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Encyclopedia > Martin Luther King Jr
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.

The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. Ph.D., born Michael King, (January 15, 1929April 4, 1968) was a Nobel Laureate, Baptist minister, and African American civil rights activist. He is one of the most significant leaders in U.S. history and in the modern history of nonviolence, and is considered a hero, peacemaker and martyr by many people around the world. A decade and a half after his 1968 assassination, Martin Luther King Day, a U.S. holiday, was established in his honor. This image is of Martin Luther King Jr. ... This image is of Martin Luther King Jr. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain or Elder. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Sir Galahad, a hero of Arthurian legend In many myths and folk tales, a hero is a man or woman (the latter often called a heroine), traditionally the protagonist of a story, legend or saga, who commonly possesses abilities or character far greater than that of a typical person, which... The concept of peace ranks among the most controversial in our time. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Jack Ruby murdered the alleged assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ...

Contents


Background and family

King was born in Atlanta, Georgia to the Rev. Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King. (Birth records list King's first name as Michael, apparently due to some confusion on the part of the family doctor regarding the true name of his father, who was known as Mike throughout his childhood.) He graduated from Morehouse College with a Bachelor of Arts degree (in Sociology) in 1948, and from Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania with a Bachelor of Divinity in 1951. He received his Ph.D. in Systematic theology from Boston University in 1955. City nickname(s): The A-T-L, The Horizon City, The Capital of the South, The Phoenix City, The City Too Busy to Hate, Hotlanta, A-Town, The Big A, The New York of the South, The Big Peach County Fulton County, Georgia Area  - Total  - Water 343. ... Martin Luther King, Sr. ... Alberta Christine Williams King (September 13, 1903 – June 30, 1974) was Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Morehouse College is a private, four-year, liberal arts college for African-American men located on a 61 acre (247,000 m²) campus in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Social interactions of people and their consequences are the subject of sociology studies. ... 1948 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Chester is a city in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, population 36,854 at the 2000 census. ... A Bachelor of Divinity is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a courses taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines, such as theology or, rarely, religious studies. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Systematic theology is the study of Christian theology organized thematically (as opposed to historically, as in Historical Theology or Biblical Theology - according to some uses of the latter term). ... Boston University is a non-sectarian private university located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


King married Coretta Scott on June 18, 1953. The wedding ceremony took place in Scott's parents' house in Marion, Alabama, and was performed by King's father. Coretta Scott King Coretta Scat King (born April 27, 1927) near Marion, Alabama is the widow of the late civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Marion is a city located in Perry County, Alabama. ...


King and Scott had four children:

The four children all have one thing in common: They have followed their father's footsteps as civil rights activists. Martin Luther King Jr. ... November 17 is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin Luther King III (born October 23, 1957, Montgomery, Alabama) is the son of Martin Luther King, Jr. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 69 days remaining. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dexter Scott King (born 30 January 1961) is the son of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bernice Albertine King (born March 28, 1963 Atlanta, Georgia) is the daughter of Martin Luther King, Jr. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Civil rights activism

In 1954, King became the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. He was a leader of the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott which began when Rosa Parks refused to comply with Jim Crow law and surrender her seat to a white man. The boycott lasted for 381 days. The situation became so tense that King's house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which ended with a United States Supreme Court decision outlawing racial segregation on intrastate buses. 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dexter Avenue Baptist Church is a Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Montgomery is the capital of the state of Alabama, and is a city located in Montgomery County. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political protest campaign in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama intended to oppose the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. ... Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to make room for white people. ... A depiction of Thomas D. Rices Jim Crow In the United States, the so-called Jim Crow laws were made to enforce racial segregation, and included laws that would prevent African Americans from doing things that a white person could do. ... Seal of the Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest federal court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States to interpret and decide questions of federal law, including the... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ...


Following the campaign, King was instrumental in the founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, a group created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct nonviolent protests in the service of civil rights reform. King continued to dominate the organization until his death. The organization's nonviolent principles were criticized by the younger, more radical blacks and challenged by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) then headed by James Foreman. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC, first known as Southern Negro Leaders Conference on Transportation and Nonviolent Integration) is a civil rights organization founded in January 1957. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the primary institutions of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ...


The SCLC derived its membership principally from black communities associated with Baptist churches. King was an adherent of the philosophies of nonviolent civil disobedience used successfully in India by Mohandas Gandhi, and he applied this philosophy to the protests organized by the SCLC. King correctly identified that organized, nonviolent protest against the racist system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Indeed, journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that made the Civil Rights Movement the single most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s. Civil disobedience encompasses the active refusal to obey certain laws, demands and commands of a government or of an occupying power without resorting to physical violence. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ... Civil Rights Movement in the United States, political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African American and to achieve racial equality. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ...

King is perhaps most famous for his "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
King is perhaps most famous for his "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

King organized and led marches for blacks' right to vote, desegregation, fair hiring, and other basic civil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into United States law with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Dr. Martin Luther King speaking at the Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Full size image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dr. Martin Luther King speaking at the Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Full size image File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The Lincoln Memorial, built 1915 - 1922 The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, DC, is a memorial to United States President Abraham Lincoln. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. ... Voters at the voting booths in the United States in 1945. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... The law of the United States is derived from the common law of England, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed the requirement that would-be voters take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


King and the SCLC applied the principles of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out in often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent. King and the SCLC were instrumental in the unsuccessful protest movement in Albany, in 19611962, where divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts; in the Birmingham protests in the summer of 1963; and in the protest in St. Augustine, Florida, in 1964. King and the SCLC joined forces with SNCC in Selma, Alabama, in December 1964, where SNCC had been working on voter registration for a number of months. Albany is a city located in Dougherty County, Georgia, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 76,939. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Birmingham is the largest city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Jefferson County. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Five flags have flown over St. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Selma is located on the banks of the Alabama River near Paul M. Grist State Park. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The March on Washington

King and SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, then attempted to organise a march from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery, for March 25, 1965. The first attempt to march on March 7, was aborted due to mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day since has become known as Bloody Sunday. Bloody Sunday was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the Civil Rights Movement, the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King's nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present. After meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson, he had attempted to delay the march until March 8, but the march was carried out against his wishes and without his presence by local civil rights workers. The footage of the police brutality against the protestors was broadcast extensively across the nation and aroused a national sense of public outrage. Montgomery is the capital of the state of Alabama, and is a city located in Montgomery County. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge,March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... Order: 36th President Vice President: Hubert H. Humphrey Term of office: November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969 Preceded by: John F. Kennedy Succeeded by: Richard M. Nixon Date of birth: August 27, 1908 Place of birth: Gillespie County, Texas Date of death: January 22, 1973 Place of death: Johnson City... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, and verbal attacks and threats by police officers. ...


The second attempt at the march on March 9 was ended when King stopped the procession at the Edmund Pettus Bridge on the outskirts of Selma, an action which he seemed to have negotiated with city leaders beforehand. This unexpected action aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, with the agreement and support of President Johnson, and it was during this march that Willie Ricks coined the phrase "Black Power" (widely credited to Stokely Carmichael). March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... Categories: Stub ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ... Stokely Carmichael Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American Black activist and leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panther Party. ...


King, representing SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called "Big Six" civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were: Roy Wilkins, NAACP; Whitney Young, Jr., Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James Farmer of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). For King, this role was another which courted controversy, as he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation, but the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a political rally that took place on August 28, 1963. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Roy Wilkins stamp in the Black Heritage series release by the United States Postal Service Roy Wilkins (August 30, 1901 – September 8, 1981) was a prominent civil rights activist in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s. ... Whitney M. Young Jr. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League is a non-profit, nonpartisan, civil rights and community-based movement that advocates on behalf of Black Americans and against racial discrimination. ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 - May 16, 1979) was a socialist active in the labor movement and the US civil rights movement. ... The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was a labor union in the United States organized from Pullman Porters. ... John Lewis is the name of: an American labor leader: see John L. Lewis a philosopher: see John Lewis (philosopher) a jazz pianist: see John Lewis (pianist) an American civil rights activist and member of the U.S. House of Representatives: see John Lewis (politician) a British Singer who released... James Leonard Farmer is the name of two prominient African-Americans. ... The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the U.S. Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ... Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First...


The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the South and a very public opportunity to place organizers' concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation's capital. Organizers intended to excoriate and then challenge the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks, generally, in the South. However, the group acquiesced to presidential presure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone.

As a result, some civil rights activists who felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the "Farce on Washington," and members of the Nation of Islam who attended the march faced a temporary suspension.[1]

The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public school; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for the District of Columbia, then governed by congressional committee. ...


Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protestors in Washington history. King's "I Have a Dream" speech electrified the crowd. It is regarded, along with President Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address", as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th (1861–1865) President of the United States, and the first president from the Republican Party. ...


Throughout his career of service, King wrote and spoke frequently, drawing on his long experience as a preacher. His "Letter from Birmingham Jail", written in 1963, is a passionate statement of his crusade for justice. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading non-violent resistance to end racial prejudice in the United States. The Letter From Birmingham Jail, commonly but incorrectly rendered Letter From a Birmingham Jail, was an open letter on April 16, 1963 written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Justice is a concept involving the fair, moral, and impartial treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nobel Peace Prize (where Nobel is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable) is one of five Nobel Prizes requested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


A controversial new call

Starting in 1965, King began to express doubts about the United States' role in the Vietnam War. On April 4, 1967— exactly one year before his death— King spoke out strongly against the US's role in the war, insisting that the US was in Vietnam "to occupy it as an American colony" and calling the US "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today." But he also argued that the country needed larger moral changes: 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The Vietnam War was fought from 1957 to 1975 between Soviet-supported Vietnamese nationalist and Communist forces and an array of Western and pro-Western forces, most notably the United States. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1967 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...

A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: "This is not just." [2]

King was long hated by many white southern segregationists, but this speech turned the more mainstream media against him. TIME called the speech "demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi (a propaganda radio station run by the North Vietnamese Army during the Vietnam War)", and the Washington Post declared that King had "diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people." The U.S. Southern states or the South, also known colloquially as Dixie, constitute a distinctive region covering a large portion of the United States, with its own unique heritage, historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ... 8:17 am, August 6, 1945, Japanese time. ... The Vietnam War was fought from 1957 to 1975 between Soviet-supported Vietnamese nationalist and Communist forces and an array of Western and pro-Western forces, most notably the United States. ... ...


The speech was a reflection of King's evolving political advocacy in his later years. He began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation. Toward the end of his life, King more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice. Though his public language was guarded, so as to avoid being linked to communism by his political enemies, in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism [3]): This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... A red rose held in a closed fist is the international symbol of democratic socialism. ...

You can't talk about solving the economic problem of the Negro without talking about billions of dollars. You can't talk about ending the slums without first saying profit must be taken out of slums. You're really tampering and getting on dangerous ground because you are messing with folk then. You are messing with captains of industry.... Now this means that we are treading in difficult water, because it really means that we are saying that something is wrong... with capitalism.... There must be a better distribution of wealth and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism. (Frogmore, S.C. November 14, 1966. Speech in front of his staff.) November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ...

In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the "Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice. The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C. demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States. 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the...


On April 3, 1968, King prophetically told a euphoric crowd: April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ...

It really doesn't matter what happens now.... some began to... talk about the threats that were out -- what would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers.... Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place, but I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over, and I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. And so I'm happy tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.

Assassination

King was assassinated the next evening, April 4, 1968, at 6:01pm, on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, while preparing to lead a local march in support of the heavily black Memphis sanitation workers' union. Friends inside the apartment heard the shot fired and ran to the balcony to find King shot in the jaw. He was pronounced dead several hours later. Four days later, President Johnson declared a national day of mourning for their lost civil rights leader. A crowd of 300,000 attended his funeral that same day. April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee was the site of the Martin Luther King Jr. ... City nickname: The River City or The Bluff City Location in the state of Tennessee County Shelby County, Tennessee Area  - Total  - Water 763. ... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis (largest metropolitan area is Nashville) Governor Phil Bredesen Official languages English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ...


James Earl Ray confessed to the shooting and was convicted, though he recanted his confession days later. In 1999, Coretta Scott King, King's widow (also a civil rights leader), along with the rest of King's family won a wrongful death civil trial against Loyd Jowers, who claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King's assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found that "governmental agencies were parties" to the assassination plot.[4] James Earl Ray (March 10, 1928 – April 23, 1998) was the convicted assassin of Martin Luther King Jr. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Coretta Scott King Coretta Scat King (born April 27, 1927) near Marion, Alabama is the widow of the late civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Loyd Jowers was a sensationalist figure in the history of the assassination of Martin Luther King. ...


Rev. Jesse Jackson, who was with King at the time of his death, noted "The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. [And] within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. ... I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray." [5] King biographer David Garrow disagrees with William Pepper's claims that the government killed King. He is supported by King assassination author Gerald Posner. [6] Jesse Jackson The Reverend Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. ...


Legacy

Since his death, King's reputation has grown to become one of the most revered names in American history to the point where he is compared with Abraham Lincoln. Supporters of this idea remark that both were leaders credited with strongly advancing human rights against poor odds in a nation divided against itself on the issue - and were assassinated in part for it. Even posthumous accusations of marital infidelity and academic plagiarism have not seriously dented his public esteem, but merely reinforced the image of a very human hero and leader. Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th (1861–1865) President of the United States, and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


In 1980, King's boyhood home in Atlanta and several other nearby buildings were declared as the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. In 1986, a U.S. national holiday was established in honor of Martin Luther King Jr., which is called Martin Luther King Day. It is observed on the third Monday of January each year, around the time of King's birthday. On January 18, 1993, for the first time, Martin Luther King Day was officially observed in all 50 U.S. states. In addition, many U.S. cities have officially renamed one of their streets to honor King. 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Martin Luther King, Jr. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word holiday has related but different meanings in English-speaking countries, with the exception of the United States where usage differs greatly. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... January is the first month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... A U.S. state is any one of the 50 states (four of which officially favor the term commonwealth) which, together with the District of Columbia, form the United States of America. ...


Since his death, Coretta Scott King has followed her husband's footsteps and is active in matters of social justice and civil rights. The same year Martin Luther King was assassinated, Mrs. King established the King Center in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. Dexter King currently serves as the Center's president and CEO. Yolanda King is a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training.


King was a prominent member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc., the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African Americans. Alphas, A Phi A international headquarters Baltimore, Maryland colors Old Gold and Black flower Yellow Rose symbols Sphinx, Ape, Pharaoh coat of arms motto: First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ, pronounced A-Phi-A) Fraternity is the oldest Greek letter intercollegiate fraternity founded...


King and the FBI

John F. Kennedy in the oval office with various civil rights activists including Martin Luther King (second from left).
John F. Kennedy in the oval office with various civil rights activists including Martin Luther King (second from left).

King had a mutually antagonistic relationship with the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), especially its director, J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI began tracking King and the SCLC in 1961. Its investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when it learned that one of King's most trusted advisers was Stanley Levison. Levison was a man whom the bureau suspected of involvement with the Communist Party, USA, to which another key King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts O'Dell, was also linked by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levison and King's home and office phones, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. The Bureau also informed then-Attorney General Robert Kennedy and then-President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Levison. For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to Communism, stating at one point that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida"—to which Hoover responded by calling King "the most notorious liar in the country." This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First... The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States, in the West Wing of the White House, built in 1902. ... For other uses of the initials FBI, see FBI (disambiguation). ... Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from May 10, 1924, until his death in 1972, having been appointed to that position for life by President John Calvin Coolidge. ... 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Stanley Levison was a New York lawyer and Jewish radical best known for his close work with Martin Luther King Jr. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First... Eskimo is a term used for a group of people who inhabit the circumpolar region (excluding circumpolar Scandinavia and all but the easternmost portions of Russia). ... State nickname: Sunshine State, Everglade State Other U.S. States Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush Official languages English Area 170,451 km² (22nd)  - Land 137,374 km²  - Water 30,486 km² (17. ...


The attempt to smear King as a communist was in keeping with the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot, but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators." Movement leaders countered that voter disenfranchisement, lack of education and employment opportunities, discrimination and vigilante violence were the reasons for the strength of the Civil Rights Movement, and that blacks had the intelligence and motivation to organize on their own.


HUAC later was discredited for its coercion of witnesses and the manner in which it sought to implicate individuals with vague and often sweeping accusations and assumptions of guilt by association. The Committee was renamed in 1969 and eventually abolished.


Later, the focus of the Bureau's investigations shifted to attempting to "discredit" King through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, demonstrates that he also engaged in numerous extramarital sexual affairs. Accounts of such behavior also have been provided by King's associates, including close friend Ralph Abernathy. The Bureau distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family. The Bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he didn't cease his civil rights work. Ralph David Abernathy (March 11, 1926 - April 17, 1990) was an American civil rights leader. ...


Finally, the Bureau's investigation shifted away from King's personal life to intelligence and counterintelligence work on the direction of the SCLC and the Black Power movement. COINTELPRO is an acronym (COunter INTELligence PROgram) for a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... Black Power is a slogan which describes the aspiration of many Africans (whether they be in Africa or abroad) to national self-determination. ...


January 31, 1977, in the cases of Bernard S. Lee v. Clarence M. Kelley, et al. and Southern Christian Leadership Conference v. Clarence M. Kelley, et al. United States District Judge John Lewis Smith, Jr., ordered that all known copies of the recorded tapes, and transcripts resulting from the FBI's microphonic surveillance of King, between 1963 and 1968, be sealed and made secret within the National Archives until the year 2027. January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ... Millennia: 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium - 4th millennium Centuries: 20th century - 21st century - 22nd century Decades: 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s - 2020s - 2030s 2040s 2050s 2060s 2070s Years: 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 The Decade as a Whole expected to be called the twenty-twenties or...


Six FBI agents were present at Martin Luther King's assassination in Memphis, Tennessee. However, most believe that the FBI actually had nothing to do with the murder. Across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the building that James Earl Ray was hiding in, was an abandoned fire station. The FBI was assigned to observe King during the appearance he was planning to make on the Lorraine Motel balcony later that day, and utilized the fire station as a makeshift base. Using papered-over windows with peepholes cut into them, the agents watched over the scene until MLK was shot. Immediately following the shooting, all six agents rushed out of the station and were the first people to administer first-aid to Dr. King.


Plagiarism and authorship issues

King at times has been accused of plagiarizing parts of his doctoral thesis and other academic papers. As one King researcher has written, "instances of textual appropriation can be seen in his earliest extant writings as well as his dissertation. The pattern is also noticeable in his speeches and sermons throughout his career."[7] Boston University, where King got his PhD in theology, conducted an investigation that found he plagiarized approximately a third of his doctoral thesis from a paper written three years earlier by another graduate student. [8] See Editing Martin Luther King, Jr.:Political and Scholarly Issues by Clayborn Carson. The university decided not to revoke his degree. Plagiarism refers to the use of anothers ideas, information, language, or writing, when done without proper acknowledgment of the original source. ... Boston University is a non-sectarian private university located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Theology is literally reasonable discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ...


Portions of many of King's speeches were borrowed from other preachers, both fellow African Americans and white radio evangelists. Perhaps most notably, the closing passage from King's famous "I Have a Dream" speech was borrowed from Archibald Carey, Jr.'s address to the 1952 Republican National Convention. The major similarity is that both speeches end with a recitation of the first verse of Samuel Francis Smith's popular patriotic hymn "America" (My Country ’Tis of Thee), and the names of some mountains mentioned from each exhorts "let freedom ring" are the same in both speeches. Keith Miller, in Voice of Deliverance: The Language of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Its Sources, argues that such borrowing, which he terms "voice merging", follows in a long tradition of folk preaching, particularly in the African American church, and should not necessarily be termed plagiarism. On the contrary, he views King's skillful combination of language from different sources as a major oratorical skill. African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Archibald James Carey II (born September 11, 1932) was the son of poor, black sharecroppers in Georgia. ... The 1952 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago, Cook County, from 7 July to 11 July and nominated the popular general and war hero Dwight David Eisenhower also known as Ike for president and the anti-communist crusading senator from California Richard Milhous Nixon also known as Tricky Dick... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...


Other awards and recognition

In 1965, the American Jewish Committee presented the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. with the American Liberties Medallion for his "exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty." Reverend King said in his acceptance remarks, "Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free." 1965 was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The stated Mission of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) is to safeguard the welfare and security of Jews in the United States, in Israel, and throughout the world; to strengthen the basic principles of pluralism around the world, as the best defense against anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry...


See also

This is a timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Civil Rights Movement in the United States, political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African American and to achieve racial equality. ... The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political protest campaign in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama intended to oppose the citys policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. ... A race is a distinct population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. ... An African-American drinks out of a water cooler designated for use by colored patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. ... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ...

Reference

  • The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr., David Garrow, Penguin Books: New York, New York, 1981. ISBN 0140064869

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ...

Video and audio material

  • Collection of Audio/Video files of Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Internet Archive: The New Negro, King interviewed by J. Waites Waring.
  • "Real Audio" online version of the "I Have a Dream" speech at the HistoryChannel's site
  • Mp3 and transcript of the "I Have a Dream" speech

 
 

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