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Encyclopedia > Martin Luther King Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King, Jr. speaking
Official name Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Observed by United States
Type National
Date Third Monday in January
2007 date January 15 (USA)

Martin Luther King Jr. Day is a United States holiday marking the birthdate of the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., observed on the third Monday of January each year, around the time of King's birthday, January 15. It is one of four United States federal holidays to commemorate an individual person.[1] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (586x872, 78 KB) Summary retouched version of public domain Image:Martin-Luther-King-1964-leaning-on-a-lectern. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ...

Contents

Proposition

Martin Luther King Day was founded as a holiday promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations.[2] After King's death in 1968, Rep. John Conyers introduced a bill in Congress to make King's birthday a national holiday, highlighting King's activism on behalf of trade unionists. Unions did most of the promotion for the holiday throughout the 1970s. In 1976, trade unionists helped to elect Jimmy Carter, who endorsed the King Day bill. After that endorsement, union influence in the King holiday campaign declined, and the King Center turned to support from the corporate community and the general public. The success of this strategy was cemented when musician Stevie Wonder released the single "Happy Birthday" to popularize the campaign in 1980 and hosted the Rally for Peace Press Conference in 1981. Six million signatures were collected for a petition to Congress to pass the law, termed by a 2006 The Nation article as "...the largest petition in favor of an issue in United States History"[3] John Conyers, Jr. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The MLK National Historic Site honors the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... “Instrumentalist” redirects here. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris),[1] is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and record producer. ... Happy Birthday is a 1980 single written, produced, and performed by Stevie Wonder for the Motown label. ... The Nation (ISSN 0027-8378) is a weekly [1] U.S. periodical devoted to politics and culture, self-described as the flagship of the left. ...


President Ronald Reagan opposed the holiday, relenting only after Congress passed the King Day Bill with an overwhelming veto-proof majority (338 to 90 in the House of Representatives and 78 to 22 in the Senate). Reagan redirects here. ...


At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. It was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986. For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... The tulips are in full bloom in the Rose Garden at the White House, April 20, 2005. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Reluctance to observe day

In addition to Reagan, opposition to the bill was led by Senator Jesse Helms, who questioned whether King was important enough to receive such an honor. He was also critical of King's opposition to the Vietnam War, accused King of having Communist connections. Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


On January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Day was officially observed in all 50 states.[4] Prior to that New Hampshire and Arizona did not observe the day. Throughout the 1990's this was heavily criticized. After a 1992 proposition to recognize the holiday in Arizona did not pass, the NFL boycotted hosting Super Bowl XXVII at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe.[5] The hip-hop group Public Enemy recorded a song titled "By The Time I Get To Arizona", on their 1991 album, Apocalypse 91... The Enemy Strikes Black, in which they describe assassinating Arizona Governor Fife Symington III, for his opposition to the Holiday. is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... NFL logo For other uses of the abbreviation NFL, see NFL (disambiguation). ... Date January 31, 1993 Stadium Rose Bowl Stadium City Pasadena, California MVP Troy Aikman, Quarterback Favorite Cowboys by 7 National anthem Garth Brooks Coin toss O.J. Simpson Referee Dick Hantak Halftime show Michael Jackson Attendance 98,374 TV in the United States Network NBC Announcers Dick Enberg and Bob... Sun Devil Stadium, Frank Kush Field is located on the campus of Arizona State University in Tempe. ... Tempe is a variant spelling for the food Tempeh. ... For other uses, see Hip hop (disambiguation). ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... Apocalypse 91. ... The following is a list of the governors of Arizona. ... John Fife Symington III (born August 12, 1945 in New York City) was the Republican governor of the U.S. state of Arizona from 1991 until his resignation in 1997. ...


While all states now observe the Holiday, some did not name the day after King.


In Utah the holiday was known as "Human Rights Day", until the year 2000 when the Utah State Legislature voted to change the name of the holiday from Human Rights Day to Martin Luther King, Jr. Day. In that same year Governor Michael O. Leavitt signed the bill officially naming the holiday "Martin Luther King, Jr. Day." This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In Virginia, the Holiday was added on to Lee-Jackson Day, a day meant to honor Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson, and became Lee-Jackson-King Day. The incongruous nature of the holiday, which simultaneously celebrated the lives of Confederate Army generals and a civil rights icon, did not escape the notice of Virginia lawmakers. In 2000, a Martin Luther King Day was established in Virginia. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Lee-Jackson Day is a holiday celebrated in the Commonwealth of Virginia for the birthdays of Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Lee-Jackson-King Day was a holiday celebrated in the Commonwealth of Virginia from 1984 to 2000. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


In Arizona and New Hampshire, Martin Luther King Day is known as Martin Luther King, Jr. Civil Rights Day.


Although the day is a federal holiday and a state holiday in all states, it is usually not observed by small private companies except for banks. Some large corporations close their operations (more so than on Veterans Day or Columbus Day, which are also federal holidays, but less so than on holidays such as Memorial Day or Labor Day when virtually all corporations are closed), but small shops, restaurants, and grocery stores tend to remain open. Overall, in 2007, 33% of employers gave employees the day off, while 33% of large employers over 1,000 and 32% of smaller employers gave time off. The observance is most popular amongst nonprofit organizations and least popular among factories and manufacturers.[6] The reasons for this have varied, ranging from the recent addition of the holiday (each year more businesses are closed than the year before, though often those that do choose to close "make it up" by no longer closing for Presidents Day) to its occurrence just two weeks after the week between Christmas and New Year's Day, when many businesses are closed for part of or sometimes all of the week. Additionally, many schools and places of higher education are closed for classes; others remain open but may hold seminars or celebrations of Dr. King's message. For Veterans Day in the United Kingdom, see Veterans Day UK. President Eisenhower signs HR7786, officially changing Armistice Day to Veterans Day. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of the October 12, 1492, arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ... Labour Day (or Labor Day) is an annual holiday that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... For a large scale grocery store, see supermarket. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Presidents Day, also known as Washingtons Birthday, is a national holiday in the United States of America celebrated on the third Monday of February. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Service Day

The national Martin Luther King Day of Service was started by former Pennsylvania U.S. Senator Harris Wofford and Atlanta Congressman John Lewis, who co-authored the King Holiday and Service Act. The federal legislation challenges Americans to transform the King Holiday into a day of citizen action through volunteer service in honor of Dr. King. The federal legislation was signed into law by President Bill Clinton on August 23, 1994. Since 1996, the annual Greater Philadelphia King Day of Service has been the largest event in the nation honoring Dr. King.[7] Senator Harris Wofford Harris Llewellyn Wofford (born April 9, 1926) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as a U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania from 1991 to 1995. ... For other persons named John Lewis, see John Lewis (disambiguation). ...


Current dates

The United States Code states that MLK day shall be observed on the third Monday in January. In 2008, Martin Luther King Day will fall on January 21. 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  1. ^ The other three federal holidays honoring individuals are: Christmas Day, Washington's Birthday (often called President's Day) and Columbus Day. See 5 USC 6103.
  2. ^ "Working-Class Hero", William P. Jones, The Nation, January 5, 2006
  3. ^ ibid.
  4. ^ "N.H. becomes last state to honor King with a holiday", The Florida Times Union, June 8, 1999, p. A-4. 
  5. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2519/is_n4_v14/ai_14538792
  6. ^ http://www.bna.com/press/2007/specialreports/mlkday07.htm
  7. ^ http://www.mlkdayofservice.org/

Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... Presidents Day, officially known as Washingtons Birthday, is a national holiday in the United States of America celebrated on the third Monday of February. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of the October 12, 1492, arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Martin Luther King Day - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (686 words)
Martin Luther King Day was founded as a holiday promoted by labour unions in contract negotiations.
The day is marked by demonstrations for peace, social justice and racial and class equality, as well as a national day of volunteer community service.
Although the day is a federal holiday and a state holiday in all states, it is usually not observed by small private companies except for banks.
Martin Luther King, Jr. - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6843 words)
King was born in Atlanta, Georgia (on 105 Auburn Avenue) to the Rev. Martin Luther King, Sr.
King was an adherent of the philosophies of nonviolent civil disobedience used successfully in India by Mahatma Gandhi, and he applied this philosophy to the protests organized by the SCLC.
King and the SCLC were instrumental in the unsuccessful protest movement in Albany, in 1961 and 1962, where divisions within the fl community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts; in the Birmingham protests in the summer of 1963; and in the protest in St.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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