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Encyclopedia > Martin Luther King

Editing of this article by unregistered or newly registered users is currently disabled. If you are prevented from editing this article, and you wish to make a change, please discuss changes on the talk page, request unprotection, log in, or create an account. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Martin Luther King, Jr.
January 15, 1929April 4, 1968

Martin Luther King, Jr., and Lyndon B. Johnson in a meeting room.
Date of birth: January 15, 1929
Place of birth: Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Date of death: April 4, 1968 (aged 39)
Place of death: Memphis, Tennessee, USA
Movement: African-American Civil Rights Movement

Martin Luther King, Jr., (January 15, 1929April 4, 1968) was the most famous leader of the American civil rights movement, a political activist, a Baptist minister, and was one of America's greatest orators. In 1964, King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (for his work as a peacemaker, promoting nonviolence and equal treatment for different races). On April 4, 1968, King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1977, he was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Jimmy Carter. In 1986, Martin Luther King Day was established as a United States holiday. In 2004, King was posthumously awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.[1] King often called for personal responsibility in fostering world peace.[2] King's most influential and well-known public address is the "I Have A Dream" speech, delivered on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. in 1963. January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2010x3000, 727 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Martin Luther King, Jr. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nickname: Hotlanta, The Big Peach, The ATL, A-Town Location in Fulton and DeKalb Counties in the state of Georgia Coordinates: Country United States State Georgia Counties Fulton, DeKalb Government  - Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area  - City  132. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Martin Luther King was the name of father and son Baptist ministers and three generations of social activists: Martin Luther King, Sr. ... // Moloch (originally mlk from Hebrew מלך), a god. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The Progressive National Baptist Convention (PNBC) is a convention of African-American Baptists emphasizing civil rights and social justice. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... A peace dove, widely known as a symbol for peace, featuring an olive branch in the doves beak. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... It has been suggested that Extrajudicial Executions and Assasinations be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other major civilian award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, which... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... The Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal of Honor is the highest award which may be bestowed by the Legislative Branch of the United States government. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D...

Contents

Early life

Martin Luther King, Jr., was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the second child of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. and Alberta Williams King between his sister, Willie Christine (September 11, 1927) and younger brother, Albert Daniel (nicknamed 'A.D.'; July 30, 1930 – July 21, 1969). According to his father, the attending physician mistakenly entered "Michael" on Martin Jr.'s birth certificate.[3] King entered Morehouse College at the age of fifteen, as he skipped his ninth and twelfth high school grades without formally graduating. In 1948, he graduated from Morehouse with a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree in sociology, and enrolled in Crozer Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania and graduated with a Bachelor of Divinity (B.D.) degree in 1951. In September of that year, King began doctoral studies in Systematic Theology at Boston University and received his Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.) on June 5, 1955.[4] January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. ... Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. ... Alberta Christine Williams King (September 13, 1904 – June 30, 1974) was Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Christine King Ferris, born Willie Christine King on September 11, 1927, in Atlanta, Georgia is the first child of Rev. ... Albert Daniel Willams King (1930–1969) He the uncle of Martin Luther King III, (who the great-grandson of Alberta Williams King & The son of Martin Luther King Jr & Coretta Scott King. ... Morehouse College is a private, all-male, historically black liberal arts college in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Bachelor of Arts (B.A., BA or A.B.), from the Latin Artium Baccalaureus is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for either a course or a program in the liberal arts or the sciences, or both. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Crozer Theological Seminary is a former multi-denominational religious institution located in both Chester, Pennsylvania and nearby Upland. ... Chester is a city in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, population 36,854 at the 2000 census. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... A Bachelor of Divinity (BD or BDiv) is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a courses taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines, such as theology or, rarely, religious studies. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Civil rights activism

In 1953, at the age of twenty-four, King became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, in Montgomery, Alabama. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to comply with the Jim Crow laws that required her to give up her seat to a white man. The Montgomery Bus Boycott, urged and planned by E. D. Nixon (head of the Montgomery NAACP chapter and a member of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters) and led by King, soon followed. (In March of the same year, a 15 year old school girl, Claudette Colvin, suffered the same fate but King refused to become involved, instead preferring to focus on leading his church.[5]) The boycott lasted for 382 days, the situation becoming so tense that King's house was bombed. King was arrested during this campaign, which ended with a United States Supreme Court decision outlawing racial segregation on all public transport. Exterior of the church Dexter Avenue Baptist Church is a Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American seamstress and civil rights activist whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987) was an American civil rights leader and union organizer, and played an important role in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was a labor union in the United States organized by the predominantly African-American Pullman Porters. ... Claudette Colvin (born 1940) is a black woman from Alabama. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or...


King was instrumental in the founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, a group created to harness the moral authority and organizing power of black churches to conduct non-violent protests in the service of civil rights reform. King continued to dominate the organization. King was an adherent of the philosophies of nonviolent civil disobedience used successfully in India by Mohandas "Mahatma" Gandhi, and he applied this philosophy to the protests organized by the SCLC. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... An anti-war activist is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: , Hindi: , IAST: mohandās karamcand gāndhī, IPA: ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948), was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... Community organizing is a process by which people are brought together to act in common self-interest. ...


In 1959, he wrote The Measure of A Man, from which the piece What is Man?, an attempt to sketch the optimal political, social, and economic structure of society, is derived. What is man? is a piece from Measure of a Man which was written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


The FBI began wiretapping King in 1961, fearing that Communists were trying to infiltrate the Civil Rights Movement, but when no such evidence emerged, the bureau used the incidental details caught on tape over six years in attempts to force King out of the preeminent leadership position. Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...


King correctly recognized that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that made the Civil Rights Movement the single most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s. The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


King organized and led marches for blacks' right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basic civil rights. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into United States law with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Voting is a method of decision making where in a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers. ... The United States Constitution, the supreme law of the land The United States Reports, the official reporter of the Supreme Court of the United States The law of the United States was originally largely derived from the common law of the system of English law, which was in force at... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ...


King and the SCLC applied the principles of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out in often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent. King and the SCLC were instrumental in the unsuccessful Albany Movement in Albany, Georgia, in 1961 and 1962, where divisions within the black community and the canny, low-key response by local government defeated efforts; in the Birmingham protests in the summer of 1963; and in the protest in St. Augustine, Florida, in 1964. King and the SCLC joined forces with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Selma, Alabama, in December 1964, where SNCC had been working on voter registration for a number of months.[6] The SCLC, which had been criticized along with other mainstream civil rights organizations by some student activists for its failure to participate more fully in the freedom rides, committed much of its prestige and resources to a desegregation campaign in Albany, Georgia in November 1961. ... Nickname: The Artesian City Location in the state of Georgia Country United States State Georgia County Dougherty Mayor Willie Adams, Jr. ... Nickname: The Magic City, Pittsburgh of the South, BHam, The Ham Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area    - City  151. ... Five flags have flown over the city since 1565. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the primary institutions of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... Selma is a city in Alabama located on the banks of the Alabama River in Dallas County, Alabama, of which it is the county seat. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ...


The March on Washington

King is perhaps most famous for his "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
King is perhaps most famous for his "I Have a Dream" speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

King, representing SCLC, was among the leaders of the so-called "Big Six" civil rights organizations who were instrumental in the organization of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. The other leaders and organizations comprising the Big Six were: Roy Wilkins, NAACP; Whitney Young, Jr., Urban League; A. Philip Randolph, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; John Lewis, SNCC; and James Farmer of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). For King, this role was another which courted controversy, as he was one of the key figures who acceded to the wishes of President John F. Kennedy in changing the focus of the march. Kennedy initially opposed the march outright, because he was concerned it would negatively impact the drive for passage of civil rights legislation, but the organizers were firm that the march would proceed. Image File history File links Martin_Luther_King_-_March_on_Washington. ... Image File history File links Martin_Luther_King_-_March_on_Washington. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ... Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. ... Roy Wilkins as the Executive Secretary of the NAACP in 1963 Roy Wilkins (August 30, 1901 – September 8, 1981) was a prominent civil rights activist in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Whitney M. Young Jr. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the U.S. // Randolph was born in Crescent City, Florida. ... The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was a labor union in the United States organized by the predominantly African-American Pullman Porters. ... John Robert Lewis (born February 21, 1940) is an American politician and was an important leader in the American Civil Rights Movement. ... James Leonard Farmer Jr. ... The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ...


The march originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the South and a very public opportunity to place organizers' concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation's capital. Organizers intended to excoriate and then challenge the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks, generally, in the South. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. Historic Southern United States. ...


As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the "Farce on Washington," and members of the Nation of Islam who attended the march faced a temporary suspension.[7] Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public school; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for the District of Columbia, then governed by congressional committee. Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D...


Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington's history. King's I Have a Dream speech electrified the crowd. It is regarded, along with Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. President Kennedy, himself opposed to the march, met King afterwards with enthusiasm — repeating King's line back to him; "I have a dream", while nodding with approval. The Lincoln Memorial, on the extended axis of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809—April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ... The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. ...


Throughout his career of service, King wrote and spoke frequently, drawing on his long experience as a preacher. His "Letter from Birmingham Jail", written in 1963, is a passionate statement of his crusade for justice. On October 14, 1964, King became the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, which was awarded to him for leading non-violent resistance to end racial prejudice in the United States. Martin Luther King Jr The Letter from Birmingham Jail or Letter from Birmingham City Jail, commonly but incorrectly rendered Letter from a Birmingham Jail, was an open letter on April 16, 1963 written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...


Stance on compensation

On several occasions Martin Luther King Jr. expressed a view that black Americans, as well as other disadvantaged Americans, should be compensated for historical wrongs. Speaking to Alex Haley in 1965, he said that granting black Americans only equality could not realistically close the economic gap between them and whites. King said that he did not seek a full restitution of wages lost to slavery, which he believed impossible, but proposed a government compensatory program of US $50 billion over ten years to all disadvantaged groups. He posited that "the money spent would be more than amply justified by the benefits that would accrue to the nation through a spectacular decline in school dropouts, family breakups, crime rates, illegitimacy, swollen relief rolls, rioting and other social evils."[8] His 1964 book Why We Can't Wait elaborated this idea further, presenting it as an application of the common law regarding settlement of unpaid labor.[9] Alexander Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


"Bloody Sunday"

King and SCLC, in partial collaboration with SNCC, then attempted to organize a march from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery, for March 25, 1965. The first attempt to march on March 7 was aborted due to mob and police violence against the demonstrators. This day has since become known as Bloody Sunday. Bloody Sunday was a major turning point in the effort to gain public support for the Civil Rights Movement, the clearest demonstration up to that time of the dramatic potential of King's nonviolence strategy. King, however, was not present. After meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson, he attempted to delay the march until March 8, but the march was carried out against his wishes and without his presence by local civil rights workers. Filmed footage of the police brutality against the protesters was broadcast extensively, and aroused national public outrage. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the primary institutions of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... Selma is a city in Alabama located on the banks of the Alabama River in Dallas County, Alabama, of which it is the county seat. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (67th in leap years). ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) can be both a political strategy or moral philosophy that rejects the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political change. ... Most of this article is about heads of state. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ... March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in leap years). ... David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...


The second attempt at the march on March 9 was ended when King stopped the procession at the Edmund Pettus Bridge on the outskirts of Selma, an action which he seemed to have negotiated with city leaders beforehand.[citation needed] This unexpected action aroused the surprise and anger of many within the local movement. The march finally went ahead fully on March 25, and it was during this march that Willie Ricks coined the phrase "Black Power" (widely credited to Stokely Carmichael). March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... The Edmund Pettus Bridge, named for Edmund Winston Pettus, a Confederate brigadier general, and eventual U.S. Senator, is a bridge in Selma, Alabama. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ... Carmichael amidst a demonstration near the United States Capitol protesting the House of Representatives action denying Rep. ...


Bayard Rustin

African American civil rights activist Bayard Rustin counseled King to dedicate himself to the principles of non-violence in 1956, and had a leadership role in organizing the 1963 March on Washington. However, Rustin's open homosexuality and support of democratic socialism and ties to the Communist Party USA caused many white and African American leaders to demand that King distance himself from Rustin, which he did on several occasions, but not all — such as when he ensured Rustin's role in the March on Washington.[citation needed] Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ...


Chicago

In 1966, after several successes in the South, King and other people in the civil rights organizations tried to spread the movement to the North, with Chicago as its first target. King and Ralph Abernathy, both middle class folk, moved into Chicago's slums as an educational experience and to demonstrate their support and empathy for the poor. Ralph Abernathy at National Press Club luncheon. ...


Their organization, The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) formed a coalition with CCCO, Coordinating Council of Community Organizations, an organization itself founded by Albert Raby, Jr., and the combined organizations' efforts were fostered under the aegis of The Chicago Freedom Movement (CFM). During that Spring a number of dual white couple/black couple tests on real estate offices uncovered the practice, now banned by the Real Estate Industry, of "steering"; these tests revealed the racially selective processing of housing requests by couples who were exact matches in income, background, number of children, and other attributes, with the only difference being their race. Albert Anderson Raby (born 1933; died November 23, 1988) was a teacher at Chicagos Hess Upper Grade Center whose efforts on behalf of housing and school segregation played a key role in leading Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


The needs of the movement for radical change grew and several larger marches were planned and executed, including those in the following neighborhoods: Bogan, Belmont-Cragin, Jefferson Park, Evergreen Park (A Suburb southwest of Chicago), Gage Park and Marquette Park, among others.


In Chicago, Abernathy would later write, they received a worse reception than they had in the South. Their marches were met by thrown bottles and screaming throngs, and they were truly afraid of starting a riot. King's beliefs mitigated against his staging a violent event; if King had intimations that a peaceful march would be put down with violence he would call it off for the safety of others. Nonetheless, he led these marches in the face of death threats to his person. And in Chicago the violence was so formidable it shook the two friends.


Another problem was the duplicitousness of the city leaders. Abernathy and King secured agreements on action to be taken, but this action was subverted after-the-fact by politicians within Mayor Richard J. Daley's corrupt machine. Abernathy could not stand the slums and secretly moved out after a short period. King stayed and wrote of the emotional impact Coretta and his children suffered from the horrid conditions. Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ...


When King and his allies returned to the south, they left Jesse Jackson, a seminary student who had previously joined the movement in the south, in charge of their organization. Jackson displayed oratorical skill, and organized the first successful boycotts against chain stores. One such campaign targeted A&P Stores which refused to hire blacks as clerks; the campaign was so effective that it laid the groundwork for the equal opportunity programs begun in the 1970s. Jackson also initiated the first "Black Expo" under the auspices of SCLC as Operation Breadbasket, and continued free standing as Operation PUSH after a split with SCLC. Black Expo became P.U.S.H. Expo, which continued to showcase the many long-standing and newly formed Black Businesses such as Johnson Publishing, Parker House Sausage, Seaway National Bank, and many businesses that continue today, and which owe their existence to P.U.S.H. EXCEL, the current form of the organization. Jesse Louis Jackson (born October 8, 1941) is an American politician, civil rights activist, and Baptist minister. ... Chain stores are a range of retail outlets which share a brand and central management, usually with standardised business methods and practices. ... Operation Breadbasket is an organization dedicated to improving the economic conditions of black communities across the United States of America. ... Jesse Jackson formed two non-profit organizations, Operation PUSH (People United To Serve Humanity) in 1971 and the National Rainbow Coalition in 1984. ...


Further challenges

Starting in 1965, King began to express doubts about the United States' role in the Vietnam War. In an April 4, 1967 appearance at the New York City Riverside Church — exactly one year before his death — King delivered Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence. In the speech he spoke strongly against the U.S.'s role in the war, insisting that the U.S. was in Vietnam "to occupy it as an American colony" and calling the US government "the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today." But he also argued that the country needed larger and broader moral changes: Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

A true revolution of values will soon look uneasily on the glaring contrast of poverty and wealth. With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say: "This is not just."[10] World map showing the location of Asia. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

King was long hated by many white southern segregationists, but this speech turned the more mainstream media against him. Time called the speech "demagogic slander that sounded like a script for Radio Hanoi", and The Washington Post declared that King had "diminished his usefulness to his cause, his country, his people." Historic Southern United States. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Radio Hanoi was a propaganda radio station run by the North Vietnamese Army during the Vietnam War. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ...


With regards to Vietnam, King often claimed that North Vietnam "did not begin to send in any large number of supplies or men until American forces had arrived in the tens of thousands." King also praised North Vietnam's land reform.[11] He accused the United States of having killed a million Vietnamese, "mostly children."[12]


The speech was a reflection of King's evolving political advocacy in his later years, sparked in part by his affiliation with and training at the progressive Highlander Research and Education Center. King began to speak of the need for fundamental changes in the political and economic life of the nation. Toward the end of his life, King more frequently expressed his opposition to the war and his desire to see a redistribution of resources to correct racial and economic injustice. Though his public language was guarded, so as to avoid being linked to communism by his political enemies, in private he sometimes spoke of his support for democratic socialism: In 1932, Myles Horton and Don West founded the Highlander Folk School outside the town of Monteagle in Grundy County, Tennessee in order to provide an educational center in the South for the training of rural and industrial leaders, and for the conservation and enrichment of the indigenous cultural values... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

You can't talk about solving the economic problem of the Negro without talking about billions of dollars. You can't talk about ending the slums without first saying profit must be taken out of slums. You're really tampering and getting on dangerous ground because you are messing with folk then. You are messing with captains of industry… Now this means that we are treading in difficult water, because it really means that we are saying that something is wrong… with capitalism… There must be a better distribution of wealth and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism. (Frogmore, S.C. November 14, 1966. Speech in front of his staff.) Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ...

King had read Marx while at Morehouse, but while he rejected "traditional capitalism," he also rejected Communism due to its "materialistic interpretation of history" that denied religion, its "ethical relativism," and its "political totalitarianism."[13]


King also stated in his "Beyond Vietnam" speech [1] that "True compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar; it comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring." From Vietnam to South Africa to Latin America, King said, the U.S. was "on the wrong side of a world revolution." King questioned "our alliance with the landed gentry of Latin America," and asked why the U.S. was suppressing revolutions "of the shirtless and barefoot people" in the Third World, instead of supporting them.


In 1968, King and the SCLC organized the "Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice. However, according to the article "Coalition Building and Mobilization Against Poverty", King and SCLC's Poor People's Campaign was not supported by the other leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, including Bayard Rustin. Their opposition incorporated arguments that the goals of Poor People Campaign was too broad, the demands unrealizable, and thought these campaigns would accelerate the backlash and repression on the poor and the black.[14] In 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. ... Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the...


The campaign culminated in a march on Washington, D.C. demanding economic aid to the poorest communities of the United States. He crisscrossed the country to assemble "a multiracial army of the poor" that would descend on Washington—engaging in nonviolent civil disobedience at the Capitol, if need be—until Congress enacted a poor people's bill of rights. Reader's Digest warned of an "insurrection." Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D...


King's economic bill of rights called for massive government jobs programs to rebuild America's cities. He saw a crying need to confront a Congress that had demonstrated its "hostility to the poor"—appropriating "military funds with alacrity and generosity," but providing "poverty funds with miserliness." His vision was for change that was more revolutionary than mere reform: he cited systematic flaws of racism, poverty, militarism and materialism, and that "reconstruction of society itself is the real issue to be faced."[15].


In April 3, 1968, at Mason Temple (Church of God in Christ, Inc. - World Headquarters) King prophetically told a euphoric crowd during his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech: April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...

It really doesn't matter what happens now… some began to… talk about the threats that were out—what would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers… Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place, but I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's allowed me to go up to the mountain! And I've looked over, and I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land. And so I'm happy tonight. I'm not worried about anything. I'm not fearing any man. My eyes have seen the Glory of the coming of the Lord!

Assassination

The Lorraine Motel, where King was assassinated, now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum
The Lorraine Motel, where King was assassinated, now the site of the National Civil Rights Museum
Martin Luther King's tomb, located on the grounds of the King Center
Martin Luther King's tomb, located on the grounds of the King Center

In late March, 1968, King went to Memphis, Tennessee in support of the black sanitary public works employees, represented by AFSCME Local 1733, who had been on strike since March 12 for higher wages and better treatment: for example, African American workers, paid $1.70 per hour, were not paid when sent home because of inclement weather (unlike white workers).[16][17][18] Image File history File links This page or image is redundant to http://commons. ... Image File history File links This page or image is redundant to http://commons. ... Motel where Rev. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 439 KB) MLKs tomb at Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 439 KB) MLKs tomb at Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Interior of Ebenezer Baptist Church, view from behind the pulpit. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... The American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) is the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ...


On April 3, King returned to Memphis and addressed a rally, delivering his "I've been to the Mountaintop" address. April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ...


King was assassinated at 6:01 p.m. April 4, 1968, on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee.[19] Friends inside the motel room heard the shots and ran to the balcony to find King shot in the throat. He was pronounced dead at St. Joseph's Hospital at 7:05 p.m. The assassination led to a nationwide wave of riots in more than 60 cities.[20] Five days later, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a national day of mourning for the lost civil rights leader. A crowd of 300,000 attended his funeral that same day. Vice-President Hubert Humphrey attended on behalf of Lyndon B. Johnson, who was meeting with several advisors and cabinet officers on the Vietnam War in Camp David (there were fears Johnson might be hit with protests and abuses over the war if he attended). At his widow's request, King eulogized himself: at the funeral his last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church, a recording of his famous 'Drum Major' sermon, given on February 4, 1968, was played. In that sermon he makes a request that at his funeral no mention of his awards and honors be made, but that it be said that he tried to "feed the hungry", "clothe the naked", "be right on the [Vietnam] war question", and "love and serve humanity". Per King's request, his good friend Mahalia Jackson sang his favorite hymn, "Take My Hand, Precious Lord", at the funeral. April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Motel where Rev. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Mass racial violence in the United States, often described using the term race riots, includes such disparate events as: attacks on Irish Catholics and other early immigrants in the 19th century massacres of black people in the period after Reconstruction uprisings in African-American communities such as the 1968 riots... “LBJ” redirects here. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The West Wing, see NSF Thurmont (The West Wing). ... Mahalia Jackson Mahalia Jackson (October 26, 1911–January 27, 1972) was an American gospel singer, widely regarded as the best in the history of the genre. ... Considered one of the greatest gospel songs ever written, Thomas A. Dorsey wrote this in 1932 after experiencing devastating personal loss with the passing of his wife while giving birth. ...


The city quickly settled the strike, on favorable terms, after the assassination.[21][22]


Two months after King's death, escaped convict James Earl Ray was captured at London Heathrow Airport while trying to leave the United Kingdom on a false Canadian passport in the name of Ramon George Sneyd. Ray was quickly extradited to Tennessee and charged with King's murder, confessing to the assassination on March 10, 1969 (though he recanted this confession three days later). Later, Ray would be sentenced to a 99-year prison term. The person who killed Martin Luther King Jr. ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL), often referred to as Heathrow, is one of the busiest airports in the world. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (70th in leap years). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ...


On the advice of his attorney Percy Foreman, Ray took a guilty plea to avoid a trial conviction and thus the possibility of receiving the death penalty. Percy Foreman, born Percy Eugene Foreman (June 21, 1902 – August 25, 1988) was a noted criminal defense attorney from Houston, Texas. ...


Ray fired Foreman as his attorney (from then on derisively calling him "Percy Fourflusher") claiming that a man he met in Montreal, Canada with the alias "Raoul" was involved, as was his brother Johnny, but not himself, further asserting that although he didn't "personally shoot King," he may have been "partially responsible without knowing it," hinting at a conspiracy. He spent the remainder of his life attempting (unsuccessfully) to withdraw his guilty plea and secure the trial he never had. Nickname: City of Mary (Ville-Marie) Motto: Concordia Salus (salvation through harmony) Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1] [2] [3]  - City 365. ...


On June 10, 1977, shortly after Ray had testified to the House Select Committee on Assassinations that he did not shoot King, he and six other convicts escaped from Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary in Petros, Tennessee. They were recaptured on June 13 and returned to prison.[23] More years were then added to his sentence for attempting to escape from the penitentiary.[citation needed] June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Brushy Mountain State Penitentiary now renamed Brushy Mountain Correctional Complex(also called Brushy) is a large prison near the town of Petros, Tennessee, operated by the Tennessee Department of Corrections. ... Petros, Tennessee is a town located in Morgan County, Tennessee on Tennessee Highway 116. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ...


According to biographer Taylor Branch, King's autopsy revealed that though he was only 39 years old, he had the heart of a 60 year old man, evidencing the stress the 13 years in the civil rights movement had on him.[24] It implies that in the 13 years prior to his death, he had aged 34 years or 2 1/2 times as much as a person living a normal life. Taylor Branch is the author of Pulitzer Prize-winning Parting the Waters and Pillar of Fire. ...


Allegations of conspiracy

Some have speculated that Ray had been used as a "patsy" similar to the way that alleged John F. Kennedy assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was supposed to have been. Some of the claims used to support this assertion are: The scapegoat was a goat that was driven off into the wilderness as part of the ceremonies of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in Judaism during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Lee Harvey Oswald diary Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, responsible for the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, on November 22, 1963. ...

  • Ray's confession was given under pressure, and he had been threatened with death penalty.[25][26]
  • Ray was a small-time thief and burglar, and had no record of committing violent crimes with a weapon.[27]

Many suspecting a conspiracy in the assassination point out the two separate ballistic tests conducted on the Remington Gamemaster had neither conclusively proved Ray had been the killer nor that it had even been the murder weapon.[28][29] Moreover, witnesses surrounding King at the moment of his death say the shot came from another location, from behind thick shrubbery near the rooming house, not from the rooming house itself, shrubbery which had been suddenly and inexplicably cut away in the days following the assassination.[30]


Recent developments

In 1997, Martin Luther King's son Dexter King met with Ray, and publicly supported Ray's efforts to obtain a trial.[31] Dexter Scott King (born 30 January 1961) is the son of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


In 1999, Coretta Scott King, King's widow (and a civil rights leader herself), along with the rest of King's family, won a wrongful death civil trial against Loyd Jowers and "other unknown co-conspirators". Jowers claimed to have received $100,000 to arrange King's assassination. The jury of six whites and six blacks found Jowers guilty and that "governmental agencies were parties" to the assassination plot.[32] William F. Pepper represented the King family in the trial.[33][34][35] Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Wrongful Death is a claim in common law jurisdictions against a person who can be held liable for a death. ... Civil law has at least three meanings. ... Loyd Jowers was the owner of a restaurant, (Jims Grill) near the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, where Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. ... Dr. William F. Pepper, an international lawyer, was the attorney for James Earl Ray, the supposed killer of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


King biographer David Garrow disagrees with William F. Pepper's claims that the government killed King. He is supported by King assassination author Gerald Posner.[36] Dr. William F. Pepper, an international lawyer, was the attorney for James Earl Ray, the supposed killer of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In 2000, the Department of Justice completed the investigation about Jowers' claims, but did not find evidence to support the allegations about conspiracy. The investigation report recommends no further investigation unless some new reliable facts are presented.[37] DOJ headquarters in Washington, D.C. Justice Department redirects here. ...


On April 6, 2002, the New York Times reported a church minister, Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson, claimed his father, Henry Clay Wilson, — not James Earl Ray — assassinated Martin Luther King Jr. He stated, "It wasn't a racist thing; he thought Martin Luther King was connected with communism, and he wanted to get him out of the way."[38] April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ...


In 2004, Jesse Jackson, who was with King at the time of his death, noted: Jesse Louis Jackson (born October 8, 1941) is an American politician, civil rights activist, and Baptist minister. ...

"The fact is there were saboteurs to disrupt the march. [And] within our own organization, we found a very key person who was on the government payroll. So infiltration within, saboteurs from without and the press attacks. …I will never believe that James Earl Ray had the motive, the money and the mobility to have done it himself. Our government was very involved in setting the stage for and I think the escape route for James Earl Ray."[39][40]

King and the FBI

King had a mutually antagonistic relationship with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), especially its director, J. Edgar Hoover. Under written directives from then-Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, the FBI began tracking King and the SCLC in 1961. Its investigations were largely superficial until 1962, when it learned that one of King's most trusted advisers was New York City lawyer Stanley Levison. The Bureau of Investigation found that Levison had been involved with the Communist Party USA—to which another key King lieutenant, Hunter Pitts O'Dell, was also linked by sworn testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC). The Bureau placed wiretaps on Levison and King's home and office phones, and bugged King's rooms in hotels as he traveled across the country. The Bureau also informed then-Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy and then-President John F. Kennedy, both of whom unsuccessfully tried to persuade King to dissociate himself from Levison. For his part, King adamantly denied having any connections to Communism, stating in a 1965 Playboy interview[8] that "there are as many Communists in this freedom movement as there are Eskimos in Florida"; to which Hoover responded by calling King "the most notorious liar in the country." The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Hoover in 1961 John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an influential but controversial director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Stanley David Levison was a Jewish New York radical lawyer best known as an advisor to Martin Luther King Jr. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ... Jack ODell (aka Hunter Pitts ODell) is a prominent African-American member of the US Civil Rights movement. ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), also referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, John Kennedy or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Distribution of Inuit language variants across the Arctic. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


The attempt to prove that King was a Communist was in keeping with the feeling of many segregationists that blacks in the South were happy with their lot, but had been stirred up by "communists" and "outside agitators." Lawyer-advisor Stanley D. Levinson did have ties with the Communist Party in various business dealings, but the FBI refused to believe its own intelligence bureau reports that Levinson was no longer associated in that capacity. Movement leaders countered that voter disenfranchisement, lack of education and employment opportunities, discrimination and vigilante violence were the reasons for the strength of the Civil Rights Movement, and that blacks had the intelligence and motivation to organize on their own.


Later, the focus of the Bureau's investigations shifted to attempting to discredit King through revelations regarding his private life. FBI surveillance of King, some of it since made public, attempted to demonstrate that he also engaged in numerous extramarital affairs. However, much of what was recorded was, as quoted by his attorney, speech-writer and close friend Clarence B. Jones, "midnight" talk or just two close friends joking around about women. Further remarks on King's lifestyle were made by several prominent officials, such as President Lyndon B. Johnson who notoriously said that King was a “hypocrite preacher”. It isn't clear if King actually engaged in extramarital affairs or not. “LBJ” redirects here. ...


However, in 1989, Ralph Abernathy, a close associate of King's in the civil right movement, stated in a book he authored that he did witness King engaging in sexual affairs with various women. The book was titled And The Walls Came Tumbling Down, and was published by Harper & Row. The book was reviewed in the New York Times on October 29, 1989, and the allegations of the sexual conduct of King were discussed in that review. Also, evidence indicating that King engaged in sexual affairs is detailed by history professor David Garrow in his book Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, published in 1986 by William Morrow & Company. Ralph Abernathy at National Press Club luncheon. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The FBI distributed reports regarding such affairs to the executive branch, friendly reporters, potential coalition partners and funding sources of the SCLC, and King's family. The Bureau also sent anonymous letters to King threatening to reveal information if he didn't cease his civil rights work. One anonymous letter sent to King just before he received the Nobel Peace Prize read, in part, "…The American public, the church organizations that have been helping—Protestants, Catholics and Jews will know you for what you are—an evil beast. So will others who have backed you. You are done. King, there, is only one thing left for you to do. You know what it is. You have just 34 days in which to do (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significance). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy fraudulent self is bared to the nation."[41] This statement is often interpreted as inviting King's suicide,[42] though William Sullivan argued that it may have only been intended to "convince King to resign from the SCLC."[43]


Finally, the Bureau's investigation shifted away from King's personal life to intelligence and counterintelligence work on the direction of the SCLC and the Black Power movement. COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ...


In January 31, 1977, in the cases of Bernard S. Lee v. Clarence M. Kelley, et al. and Southern Christian Leadership Conference v. Clarence M. Kelley, et al. United States District Judge John Lewis Smith, Jr., ordered all known copies of the recorded audiotapes and written transcripts resulting from the FBI's electronic surveillance of King between 1963 and 1968 to be held in the National Archives and sealed from public access until 2027. January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ...


Across from the Lorraine Motel, next to the rooming house in which James Earl Ray was staying, was a vacant fire station. The FBI was assigned to observe King during the appearance he was planning to make on the Lorraine Motel second-floor balcony later that day, and utilized the fire station as a makeshift base. Using papered-over windows with peepholes cut into them, the agents watched over the scene until Martin Luther King was shot. Immediately following the shooting, all six agents rushed out of the station and were the first people to administer first-aid to King. Their presence nearby has led to speculation that the FBI was involved in the assassination.


Awards and recognition

From the Gallery of 20th century martyrs at Westminster Abbey- Mother Elizabeth of Russia, Martin Luther King, Archbishop Oscar Romero, Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer
From the Gallery of 20th century martyrs at Westminster Abbey- Mother Elizabeth of Russia, Martin Luther King, Archbishop Oscar Romero, Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Besides winning the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, in 1965 the American Jewish Committee presented King with the American Liberties Medallion for his "exceptional advancement of the principles of human liberty." Reverend King said in his acceptance remarks, "Freedom is one thing. You have it all or you are not free." Image File history File links Westminster_Abbey_C20th_martyrs. ... Image File history File links Westminster_Abbey_C20th_martyrs. ... Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna of Russia (Елизавета Фёдоровиа), née Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Elisabeth Alexandra Luise Alice of Hesse-Darmstadt (1 November 1864–18 July 1918), was the wife of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, the fifth son of Emperor Alexander II... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a priest of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ... Dietrich Bonhoeffer Dietrich Bonhoeffer [] (February 4, 1906 – April 9, 1945) was a German Lutheran pastor, theologian and participant in the German resistance movement against Nazism and founding member of the Confessing Church. ... The stated Mission of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) is to safeguard the welfare and security of Jews in the United States, in Israel, and throughout the world; to strengthen the basic principles of pluralism around the world, as the best defense against anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry...


As of 2006, more than 730 cities in the United States had streets named after King. King County, Washington rededicated its name in his honor in 1986, and changed its logo to an image of his face in 2007. The city government center in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania is the only city hall in the United States to be named in honor of King. Streets named after Martin Luther King, Jr. ... King County redirects here; you may be looking for King County, Texas. ... “Washington State” redirects here. ... Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Dauphin Incorporated 1791 Charter 1860 Government  - Mayor Stephen R. Reed (D) Area  - City  11. ... Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... It has been suggested that Town Hall be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1966, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America awarded King the Margaret Sanger Award for "his courageous resistance to bigotry and his lifelong dedication to the advancement of social justice and human dignity."[44] Margaret Higgins Sanger (September 14, 1879 – September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist, an advocate of certain aspects of eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). ...


In 1971, King was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Recording for his Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album has been awarded since 1959. ...


In 1977, the Presidential Medal of Freedom was awarded posthumously to King by Jimmy Carter.[45] The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other major civilian award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, which... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ...


King is the second most admired person in the 20th century, according to a Gallup poll. Gallups List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire, is a list compiled annually by The Gallup Organization. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ...


King was voted 6th in the Person of the Century poll by TIME.[46] Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ...


King was elected the third Greatest American of all time by the American public in a contest conducted by the Discovery Channel and AOL. The Greatest American is a public vote, modeled after the 100 Greatest Britons competition, in which citizens of the United States are being asked to nominate, and then later vote for, the Greatest American. The competition is being conducted by AOL and the Discovery Channel. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel distributed by Discovery Communications that provides non-fiction programming focused on science, history and nature. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Honorary Degrees

Martin Luther King was awarded 20 honorary degrees from various colleges and universities in the United States and several foreign countries. They include: An honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum, not to be confused with an honors degree) is an academic degree awarded to an individual as a decoration, rather than as the result of matriculating and studying for several years. ...

A Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanae doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is an honorary degree often conferred to those who have contributed to issues of peace and social justice. ... Morehouse College is a private, all-male, historically black liberal arts college in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Howard University is a Carnegie Doctoral/Research extensive historically black university in Washington, D.C. Affectionately known as Black Harvard, Howard was established in 1867 by congressional order and named after Oliver O. Howard. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... Chicago Theological Seminary is an ecumenical seminary of the United Church of Christ. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Morgan State University, formerly Centenary Biblical Institute (1867-1890), Morgan College (1890 -1975), is located in residential Baltimore, Maryland. ... Central State University is a historically black university located in Wilberforce, Ohio. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Lincoln University is the name of a university in New Zealand and several in the United States: Lincoln University (California) Lincoln University (Missouri) Lincoln University (New Zealand) Lincoln University (Pennsylvania) See also: University of Lincoln This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... University of Bridgeport is a private university in Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA. Its campus is in the southern part of the city, on Long Island Sound. ... Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees. ... For other meanings of the word Bard, see Bard (disambiguation). ... A Doctor of Letters is a university academic degree. ... Keuka College is a small liberal arts college located on the shore of Keuka Lake in Keuka Park, New York. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... Wesleyan College is a private, liberal arts womens college located in Macon, Georgia. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... The Jewish Theological Seminary of America The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, known in the Jewish community simply as JTS, is the academic and spiritual center of Conservative Judaism, and is the movements main rabbinical seminary. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... Springfield College is a college located in Springfield, Massachusetts. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Hofstra University is a private institution of higher learning located in Hempstead, Long Island, New York (USA) founded in 1935 on the basis of the estate of wealthy lumber magnate William Hofstra and widow Kate Williams Hofstra. ... A Doctor of Humane Letters (Latin: Litterarum humanae doctor; D.H.L.; or L.H.D.) is an honorary degree often conferred to those who have contributed to issues of peace and social justice. ... Oberlin College is a small, selective liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio, in the United States. ... The Vrije Universiteit (Free University) is a university in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... Doctor of Divinity (D.D., Divinitatis Doctor in Latin) is an academic degree. ... Saint Peters College is a private, coeducational Roman Catholic college in the United States. ... Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) degrees instead of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degrees. ... Newcastle University is a British university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the north-east of England. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ... Grinnell College is a small liberal arts college in Grinnell, Iowa. ...

Plagiarism

Beginning in the 1980s, questions have been raised regarding the authorship of King's dissertation, other papers, and his speeches. (Though not widely known during his lifetime, most of his published writings during his civil rights career were ghostwritten, or at least heavily adapted from his speeches[citation needed]). Concerns about his doctoral dissertation at Boston University led to a formal inquiry by university officials, which concluded that approximately a third of it had been plagiarized from a paper written by an earlier graduate student, but it was decided not to revoke his degree, as the paper still "makes an intelligent contribution to scholarship." Such uncredited "textual appropriation," as King scholar Clayborne Carson has labeled it, was apparently a habit of King's begun earlier in his academic career. It is also a feature of many of his speeches, which borrowed heavily from those of other preachers and white radio evangelists. While some have criticized King for his plagiarism, Keith Miller has argued that the practice falls within the tradition of African-American folk preaching, and should not necessarily be labeled plagiarism. However, as Theodore Pappas points out in his book Plagiarism and the Culture War, King in fact took a class on scholarly standards and plagiarism at Boston University. King at a speech Authorship issues concerning Martin Luther King, Jr. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Plagiarism is the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as ones own original work. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: Theodore Pappas Theodore N. Ted Pappas is the current managing editor of Encyclopædia Britannica, and a sometimes critic of Wikipedia. ...


Books by/about Martin Luther King, Jr.

  • Stride toward freedom; the Montgomery story (1958)
  • The Measure of a Man (1959)
  • Strength to Love (1963)
  • Why We Can't Wait (1964)
  • Where do we go from here: Chaos or community? (1967)
  • The Trumpet of Conscience (1968)
  • A Testament of Hope : The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. (1986)
  • Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63 by Taylor Branch (1988)
  • Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference by David Garrow (1989)
  • Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963–65 by Taylor Branch (1998)
  • The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. by Martin Luther King Jr. and Clayborne Carson (1998)
  • Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and the Laws that Changed America by Nick Kotz (2005)
  • At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965–68 by Taylor Branch (2006)

Taylor Branch is the author of Pulitzer Prize-winning Parting the Waters and Pillar of Fire. ... Taylor Branch is the author of Pulitzer Prize-winning Parting the Waters and Pillar of Fire. ... Nathan Nick K. Kotz is an American journalist, author, and historian best known for his 2005 book chronicling the roles of President Johnson and Dr. King in the passage of the 1964, 1965, and 1968 civil rights laws. ... Taylor Branch is the author of Pulitzer Prize-winning Parting the Waters and Pillar of Fire. ...

Spouse and Children

Spouse: Coretta Scott King Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Children:

Yolanda Denise King (born November 17, 1955) is the first-born daughter of Coretta Scott King and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Martin Luther King III (born October 23, 1957, Montgomery, Alabama) is the son of Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Dexter King (born 30 January 1961) is the son of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Bernice King Bernice Albertine King (born March 28, 1963 Atlanta, Georgia) is the daughter of Martin Luther King, Jr. ...

Legacy

A mural in Kansas City, Missouri commemorating King's activism
A mural in Kansas City, Missouri commemorating King's activism

King is one of the most widely revered figures in American history. Even posthumous accusations of marital infidelity and academic plagiarism have not seriously damaged his public reputation but merely reinforced the image of a very human hero and leader. It is true that King's movement faltered in the latter stages, after the great legislative victories were won by 1965 (The Voting Rights Act, and the Civil Rights Act). But even the sharp attacks by more militant blacks, (See Black Power Movement), and even such prominent critics as Muslim leader Malcolm X, have not diminished his stature. However, criticism did not consist of mere blind attacks. Stokely Carmichael was a separatist and disagreed with King's plea for integration because he considered it an insult to a uniquely African American culture and Omali Yeshitela urged Africans to remember the history of violent European colonization and how power was not secured by Europeans through integration, but by violence and force. To then attempt to integrate with the colonizers' culture further insulted the original African cultures. Even the notion of decolonization was problematic for Frantz Fanon, an influential figure for black liberation movements. In Decolonizing, National Culture, and the Negro Intellectual (1961) he had this to say about the violent foundation on which colonizers claimed their names against the exploited and obstacles in making peace under such circumstances: Image File history File links MLKJr_KC_TroostWall. ... Image File history File links MLKJr_KC_TroostWall. ... Nickname: City of Fountains Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Carmichael amidst a demonstration near the United States Capitol protesting the House of Representatives action denying Rep. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Look up integration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Omali Yeshitela Omali Yeshitela is a longtime civil rights activist from St. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the achievement of independence by the various Western colonies and protectorates in Asia and Africa following World War II. This conforms with an intellectual movement known as Post-Colonialism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Decolonization is the meeting of two forces, opposed to each other by their very nature, which in fact owe their originality to the sort of substantification which results from and is nourished by the situation in the colonies. Their first encounter was marked by violence and their existence together—that is to say the exploitation of the native by the settler—was carried on by dint of a great array of bayonets and cannons… The naked truth of decolonization evokes for us the searing bullets and blood-stained knives which emanate from it. For if the last shall be first, this will only come to pass after a murderous and decisive struggle between the two protagonists. That affirmed intention to place the last at the head of things, and to make them climb at a pace (too quickly, some say) the well-known steps which characterize an organized society, can only triumph if we use all means to turn the scale, including, of course, that of violence.

On the international scene, King's legacy included influences on the Black Consciousness Movement and Civil Rights Movements in South Africa. King's work was cited by and served as an inspiration for another black Nobel Peace prize winner who fought for racial justice in that country, Albert Lutuli. The Black Consciousness Movement was a movement which called for non-violent black resistance to the Apartheid government in South Africa. ... Albert John Lutuli (also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi; his surname is sometimes and probably more phonetically spelt Luthuli) (1898? – 21 July 1967) was a South African teacher and politician. ...


King's wife, Coretta Scott King, followed her husband's footsteps and was active in matters of social justice and civil rights until her death in 2006. The same year Martin Luther King was assassinated, Mrs. King established the King Center[47] in Atlanta, Georgia, dedicated to preserving his legacy and the work of championing nonviolent conflict resolution and tolerance worldwide. His son, Dexter King, currently serves as the Center's president and CEO. Daughter Yolanda King is a motivational speaker, author and founder of Higher Ground Productions, an organization specializing in diversity training. Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


King's name and legacy have often been invoked since his death as people have begun to debate where he would have stood on various modern political issues were he alive today. For example, there is some debate even within the King family as to where he would have stood on gay rights issues. Although King's widow Coretta has said publicly that she believes her husband would have supported gay rights, his daughter Bernice believes he would have been opposed to them.[48] The King Center lists homophobia as an evil that must be opposed.[49]


In 1980, King's boyhood home in Atlanta and several other nearby buildings were declared as the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site. At the White House Rose Garden on November 2, 1983, U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed a bill creating a federal holiday to honor King. It was observed for the first time on January 20, 1986 and is called Martin Luther King Day. It is observed on the third Monday of January each year, around the time of King's birthday. In January 17, 2000, for the first time, Martin Luther King Day was officially observed in all 50 U.S. states.[50] Interior of Ebenezer Baptist Church, view from behind the pulpit. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


In 1998, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity was authorized by the United States Congress to establish a foundation to manage fund raising and design of a Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. [2] King was a prominent member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity established for African Americans. King will be the first African American honored with his own memorial in the National Mall area and the second non-President to be commemorated in such a way. The King Memorial will be administered by the National Park Service. Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first intercollegiate fraternity established by African Americans. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The winning design for the Martin Luther King Jr. ... The Greek alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Greek language since about the 9th century BCE. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel and consonant alike. ... The terms fraternity and sorority (from the Latin words and , meaning brother and sister respectively) may be used to describe many social and charitable organizations, for example the Lions Club, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Delta Sigma Phi, Rotary International, Optimist International, Ordo Templi Orientis or the Shriners. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


King is one of the ten 20th-century martyrs from across the world who are depicted in statues above the Great West Door of Westminster Abbey, London. He is also commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America as a renewer of society and martyr on January 15. The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ...


Coinage

Coin redesign advocates have asked that King's image be placed on the penny or dime. The penny will be permanently redesigned in 2010, and the current design will no longer be issued beyond 2008, but Abraham Lincoln will remain on the coin. A group of civil rights activists have suggested placing his image on the twenty dollar bill, in place of Andrew Jackson. [3] A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal, usually in the shape of a disc, and most often issued by a government, to be used as a form of money in transactions. ... The United States one-cent coin, commonly called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar. ... The dime is a coin with a face value of ten cents, or one-tenth of a United States dollar. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809—April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States (March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865). ... The United States twenty-dollar bill ($20) is a denomination of United States currency. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Top 100 American Speeches by Rank Order. American Rhetoric (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  2. ^ Martin Luther King: Beyond Vietnam—A Time to Break Silence. Speech. American Rhetoric (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  3. ^ E-mail lists "four things you didn't know" about Martin Luther King. Jr.. Snopes.com. Retrieved on January 9, 2007.
  4. ^ The King Center: Biography. The King Center (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  5. ^ Scott-King, Correta, My life with Martin Luther King Jr. (New York, 1969) p.124–5
  6. ^ Haley, Alex. "Martin Luther King", The Playboy Interview, Playboy, January 1965. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  7. ^ Ross, Samuel (2006). March on Washington. Features. Infoplease. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  8. ^ a b Haley, Alex. "Martin Luther King", The Playboy Interview, Playboy, January 1965. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  9. ^ King (2000). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classics. ISBN 0-451-52753-4. 
  10. ^ King, Martin Luther (April 4 1967). Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence. Speech. Hartford Web Publishing. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  11. ^ Michael Lind, Vietnam: The Necessary War, 1999 p. 182.
  12. ^ Guenter Lewey, America in Vietnam, 1978 pp. 444–5.
  13. ^ Coretta Scott King (ed.). Martin Luther King, Jr., Companion, p. 39. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.
  14. ^ Patterson, James T.. "An epic comes to a close", Chicago Sun-Times, January 29, 2006, pp. B12. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  15. ^ Garrow, op.cit. p. 214
  16. ^ 1,300 Members Participate in Memphis Garbage Strike. AFSCME (February , 1968). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  17. ^ Memphis Strikers Stand Firm. AFSCME (March , 1968). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  18. ^ Rugaber, Walter. "A Negro is Killed in Memphis", The New York Times, March 29, 1968. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  19. ^ According to biographer Taylor Branch, King's last words on the balcony were to musician Ben Branch (no relation to Taylor Branch) who was scheduled to perform that night at an event King was attending: "Ben, make sure you play 'Precious Lord, Take My Hand,' in the meeting tonight. Play it real pretty." At Canaan's Edge, Simon & Schuster, 2006, Hardcover, ISBN: 978-0-684-85712-1, at p. 766.
  20. ^ "1968: Martin Luther King shot dead", On this Day, BBC, 2006. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  21. ^ AFSCME Wins in Memphis. AFSCME (April , 1968). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  22. ^ 1968 Memphis Sanitation Workers' Strike Chronology. AFSCME (1968). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  23. ^ 1970s. History of Knoxville Office. FBI (2006). Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  24. ^ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/mlk/filmmore/pt.html
  25. ^ James Earl Ray Profile. africanaonline.com (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  26. ^ The Martin Luther King Assassination. the Real History Archives (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  27. ^ "From small-time criminal to notorious assassin", US news, CNN, 1998. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  28. ^ "James Earl Ray Dead At 70", CBS, April 23, 1998. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  29. ^ "Questions left hanging by James Earl Ray's death", BBC, April 23, 1998. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  30. ^ Martin Luther King - Sniper in the Shrubbery?. africanaonline.com (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  31. ^ "James Earl Ray, convicted King assassin, dies", US news, CNN, April 23, 1998. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  32. ^ Trial Transcript Volume XIV. verdict. The King Center (2006). Retrieved on March 24, 2007.
  33. ^ Text of the King family's suit against Loyd Jowers and Martin Luther King Jr.'s "unknown" conspirators. Court TV (1999). Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  34. ^ Pepper, Bill (April 7, 2002). William F. Pepper on the MLK Conspiracy Trial. Rat Haus Reality Press. Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  35. ^ Trial Information. Complete Transcript of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination Conspiracy Trial. The King Center (2006). Retrieved on September 17, 2006.
  36. ^ Ayton, Mel (February 28, 2005). Book review A Racial Crime: The Assassination of MLK. History News Network. Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  37. ^ USDOJ Investigation of Recent Allegations Regarding the Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.. Overview. USDOJ (June 2000). Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  38. ^ Canedy, Dana. "My father killed King, says pastor, 34 years on", The Sydney Morning Herald, April 6 2002. Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  39. ^ Goodman, Amy, Juan Gonzalez. "Jesse Jackson On "Mad Dean Disease," the 2000 Elections and Martin Luther King", Democracy Now!, January 15, 2004. Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  40. ^ According to biographer Taylor Branch, King's friend and colleague, James Bevel, put it more bluntly: "[T]here is no way a ten-cent white boy could develop a plan to kill a million-dollar black man." At Canaan's Edge, Simon & Schuster (2006), Hardcover, ISBN: 978-0-684-85712-1, p. 770.
  41. ^ MLK Suicide letter. Oilempire.us (2006). Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  42. ^ Jalon, Allan M.. "A Break-In to End All Break-Ins", Los Angeles Times, March 8, 2006. Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  43. ^ Church, Frank (April 23, 1976). Church Committee Book III. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Case Study. Church Committee. Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  44. ^ The Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. upon accepting The Planned Parenthood Federation Of America Margaret Sanger Award. PPFA (2006). Retrieved on September 18, 2006.
  45. ^ Carter Center. Carter Center (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  46. ^ "The Person of the Century Poll Results", Time magazine, January 19, 2000,. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  47. ^ The King Center. The King Center (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  48. ^ Williams, Brandt. "What would Martin Luther King do?", Minnesota Public Radio, January 16, 2005. Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  49. ^ The Triple Evils. The King Center (2006). Retrieved on December 23, 2006.
  50. ^ "N.H. becomes last state to honor King with a holiday", The Florida Times Union, June 8, 1999, p. A-4.

December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Urban Legends Reference Pages (also known as snopes. ... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... The MLK National Historic Site honors the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The first issue of Playboy. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Infoplease is a website devoted to providing authoritative answers to all kinds of factual quesitons since 1938 first as popular radio quiz show, then starting in 1947 as an annual almanac, and since 1998 on the internet. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The first issue of Playboy. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Chicago Sun-Times is an American daily newspaper published in Chicago. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) is the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) is the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) is the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) is the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... CBS is one of the largest radio and television networks in the United States. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (84th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... For the Canadian channel, see CourtTV Canada The Courtroom Television Network, more commonly known as Court TV, is an American cable television network owned by Time Warner that launched on July 1, 1991. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 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(Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The MLK National Historic Site honors the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Minnesota Public Radio logo Minnesota Public Radio (MPR) is a regional public radio network based in the U.S. state of Minnesota that has been broadcasting since 1967. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The MLK National Historic Site honors the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

References

  • Abernathy, Ralph. And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: An Autobiography. New York: Harper & Row, 1989. ISBN 0-06-016192-2
  • Beito, David and Beito, Linda Royster. T.R.M. Howard: Pragmatism over Strict Integrationist Ideology in the Mississippi Delta, 1942–1954 in Glenn Feldman, ed., Before Brown: Civil Rights and White Backlash in the Modern South. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004, 68–95. ISBN 0-8173-5134-5.
  • Branch, Taylor. At Canaan's Edge: America In the King Years, 1965–1968. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006. ISBN 0-684-85712-X
  • Carl Edwin Lindgren (Spring, 1992). Tour Resurrects Shantytown Art. Southern Exposure, Vol. XX, No. 1, 7. Information relating to Resurrection City and Dr. King.
  • Parting the Waters : America in the King Years, 1954–1963. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988. ISBN 0-671-46097-8
  • Pillar of Fire : America in the King Years, 1963–1965.: Simon & Schuster, 1998. ISBN 0-684-80819-6
  • Chernus, Ira. American Nonviolence: The History of an Idea, chapter 11. ISBN 1-57075-547-7
  • Garrow, David J. The FBI and Martin Luther King, Jr. New York: Penguin Books, 1981. ISBN 0-14-006486-9
  • Jackson, Thomas F., From Civil Rights to Human Rights: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Struggle for Economic Justice. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-8122-3969-0.
  • Kirk, John A., Martin Luther King, Jr. London: Pearson Longman, 2005. ISBN 0-582-41431-8
  • Ayton, Mel, A Racial Crime: James Earl Ray And The Murder Of Martin Luther King Jr. Archebooks Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-59507-075-3
  • Verhagen, Katherine. "Maritime King: African-American Rhetoric's Influence upon Africville." Wadabagei 11 (2005): 34-45.

Ralph Abernathy at National Press Club luncheon. ...

External links

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Video and audio material

  • Martin Luther King Videos full streaming video speeches on www.MLKOnline.net of "I Have a Dream" and "I've been to the mountaintop"
  • Martin Luther King Audio audio recordings of Martin Luther King speeches on www.MLKOnline.net including full "I Have a Dream" speech
  • "I Have a Dream" by Common popular new hiphop song sampling King
  • Internet Archive: The New Negro, King interviewed by J. Waites Waring.
  • RealAudio recording of the "I Have a Dream" speech at the History Channel's site
Preceded by
SCLC President
1957–1968
Succeeded by
Ralph Abernathy
Persondata
NAME King Jr., Martin Luther
ALTERNATIVE NAMES King, Martin Luther; MLK
SHORT DESCRIPTION Political activist
DATE OF BIRTH January 15, 1929
PLACE OF BIRTH Atlanta, Georgia
DATE OF DEATH April 4, 1968
PLACE OF DEATH Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee

  Results from FactBites:
 
E-Learning | Martin Luther King, Jr. Philosophy on Non-Violent Resistance | Civil Rights (611 words)
As King emerged as a leader in the civil rights movement, he put his belief into action and proved that this was an effective method to combat racial segregation.
King believed that by accepting suffering, it led to "tremendous educational and transforming possibilities" and would be a powerful tool in changing the minds of the opponents.
King's fifth point about nonviolent resistance was that the "universe was on the side of justice." Accordingly, people have a "cosmic companionship" with God who is on the side of truth.
Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Biographical Sketch (1226 words)
Martin Luther King, Jr., was the first son and second child born to the Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr., and Alberta Williams King.
Martin Luther King entered the Christian ministry and was ordained in February 1948 at the age of nineteen at Ebenezer Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia.
King's speech at the march on Washington in 1963, his acceptance speech of the Nobel Peace Prize, his last sermon at Ebenezer Baptist Church, and his final speech in Memphis are among his most famous utterances (I've Been to the Mountaintop).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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