own properties. It was at Tours that Alcuin's scriptorum developed Caroline miniscule, the clear round hand which made manuscripts far more legible. A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Rabanus Maurus (left), supported by Alcuin (middle), presents his work to Otgar of Mainz Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus or Ealhwine (c. ...


The veneration of Martin was hugely popular in the Middle Ages. His body was taken from his hermitage at Candes St Martin to Tours and the simple shrine erected over his sarcophagus was increased to a great basilica, as the shrine of St. Martin of Tours became a major stopping-point on pilgrimages; the later bishop, Gregory of Tours, made it his business to write and see distributed an influential Life filled with miraculous events of the saint's career. The basilica was sacked by Huguenots during the Wars of Religion, in 1562, then utterly demolished during the French Revolution, when two streets were opened on the site, to ensure it would not be rebuilt. In 1860, excavations established its former site and recovered some fragments of architecture. Veneration is a religious symbolic act giving honor to someone by honoring an image of that person, particularly applied to saints. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Detail of a stone sarcophagus in the Istanbul Archeological Museum showing a hunting scene Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cádiz A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ... St. ... Pilgrim at Mecca In religion and spirituality, a pilgrimage is a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between the Catholic League and the Huguenots from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period of major political and social change in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Hagiography

The early life of Saint Martin that was written by Sulpicius Severus who knew him personally [1], while it expresses the intimate closeness the 4th century Christian felt with the Devil in all his disguises, is at the same time filled with accounts of miracles so extravagant as apparently to challenge disbelief. Some follow familiar conventions— casting out devils, raising the paralytic and the dead— others are more unusual: turning back the flames from a house while Martin was burning down the Roman temple it adjoined; deflecting the path of a felled sacred pine; the healing power of a letter written from Martin, indeed "threads from Martin's garment, or such as had been plucked from the sackcloth which he wore, wrought frequent miracles upon those who were sick." As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... (noun) paralytic (a person suffering from paralysis) (adj) paralytic, paralytical (relating to the nature of paralysis) paralytic symptoms (adj) paralytic, paralyzed (affected or subject to paralysis) Drugs which induce paralization are called paralytics, such as Vecuronium, Pancuronium, & Succinylcholine. ... Look up dead in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hairshirt is also a 1998 movie. ...


The first occasion on which Martin restored the dead to life was that of the catechumen who lived with him in his cell near Poitiers. He returned from a three-day absence to find In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... Location within France Poitiers (population 85,000) is a small city located in west central France. ...

The body being laid out in public was being honored by the last sad offices on the part of the mourning brethren, when Martin hurries up to them with tears and lamentations. But then laying hold; as it were, of the Holy Spirit, with the whole powers of his mind, he orders the others to quit the cell in which the body was lying; and bolting the door, he stretches himself at full length on the dead limbs of the departed brother. Having given himself for some time to earnest prayer, and perceiving by means of the Spirit of God that power was present, he then rose up for a little, and gazing on the countenance of the deceased, he waited without misgiving for the result of his prayer and of the mercy of the Lord. And scarcely had the space of two hours elapsed, when he saw the dead man begin to move a little in all his members, and to tremble with his eyes opened for the practice of sight. Then indeed, turning to the Lord with a loud voice and giving thanks, he filled the cell with his ejaculations (Sulpicius Severus, Vita).

In one instance, the druids agreed to fell their sacred fir tree, if Martin would stand directly in the path of its fall. He did so, and it miraculously missed him very narrowly. Sulpicius, a classically educated aristocrat, related this anecdote with dramatic details, as a set piece. Sulpicius could not have failed to know the incident the Roman poet Horace recalls in several Odes, of his narrow escape from a falling tree (Odes ii.13 and .17 and iii.4) — a tree that Horace says, addressing it, was "reared with a sacrilegious hand for the destruction of posterity" (sacrilega manu produxit, arbos, in nepotum perniciem). In various religions, most notably Trinitarian Christianity, the Holy Spirit (in Hebrew רוח הקודש Ruah haqodesh; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity. ... Two druids, from an 1845 publication, based on a bas-relief found at Autun, France. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ...


William M. Branham (a 20th century Bible minister) made the claim that Saint Martin played a key role in church history. William Marrion Branham (April 6, 1909, Kentucky – December 24, 1965) was an influential Bible minister sometimes credited with founding the Latter Rain Movement within American Pentecostal churches, elements of which are present in most modern Pentecostal and Charismatic churches (although William Branham denied any specific connection with the movement). ... William Marrion Branham (April 6, 1909, Kentucky – December 24, 1965) was an influential Bible minister sometimes credited with founding the Latter Rain Movement within American Pentecostal churches, elements of which are present in most modern Pentecostal and Charismatic churches (although William Branham denied any specific connection with the movement). ...


Folklore

From the late 4th century CE to the late Middle Ages, much of Western Europe, including Great Britain, engaged in a period of fasting beginning on the day after St. Martin's Day, November 11. This fast period lasted 40 days, and was, therefore, called "Quadragesima Sancti Martini," which means in Latin "the forty days of St. Martin." At St. Martin's eve and on the feast day, people ate and drank very heartily for a last time before they started to fast. This fasting time was later called "Advent" by the Church. St. ... Advent (from the Latin Adventus, implicitly coupled with Redemptoris, the coming of the Saviour) is a holy season of the Christian church, the period of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Christ, also known as the season of Christmas. ...


On St. Martin's Day, children in Flanders, the southern and north-western parts of the Netherlands, the Catholic areas of Germany and Austria participate in paper lantern processions. Often, a man dressed as St. Martin rides on a horse in front of the procession. The children sing songs about St. Martin and about their lanterns. The food traditionally eaten on the day is goose. According to legend, Martin was reluctant to become bishop, which is why he hid in a stable filled with geese. The noise made by the geese betrayed his location to the people who were looking for him. Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... Paper Lanterns Paper lanterns come in various shapes and sizes, as well as various methods of construction. ... Look up goose in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In Malta, children are sometimes given a bag full of nuts, hazelnuts, oranges and tangerines. In old days, nuts were then used by the children in their games. The parish of Baħrija is dedicated to Saint Martin and on his feast a fair with agricultural produce and annimals is organized. Bahrija is a very small rural village in the limits of Rabat, Malta, with a population of about 3000. ...


Also, in the east part of the Belgian province of East-Flanders and the west part of West Flanders, children receive presents from St. Martin on November 11, instead of from Saint Nicholas on December 6 or Santa Claus on December 25. East Flanders is a province of Flanders, one of the three regions of Belgium. ... West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of Flanders and of Belgium. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Saint Nicholas (Greek: , Nikolaos, victory of the people) is the common name for Saint Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, who had a reputation for secret gift-giving, but is now commonly identified with Santa Claus. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A typical depiction of Santa Claus. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ...


In recent years, the lantern processions have become widespread, even in Protestant areas of Germany and the Netherlands, despite the fact that most Protestant churches do not recognize Saints as a distinct class of believers from the laity. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ...


Many churches in Europe are named after Saint Martinus, also known as Saint Martin of Tours. St. Martin is the patron saint of Szombathely, with a church dedicated to him, and also the patron saint of Buenos Aires. This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... Szombathely (Latin Savaria/Sabaria, German Steinamanger, Slovenian Sombotel) is a city in Hungary. ... For other uses see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ...


In Latin America, he has a strong popular following and is frequently referred to as San Martín Caballero, in reference to his common depiction on horseback. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Though no mention of St. Martin's connection with viticulture is made by by Gregory of Tours or other early hagiographers, he is now credited with a prominent role in spreading wine-making throughout the Touraine region and facilitated the planting of many vines. The Greek myth that Aristaeus first discovered the concept of pruning the vines after watching a goat eat some of the foliage has been applied to Martin.[3] He is also credited with introducing the Chenin Blanc grape varietal, from which most of the white wine of western Touraine and Anjou is made. wine grapes Viticulture (from the Latin word for vine) refers to the cultivation of grapes, often for use in the production of wine. ... Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... The Touraine is a former province of France. ... A minor god in Greek mythology, Aristaeus or Aristaios was the son of Apollo and the huntress Cyrene, who despised spinning and other womanly arts but spent her days hunting. ... In microeconomics, pruning taken as a metaphor from gardening, refers to the removal of excess items from a budget. ... Chenin Blanc (or often simply Chenin) is a widely grown wine grape variety, also known as Steen in South Africa, Pineau de la Loire in the Loire region of France. ...


In Germany a social Organisation, helping in building hospitals, houses for handicapt people, monasteries, is named "Sankt Martin Orden". As member of the voluntary services of the UN, this organisation has projekts in different european states. Its most active members could be decorated with the most honorable Order of St.Martin, which is partend in five classes.


Martin Luther was purportedly named after St. Martin, as he was baptized on November 11 (St. Martin's Day), 1483. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Patron Saints Index: Saint Martin of Tours
  2. ^ Kurlansky, Mark (2006). Nonviolence: twenty-five lessons from the history of a dangerous idea. Pp 26-27.
  3. ^ For instance in Hugh Johnson, Vintage: The Story of Wine 1989, p 97.

References

  • Sulpicius Severus On the Life of St. Martin. Translation and Notes by Alexander Roberts. In A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, New York, 1894, available online
  • Lörincz, Zoltán (2000) Szent Márton, Savaria szülötte (Saint Martin, the Son of Savaria). Szombathely, B.K.L. Kiadó - Pannon Lapok Társasága. This book (written in Hungarian) contains an essay on St Martin and his cult in Hungary and Europe, with a discussion of artworks depicting his life.
  • Mark Kurlansky (2006). Nonviolence: twenty-five lessons from the history of a dangerous idea. Modern Library chronicles book, Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-679-64335-4.

Saint Sulpicius Severus (born around 360, died between 420 and 425), wrote the earliest biography of Saint Martin of Tours. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Martin of Tours
Preceded by
Lidorius
Archbishop of Tours
371397
Succeeded by
Bricius
Persondata
NAME Martin of Tours
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Martin the Merciful, Saint Martin
SHORT DESCRIPTION Christian saint and bishop
DATE OF BIRTH 316
PLACE OF BIRTH Hungary
DATE OF DEATH November 11, 397
PLACE OF DEATH Candes, France

  Results from FactBites:
 
Martin of Tours - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1766 words)
St Martin as a bishop: modern icon in the chapel of the Eastern Orthodox Monastery of the Theotokos and St Martin, Cantauque, Provence.
Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela.
In 371 Martin was acclaimed bishop of Tours, where he impressed the city with his demeanor, and by the enthusiasm with which he had temples demolished or burnt, altars smashed and sculpture defaced.
St. Martin's Day - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1000 words)
Martin's Day is November 11, the feast day of Martin of Tours, who gave half his cloak to a beggar so he could hide his poverty.
Martin's Day actually has two meanings: in the agricultural calendar it marks the beginning of the natural winter, but in the economic calendar it is seen as the end of autumn.
Among Estonians, St. Martin's Day also marks the end of the period of all souls, as well as the autumn period in the Estonian popular calendar when the souls of the ancestors were worshipped that lasted from November 1 to St. Martin's Day.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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