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Encyclopedia > Martin Luther
Martin Luther
Luther at age 46 (1529), by Lucas Cranach the Elder, Uffizi Gallery
Born November 10, 1483
Eisleben, Holy Roman Empire
Died February 18, 1546
Eisleben, Holy Roman Empire
Occupation Theologian, Priest, Church Reformer
Spouse Katharina von Bora
Parents Hans and Margarethe Luther (nee Lindemann)
Children Hans, Elizabeth, Magdalena, Martin, Paul, Margarethe

Martin Luther (November 10, 1483February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. His teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions, as well as the course of Western civilization. Download high resolution version (600x645, 471 KB)Print quality version of Luther46. ... A self portrait Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472 – October 16, 1553) was a German painter. ... The Uffizi Gallery (Italian Galleria degli Uffizi) is a palace or palazzo in Florence, holding one of the most famous museums in the world. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Eisleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Eisleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... . ... Portrait of Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Hans Luther (?-1530) is best known as the father of the reformer Martin Luther. ... Margarethe Luther in 1530 (Lucas Cranach the Elder Margarethe Ziegler Luther is best known as the mother of Martin Luther. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... . ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ...


Luther's life and work are closely connected to the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Era in the West. His translation of the Bible furthered the development of a standard version of the German language and added several principles to the art of translation.[2] His translation significantly influenced the English King James Bible.[3] Due to the recently developed printing press, his writings were widely read, influencing many subsequent Reformers and thinkers, giving rise to diversifying Protestant traditions in Europe and elsewhere.[4] Luther's hymns, including his best-known "A Mighty Fortress is Our God", inspired the development of congregational singing within Christianity.[5] His marriage on June 13, 1525, to Katharina von Bora reintroduced the practice of clerical marriage within many Christian traditions.[6] Today, nearly seventy million Christians belong to Lutheran churches worldwide,[7] with some four hundred million Protestant Christians[8] tracing their history back to Luther's reforming work. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Modern-Era of NASCAR is a dividing line in NASCARs history. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... The word Reformer, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Rare early printing of A Mighty Fortress. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Portrait of Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Clerical marriage is the practice, followed in most Protestant and Orthodox churches, of allowing clergy to marry and have a family. ...


Luther is also known for his writings about the Jews, the nature and consequences of which are the subject of debate among scholars, many of whom have characterized them as anti-Semitic[9] or anti-Judaic. His statements that Jews' homes should be destroyed, their synagogues and schools burned, money confiscated, and rights and liberties curtailed were revived and given widespread publicity by the Nazis in Germany in 1933–45.[10] As a result of this, coupled with his revolutionary theological views, his legacy remains controversial. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... The theology of Martin Luther was fairly instrumental in influencing the Protestant Reformation, specifically topics dealing with Justification by Faith, the relationship between the Law and the Gospel (also an instrumental component of Reformed theology), and various other theological ideas. ...

A timeline outlining major events and periods of Martin Luther's life.
A timeline outlining major events and periods of Martin Luther's life.

Contents

Image File history File links Luther_timeline. ... Image File history File links Luther_timeline. ...

Early life

View of church where Luther was baptized.
View of church where Luther was baptized.

Luther was born to Hans and Margarethe Luther (Ziegler) on November 10, 1483, in Eisleben in the Holy Roman Empire – in what is now eastern Germany. He was baptized the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours. His family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father operated copper mines.[11] Hans Luther was determined to see his eldest son become a lawyer. He sent Martin to schools in Mansfeld and in 1497, Magdeburg, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life. In 1498, he attended school in Eisenach.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 46 KB) Summary Photo by Paul T. McCain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 46 KB) Summary Photo by Paul T. McCain. ... Hans Luther (?-1530) is best known as the father of the reformer Martin Luther. ... Margarethe Luther in 1530 (Lucas Cranach the Elder Margarethe Ziegler Luther is best known as the mother of Martin Luther. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Eisleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. ... Mansfeld can refer to: Ernst, Graf von Mansfield, a general of the Thirty Years War Mansfelder Land, a district of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the German city. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... The Brethren of the Common Life was a religious community founded in the 14th century by Geert Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion. ... Eisenach is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ...


At the age of seventeen in 1501 he entered the University of Erfurt. The young student received his Bachelor's degree after just one year in 1502. Three years later, in 1505, he received a Master's degree. According to his father's wishes, Martin enrolled in the law school of that university, but with much doubt about what would happen afterwards. The University of Erfurt is one of the oldest universities in Germany. ...


According to Luther, the course of his life changed during a thunderstorm in the summer of 1505. A lightning bolt struck near him as he was returning to school. Terrified, he cried out, "Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!"[13] He left law school, sold his books, and entered the Augustinian monastery in Erfurt on July 17, 1505.[14] Anna also known as Saint Anne is known by tradition as mother of The Virgin Mary. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Monastery of St. ... Mariendom and the Severikirche. ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 1505 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Monastic and academic life

One of Luther's monastic cells.
One of Luther's monastic cells.

Luther dedicated himself to monastic life, devoting himself to fasts, long hours in prayer, pilgrimage, and frequent confession. Luther tried to please God through this dedication, but it only increased his awareness of his own sinfulness.[15] He would later remark, "If anyone could have gained heaven as a monk, then I would indeed have been among them."[16] Luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair. He said, "I lost hold of Christ the Savior and Comforter and made of him a stock-master and hangman over my poor soul."[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2974x4409, 323 KB) Summary One of the monastic cells at the Augustinian Cloister in Erfurt, Germany where Luther lived from September 1505, until he left permanently to take up his position as a professor at the University of Wittenberg in 1511. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2974x4409, 323 KB) Summary One of the monastic cells at the Augustinian Cloister in Erfurt, Germany where Luther lived from September 1505, until he left permanently to take up his position as a professor at the University of Wittenberg in 1511. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Mary Magdalene in prayer. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ...


Johann von Staupitz, Luther's superior, concluded that the young monk needed more work to distract him from excessive introspection and ordered him to pursue an academic career. In 1507 he was ordained to the priesthood, and in 1508 began teaching theology at the University of Wittenberg.[18] He received a Bachelor's degree in Biblical studies on March 9, 1508, and another Bachelor's degree in the Sentences by Peter Lombard in 1509.[19] On October 19, 1512, he was awarded his Doctor of Theology and, on October 21, 1512, was received into the senate of the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg, having been called to the position of Doctor in Bible.[20] He spent the rest of his career in this position at the University of Wittenberg. Engraving of Johann Von Staupitz, 1889 Johann Von Staupitz (1460 - December 28, 1524) was a Catholic monk in the Augustinian Order who supervised Martin Luther during a critical period in that mans spiritual life. ... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg is located in the German cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt and Wittenberg. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Lombards seminal work, on which his reputation rests. ... Peter Lombard (c. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Justification by faith

From 1510 to 1520, Luther lectured on the Psalms, the books of Hebrews, Romans and Galatians. As he studied these portions of the Bible, he came to understand terms such as penance and righteousness in new ways. He began to teach that salvation is a gift of God's grace in Christ received by faith alone.[21] The first and chief article is this, Luther wrote, "Jesus Christ, our God and Lord, died for our sins and was raised again for our justification… therefore, it is clear and certain that this faith alone justifies us… nothing of this article can be yielded or surrendered, even though heaven, earth, and everything else falls."[22] Image File history File links Lutherrose. ... Image File history File links Lutherrose. ... The Luther seal or Luther rose is a widely-recognised symbol for Lutheranism. ... The theology of Martin Luther was fairly instrumental in influencing the Protestant Reformation, specifically topics dealing with Justification by Faith, the relationship between the Law and the Gospel (also an instrumental component of Reformed theology), and various other theological ideas. ... Penance (via Old French penance from the Latin Poenitentia, the same root as penitence, which in English means repentance, the desire to be forgiven, see contrition; in many languages only one single word is derived) is, strictly, repentance of sins as well as the actual name of the Catholic Sacrament... Righteousness is an important concept in the theology of Judaism and Christianity. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Christ is the English of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Faith has two general implications which can be implied either exclusively or mutually; To Trust: Believing a certain variable will act a specific way despite the potential influence of known or unknown change. ...


The Indulgence Controversy

The 95 Theses

Main article: The 95 Theses

On October 31, 1517, Luther wrote to Albert, Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, protesting the sale of indulgences in his episcopal territories and inviting him to a disputation on the matter. He enclosed the 95 Theses, a copy of which, according to tradition, he posted the same day on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. Luther objected to a saying attributed to Johann Tetzel, a papal commissioner for indulgences: "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs";[23] and he insisted that since pardons were God's alone to grant, those who claimed indulgences absolved buyers from all punishments and granted them salvation were in error. Christians, he said, must not slacken in following Christ on account of such false assurances. The 95 Theses were quickly translated into German, printed, and widely copied, making the controversy one of the first in history to be fanned by the printing press.[24] Within two weeks, the theses had spread throughout Germany; within two months throughout Europe. In contrast, the response of the papacy was painstakingly slow. The 95 Theses. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern, Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg: engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern (German: Albrecht; June 28, 1490 in Cölln – September 24, 1545 in Aschaffenburg), Elector and Archbishop of Mainz and Archbishop of Magdeburg, was the younger son of John Cicero, Elector... In the theology of Roman Catholicism, an indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to God for a Christians sins. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


Response of the papacy

Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern, Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, with the consent of Pope Leo X, was using part of the indulgence income to pay his bribery debts,[25] and did not reply to Luther’s letter; instead, he had the theses checked for heresy and forwarded to Rome.[26] Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern, Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg: engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern (German: Albrecht; June 28, 1490 in Cölln – September 24, 1545 in Aschaffenburg), Elector and Archbishop of Mainz and Archbishop of Magdeburg, was the younger son of John Cicero, Elector... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ...


Leo responded over the next three years, “with great care as is proper”,[27] by deploying a series of papal theologians and envoys against Luther. Perhaps he hoped the matter would die down of its own accord, because in 1518 he dismissed Luther as "a drunken German" who "when sober will change his mind".[28]


Widening breach

Luther as monk, 1520.
Luther as monk, 1520.
See also: To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and On the Freedom of a Christian

Luther's writings circulated widely, soon reaching France, England, and Italy as early as 1519. Students thronged to Wittenberg to hear Luther. He published a short commentary on Galatians and his Work on the Psalms. At the same time, he received deputations from Italy and from the Utraquists of Bohemia. Ulrich von Hutten and knight Franz von Sickingen offered to place Luther under their protection.[29] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1127x1352, 201 KB)Martin Luther as Monk. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1127x1352, 201 KB)Martin Luther as Monk. ... To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation is one of three tracts written by Martin Luther in 1520. ... On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church is a theological and historical work by the Protestant Reformer, Martin Luther. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... Events March 4 - Hernán Cortés lands in Mexico. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the New Testament. ... The Utraquists (Both-kinders) were moderate followers of Jan Hus, who maintained that the Eucharist should be administered to the people in both kinds, i. ... Ulrich von Hutten (1488-1523) was an outspoken critic of the Roman Catholic Church and adherent of the Lutheran Reformation. ... Franz von Sickingen (1481 - May 7, 1523) was a German knight, one of the most notable figures of the first period of the Reformation. ...


This period of Luther's career was one of the most creative and productive.[30] Three of Luther's best known works were published in 1520: To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, Prelude on the Babylonian Captivity of the Church and Freedom of a Christian.


Excommunication and Diet of Worms

First printed edition of Exsurge Domine.
First printed edition of Exsurge Domine.
Main article: Diet of Worms

On June 15, 1520, the Pope warned Martin Luther with the papal bull Exsurge Domine that he risked excommunication unless he recanted 41 sentences drawn from his writings within 60 days. Image File history File links BullExurgeDomine. ... Image File history File links BullExurgeDomine. ... Luther Before the Diet of Worms, photogravure after the historicist painting by Anton von Werner (1843–1915) in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... mary elline m. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Exsurge Domine was a Papal bull issued on June 15, 1520 at the Diet of Worms by Pope Leo X in response to the 95 theses of Martin Luther. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


That fall, Johann Eck proclaimed the bull in Meissen and other towns. Miltitz attempted to broker a solution; but Luther, who sent the pope a copy of On the Freedom of a Christian in October, publicly set fire to the bull and decretals at Wittenberg on December 10, 1520,[31] an act he defended in Why the Pope and his Recent Book are Burned and Assertions Concerning All Articles. Luther was finally excommunicated by Leo X on January 3, 1521, in the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. Johann Eck (November 13, 1486 – February 13, 1543) was a 16th century theologian and defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... mary elline m. ... Pope Leo X, born Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521) was Pope from 1513 to his death. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Decet Romanum Pontificem (1521) is the papal bull excommunicating Martin Luther, bearing the title of the first three Latin words of the text: [It] befits [the] Roman Pontiff in English. ...


Enforcement of the ban now fell to the secular authorities. Luther appeared, as ordered, on April 17, 1521, before the Diet of Worms, which Emperor Charles V had opened on January 22. Johann Eck, speaking on behalf of the empire as assistant of the Archbishop of Trier, presented Luther with a table filled with copies of his writings and asked him if the books were his and if he still taught what they contained. Luther requested time to think about his answer, which was granted. Luther prayed, consulted with friends and mediators and gave his response to the diet the next day: April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Luther Before the Diet of Worms, photogravure after the historicist painting by Anton von Werner (1843–1915) in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart The Diet of Worms (Reichstag zu Worms) was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town... Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian territories (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Unless I shall be convinced by the testimonies of the Scriptures or by clear reason … I neither can nor will make any retraction, since it is neither safe nor honourable to act against conscience. God help me. Amen."[32]

Over the next five days, private conferences were held to determine the fate of Luther, who left Worms on 26 April. The emperor presented the final draft of the Edict of Worms on May 25, 1521, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw, banning his literature, and requiring his arrest: "We want him to be apprehended and punished as a notorious heretic".[33] // Worms (pronounced ) is a city in the southwest of Germany. ... April 26 is the 116th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (117th in leap years). ... This article or section should be merged with Diet of Worms The Edict of Worms was issued by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor on May 25, 1521 at Worms, at the end of the Diet of Worms. ... May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... For other senses of this word, see outlaw (disambiguation). ...


Exile at the Wartburg Castle

Wartburg Castle, Eisenach.
Wartburg Castle, Eisenach.

The Emperor had granted Luther a safe-conduct for his return to Wittenberg. Frederick the Wise, who had arranged for Luther's safe-conduct, arranged for him to be taken into safe custody on his way home by a company of masked horsemen; he was then carried to Wartburg Castle at Eisenach, where he stayed for about a year. He grew a beard and wore the clothing of a knight, and assumed the pseudonym Junker Jörg (Knight George). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4368x2912, 659 KB) Summary Photograph by Paul T. McCain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4368x2912, 659 KB) Summary Photograph by Paul T. McCain. ... Eisenach is a city in Thuringia, Germany. ... Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524 Frederick III (January 17, 1463 – May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... Wartburg in Eisenach Wartburg Castle is situated on a 1230-foot (410 m) precipitous hill to the southwest of and overlooking the town of Eisenach in Thuringia. ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed aristocracy of Prussia and Eastern Germany - often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ...


His time at Wartburg was another productive period in his career, as he hunched over a desk in a tower room and translated the New Testament from Greek into German. Luther intended this to be read not by professional churchmen but by the ordinary man on the street. What Luther had to do was translate the idioms of everyday German into a written form comprehensible to people who spoke quite different dialects from each other. The forms spoken at the time are known as Middle High German and Middle Low German. He was also especially keen to get details, so for research for example, he would visit the slaughterhouses to check that he was getting the details of the Old Testament sacrifices right. An Idiom is an expression (i. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ... Workers and cattle in a slaughterhouse. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ...


It was printed in September 1522, and sold 5,000 copies in 2 months. He issued an essay on the practice of Confession, Concerning Confession, in which he rejected laws by the church forcing people to go to private confession, although he affirmed the value of private confession and absolution. Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ...


Return to Wittenberg

Martin Luther's mother, Margarethe Luther.
Martin Luther's mother, Margarethe Luther.

Around Christmas 1521 Anabaptists from Zwickau entered Wittenberg and caused considerable civil unrest. Thoroughly opposed to their radical views and fearful of their results, Luther secretly returned to Wittenberg on March 6, 1522, and the Zwickau prophets left the city. For eight days in Lent beginning on March 9, Invocavit Sunday, and concluding on the following Sunday, Luther preached eight sermons that would become known as the Invocavit Sermons. In these sermons Luther counseled careful reform that took into consideration the consciences of those who were not ready or willing yet to embrace reform. Luther took great concern to protect the faith of the most fragile believer insisting that what carried the gospel to them must not be taken away by his fellow reformers. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1217x1365, 2500 KB) Summary The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1217x1365, 2500 KB) Summary The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Margarethe Luther in 1530 (Lucas Cranach the Elder Margarethe Ziegler Luther is best known as the mother of Martin Luther. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (66th in leap years). ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... In Western Christianity, Lent is the forty-day period (or season) lasting from Ash Wednesday to Easter[1] or Holy Saturday. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ...


Luther worked patiently to reintroduce the practice of receiving Holy Communion in both kinds, that is, receiving both the consecrated bread and wine, rather than the practice of denying the wine to lay people. The canon of the mass, giving it its sacrificial character, was now omitted. Since the former practice of penance had been abolished, communicants were now required to declare their intention to commune and to seek consolation in Christian confession and absolution. This new form of service was set forth by Luther in his Formula missæ et communionis (Form of the Mass and Communion, 1523), and in 1524 the first Wittenberg hymnal appeared with four of his own hymns, including A Mighty Fortress and the first hymn he wrote for congregational singing, Dear Christians One and All Rejoice. Since, however, his writings were forbidden in that part of Saxon ruled by Duke George, Luther declared, in his Temporal Authority: to What Extent It Should Be Obeyed, that the civil authority could enact no laws for the soul. This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Canon of the Mass (Canon Missæ, Canon Actionis) is the name used in the Roman Missal of the Tridentine period for the part of the Mass that began after the Sanctus with the words Te igitur. ... Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder George the Bearded, Duke of Saxony (b. ...


Marriage and Family

Portrait of Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. 1526. Oil on panel. Warburg-Stiftung, Eisenach, Germany.
Portrait of Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. 1526. Oil on panel. Warburg-Stiftung, Eisenach, Germany.

On April 8, 1523, Luther wrote to Wenceslaus Link: "Yesterday I received nine nuns from their captivity in the Nimbschen convent." Luther had arranged for Torgau burgher Leonhard Koppe on April 4 to assist twelve nuns to escape from the Cistercian monastery in Nimbschen near Grimma in Ducal Saxony. Koppe transported them out of the convent in herring barrels. Three of the nuns went to be with their relatives, leaving the nine that were brought to Wittenberg, one of whom was Katharina von Bora. All except Katharina were married shortly afterwards. In May and June 1523, it was thought that she might marry a Wittenberg University student, Jerome Paumgartner, but his family most likely prevented it. Dr. Caspar Glatz was the next prospective husband put forward, but Katharina had "neither desire nor love" for him. She made it known that she wanted to marry either Luther himself or Nicholas von Amsdorf. Initially Luther did not feel that he was fit to be a husband considering he was excommunicated by the pope and outlawed by the emperor. In May or early June 1525, it became known in Luther's circle that he intended to marry Katharina. Forestalling any objections from friends against Katharina, Luther acted quickly. On the evening of Tuesday, June 13, 1525, Luther and Katharina married. Luther affectionately called her "Katy". Over the years they had six children, three boys and three girls, and lived in Luther's former Augustianian monastery in Wittenberg which had been given to Luther by the Elector as a home. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (847x1299, 106 KB) Katharina von Bora von Lucas Cranach d. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (847x1299, 106 KB) Katharina von Bora von Lucas Cranach d. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Portrait of Katharina von Bora, wife of Martin Luther, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Nicolaus von Amsdorf (December 3, 1483–1565) was a German theologian and Protestant reformer. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ...


Peasants' War

The Peasants' War (1524–1525) was in many ways a response to the preaching of Luther and others. Revolts by the peasantry had existed on a small scale since the 14th century, but many peasants mistakenly believed that Luther's attack on the Church and the hierarchy meant that the reformers would support an attack on the social hierarchy as well, because of the close ties between the secular princes and the princes of the Church that Luther condemned. Revolts that broke out in Swabia, Franconia, and Thuringia in 1524 gained support among peasants and disaffected nobles, many of whom were in debt. Gaining momentum and a new leader in Thomas Münzer, the revolts turned into an all-out war, the experience of which played an important role in the founding of the Anabaptist movement. Initially, many thought Luther supported the peasants, condemning the oppressive practices of the nobility that had incited them to revolt. As the war continued, and especially as atrocities at the hands of the peasants increased, the revolt became an embarrassment to Luther, who strongly condemned the peasants. In Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants (1525), he encouraged the nobility to crush the revolt. Many of the revolutionaries considered Luther's words a betrayal. Others withdrew once they realized that there was neither support from the Church nor from its main opponent. The war in Germany ended in 1525 when rebel forces were destroyed by the armies of the Swabian League. Peasants War map. ... Thomas Müntzer, in an 18th century engraving by C. Van Sichem. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants (1525) A tract written by Martin Luther (German title: Wider die räuberischen und mörderischen Rotten der Bauern) in May, 1525. ... The Swabian League, an association of German cities, principally in the territory which had formed the old duchy of Swabia. ...


Catechisms

In 1528 Luther took part in a formal visit of parishes and schools in Saxony to determine the quality of pastoral care and Christian education the people were receiving. Luther wrote in the preface to The Small Catechism,

Mercy! Good God! what manifold misery I beheld! The common people, especially in the villages, have no knowledge whatever of Christian doctrine, and, alas! many pastors are altogether incapable and incompetent to teach.[34]

In response, Luther prepared The Small and Large Catechisms. They are instructional and devotional material on the Ten Commandments; the Apostles' Creed; the Lord's Prayer; Baptism; Confession and Absolution; and the Lord's Supper. The Small Catechism was supposed to be read by the people themselves, the Large Catechism by the pastors. Luther, who was modest about the publishing of his collected works, thought his catechisms were one of two works he would not be embarrassed to call his own: This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... The Apostles Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum), sometimes titled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief, a creed or symbol. ... Representation of the Sermon on the Mount The Lords Prayer in Swahili. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ...

Regarding [the plan] to collect my writings in volumes, I am quite cool and not at all eager about it because, roused by a Saturnian hunger, I would rather see them all devoured. For I acknowledge none of them to be really a book of mine, except perhaps the one Bondage of the Will and the Catechism.[35] On the Bondage of the Will, also known as Bound Will or by its Latin name De Servo Arbitrio was Martin Luthers answer to Erasmus De Libero Arbit or On Free Will. ...

The two catechisms are still popular instructional materials among Lutherans. Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ...


Luther's German Bible

Main article: Luther Bible
Luther's 1534 bible.
Luther's 1534 bible.

Luther translated the Bible into German to make it more accessible to the common people, a task he began alone in 1521 during his stay in the Wartburg castle, publishing The New Testament in September 1522 and, in collaboration with Johannes Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Caspar Creuziger, Philipp Melanchthon, Matthäus Aurogallus, and George Rörer, the whole Bible in 1534. He worked on refining the translation for the rest of his life. The Luther Bible contributed to the emergence of the modern German language and is regarded as a landmark in German literature. The 1534 edition was also profoundly influential on William Tyndale's translation,[36] a precursor of the King James Bible.[37] Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x759, 132 KB) Book Photograph selbstfotografiert im Lutherhaus Wittenberg 1999 File links The following pages link to this file: Martin Luther Luther Bible ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x759, 132 KB) Book Photograph selbstfotografiert im Lutherhaus Wittenberg 1999 File links The following pages link to this file: Martin Luther Luther Bible ... The Bible is the collection of Religious text or books of Judaism and Christianity. ... Wartburg 311: in production between 1956 and 1965 Wartburg 312: in production in 1965. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... Johannes Bugenhagen (24 June 1485 in Wollin, Pomerania—20 April 1558 in Wittenberg, Saxony), also called Doktor Pomeranus, introduced the Protestant Reformation in Pomerania and Denmark in the 16th century. ... Justus Jonas (5 June 1493 - 9 October 1555) was a German Protestant reformer. ... Caspar Creuziger (born January 1,1504 in Leipzig, died November 16,1548 in Wittenberg), was a German Humanist [1], Professor of Theology at the University of Wittenberg, Preacher at the Castle Church (Wittenberg, Germany), secretary to[2]. and worked with Martin Luther to revise Luthers German Bible translation. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Matthäus Aurogallus, also known as Matthäus Goldhahn, was born in 1490 at Komotau, Bohemia and died on November 10, 1543 at Wittenberg, Germany. ... Georg Rörer (Latin, Rorarius) (1492-1557) was a Lutheran reformer and pastor. ... The Bible is the collection of Religious text or books of Judaism and Christianity. ... Luthers 1534 bible The Luther Bible is a German Bible translation by Martin Luther, first printed with both testaments in 1534. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... German literature comprises those literary texts originating within Germany proper and written in the German language. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tyndale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...


Liturgy and church government

Rare, early printing of “A Mighty Fortress”.
Rare, early printing of “A Mighty Fortress”.

Martin Luther’s German Mass of 1526 provided for weekday services and for catechetical instruction. He strongly objected, however, to making a new law of the forms and urged the retention of other good liturgies. While Luther advocated Christian liberty in liturgical matters in this way, he also spoke out in favor of maintaining and establishing liturgical uniformity among those sharing the same faith in a given area. In other words, freedom was to be tempered by loving concern for the fellow Christian lest he be offended or confused. He saw in liturgical uniformity a fitting outward expression of unity in the faith, while in liturgical variation, an indication of possible doctrinal variation. He did not consider liturgical change a virtue, especially when it might be made by individual Christians or congregations: he was content to conserve and reform what the Church had inherited from the past. Therefore Luther, while eliminating and condemning those parts of the mass that taught that the Eucharist was a propitiatory sacrifice and the Body and Blood of Christ by transubstantiation,[38] retained the use of historic liturgical forms and customs. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2820x2511, 1999 KB)One of only very few early printings of Luthers hymn: A Mighty Fortress Is Our God. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2820x2511, 1999 KB)One of only very few early printings of Luthers hymn: A Mighty Fortress Is Our God. ... Deutsche Messe, or The German Mass, (Deutsche Messe und Ordnung des Gottesdiensts) was published by Martin Luther in 1526. ... Adiaphoron, pl. ... This article discusses the Mass as part of Christian liturgy, in particular the form it has taken in the Latin rite of the Catholic Church. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Eucharist controversy

Part of the series on
Lutheranism
Luther's Seal
Beginnings

Christianity
Protestant Reformation
Roman Catholicism
Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... lutheran seal File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Luther seal The Luther seal is the symbol of the Lutheran church. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...

People

Martin Luther
Philipp Melanchthon
Frederick the Wise
Martin Chemnitz
Johann Sebastian Bach
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg
Lars Levi Læstadius
C. F. W. Walther
Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... Frederick in an engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1524 Frederick III (January 17, 1463 – May 5, 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise, was Elector of Saxony (from the House of Wettin) from 1486 to his death. ... Martin Chemnitz (1522-1586) was an eminent Lutheran theologian, churchman, and confessor, born in Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg on November 9, 1522, the day before Martin Luther had been born in 1483. ... Bach in a 1748 portrait by Haussmann Places in which Bach resided throughout his life Johann Sebastian Bach (pronounced ) (21 March 1685 O.S. – 28 July 1750 N.S.) was a prolific German composer and organist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra and solo instruments drew together the... Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (September 6, 1711, Einbeck, Germany – October 7, 1787, Trappe, Pennsylvania), originally Heinrich Melchior Mühlenberg, was a Lutheran clergyman who is viewed as the founder of the Lutheran Church in the United States. ... Lars Levi Laestadius (1800-1861) Lars Levi Læstadius (October 1, 1800 - February 21, 1861) was a Swedish Lutheran pastor of Sami ancestry. ... Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm (C.F.W.) Walther (October 25, 1811 - May 17, 1887), was the first President of the Lutheran Church _ Missouri Synod. ...

Book of Concord

Augsburg Confession
Apology of the Augsburg Confession
Smalcald Articles
Treatise on the Power and
Primacy of the Pope

Luther's Large Catechism
Luther's Small Catechism
Formula of Concord
95 Theses
The Book of Concord or Concordia is a compilation of the major theological documents of early Lutheranism. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... The Apology of the Augsburg Confession was formulated by Philip Melanchthon as the response to the Roman Confutation against the Augsburg Confession. ... The Smalcald Articles are a summary of Lutheran doctrines, written by Martin Luther, which declared the positions on which Lutherans could not concede. ... The Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope is a treatise written by Philip Melanchthon that denotes the Lutheran position regarding the Papal abuses of authority. ... Luthers Large Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in April of 1529. ... Luthers Small Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in 1529 for the training of children. ... (1577). ... The 95 Theses. ...

Theology and Sacraments

Sacramental union
Law and Gospel
Sola scriptura
Sola gratia
Sola fide
The Eucharist
Holy Baptism
Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... The relationship between Gods Law and the Gospel is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology. ... Sola scriptura (Latin ablative, by scripture alone) is the assertion that the Bible as Gods written word is self-authenticating, clear (perspicuous) to the rational reader, its own interpreter (Scripture interprets Scripture), and sufficient of itself to be the only source of Christian doctrine. ... Sola gratia, one of the five solas propounded to summarise the Reformers basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation, it is a Latin term meaning grace alone. ... Sola fide (Latin: by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine that distinguishes most Protestant denominations from Catholicism, Eastern Christianity, and Restorationism in Christianity. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Divine Service
Lutheran Calendar of Saints
Lutheran Book of Worship
Evangelical Lutheran Worship
Lutheran Service Book
The Divine Service (German: Gottesdienst) is the liturgy of the Lutheran Church which is used during the celebration of the Eucharist. ... The Lutheran Calendar of Saints is a listing which details the primary annual festivals and events that are celebrated liturgically by the Lutheran Church. ... Lutheran Book of Worship is a hymnal and prayer book used by several Lutheran denominations in North America. ... Evangelical Lutheran Worship is the service book and hymnal for use in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Denominations

Lutheran World Federation
International Lutheran Council
Confessional Evangelical Conference
Laestadianism
List of Lutheran Denominations
LWF logo The Lutheran World Federation (LWF) is a global association of national and regional Lutheran churches headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The International Lutheran Council is a worldwide association of confessional Lutheran denominations. ... The Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference (CELC) is the successor to the Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North America except that it is international in scope rather than restricted to North America. ... The Laestadian movement (lestadiolaisuus in Finnish and Laestadianismen in Swedish) are a conservative Christian revival movement prominent mostly in Finland, Sweden, Norway and North America. ... This is a list of Lutheran denominations grouped by affiliation with international Lutheran bodies. ...

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Statue of Martin Luther outside the Marienkirche in central Berlin.
Statue of Martin Luther outside the Marienkirche in central Berlin.

Martin Luther's views on the Eucharist, the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, were put to the test in October 1529 at the Marburg Colloquy, an assembly of Protestant theologians gathered by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, to establish doctrinal unity in the emerging Protestant states. Agreement was achieved on most points, the exception being the nature of the Eucharist, an issue crucial to Luther.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (769x1141, 211 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (769x1141, 211 KB) Summary Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... There are several churches by this name, including: St. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... The Lords Supper is a variation of the name and the service of The Last Supper or Eucharist. ... The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting which attempted to mediate between the different opinions of the Lutherans and Zwinglians over the Lords Supper, and issues relating to transubstantiation. ... Philip I of Hesse Philip I of HESSE, (13 November 1504 - 31 March 1567), was a leading champion of the Reformation and one of the most important German rulers of the Renaissance. ...


The theologians, including Zwingli, Karlstadt, Jud, and Œcolampadius, differed among themselves on the significance of the words of institution spoken by Jesus at the Last Supper: "This is my body which is for you", "This cup is the new covenant in my blood" (1 Corinthians 11:23–26). Luther insisted on the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the consecrated bread and wine, but the other theologians believed God to be only symbolically present: Zwingli, for example, denied Jesus's ability to be in more than one place at a time. But Luther, who affirmed the doctrine of Hypostatic Union, that Jesus is one and the same as God, was clear: Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 – December 24, 1541), better known as Andreas Karlstadt, was a Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation. ... Leo Jud, (also Leo Juda, Leo Judä, Leo Judas, Leonis Judae, Ionnes Iuda, Leo Keller) (1482 - June 19, 1542), known to his contemporaries as Meister Leu, Swiss reformer, was born in Alsace. ... Johannes Oecolampadius or Oekolampad (1482 - November 24, 1531) was a German religious reformer, whose real name was Hussgen or Heussgen (changed to Hausschein and then into the Greek equivalent). ... Eleventh chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The hypostatic union (also known as the mystical union), in Christian theology, refers to the dual nature of Jesus Christ as being simultaneously God and Man. ...

For I do not want to deny in any way that God’s power is able to make a body be simultaneously in many places, even in a corporeal and circumscribed manner. For who wants to try to prove that God is unable to do that? Who has seen the limits of his power?[40]

Despite these disagreements on the Eucharist, the Marburg Colloquy paved the way for the signing in 1530 of the Augsburg Confession and for the formation of the Schmalkaldic League the following year by leading Protestant nobles such as Philip of Hesse, John Frederick of Saxony, and George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach. According to Luther, agreement in the faith was not necessary prior to entering political alliances. Nevertheless, interpretations of the Eucharist differ among Protestants to this day. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. ... Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1531. ... Georg Hohenzollern Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born in 1484 and died 1543. ...


Augsburg confession

Main article: Augsburg Confession

Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, convened an Imperial Diet in Augsburg in 1530 with the goal of uniting the empire against the Ottoman Turks, who had besieged Vienna the previous autumn. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3320x2472, 1854 KB) Summary First edition of the Augsburg Confession and Apology. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3320x2472, 1854 KB) Summary First edition of the Augsburg Confession and Apology. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 - 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian territories (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... refers to either the historic institution of the Reichstag in Germany, or Diet of Japan. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Imperial motto: unknown The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul (Constantinople) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million (at most) Area (1683) 11 955 000 km² Establishment 1281 Dissolution October 29, 1923 Currency Akçe The flag of... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to...


To achieve unity, Charles required a resolution of the religious controversies in his realm. Luther, still under the Imperial Ban, was left behind at the Coburg fortress while his elector and colleagues from Wittenberg attended the diet. The Augsburg Confession, a summary of the Lutheran faith authored by Philipp Melanchthon but influenced by Luther,[39] was read aloud to the emperor. It was the first specifically Lutheran confession included in the Book of Concord of 1580, and is regarded as the principal confession of the Lutheran Church. Coburg is a city located on the Itz River in Bavaria, Germany. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... The Book of Concord or Concordia is a compilation of the major theological documents of early Lutheranism. ...


Luther on Islam


The Muslim is not concerned, like other rulers, with the maintenance of peace, the protection of the good, and the punishment of the wicked but uses government, after he has murdered men's souls with his Qur'an, to murder their bodies (PE 5:96). By his lies, the Muslim seeks to "destroy the spiritual estate, murder the temporal, disregard for marriage the estate of matrimony" (PE 5:100). Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ...


The consistent resolve and advice of Luther was to appeal to the two governments instituted by God, namely, spiritual and temporal authority. Sir Christian, as the body of Christ, was to fight with the Word of God, prayer and a reformed life. Then the Emperor was to carry out his office and defend his people and land. For "if our kings and princes were to agree, and stand by one another and help one another, and the Christian man were to pray for them, I should be undismayed and of good hope; the Muslim would leave his raging and find in Emperor Charles a man who was his equal" (PE 5:122).[41]


Luther and anti-Semitism

"Schem Hamphoras" and Judensau or "Jew's Sow" on the Wittenberg Church
"Schem Hamphoras" and Judensau or "Jew's Sow" on the Wittenberg Church
See also: Martin Luther and the Jews and On the Jews and Their Lies

In his treatise On the Jews and Their Lies, published in 1543 as Von den Juden und ihren Lügen, Luther wrote "set fire to their synagogues or schools and to bury and cover with dirt whatever will not burn, so that no man will ever again see a stone or cinder of them… I advise that their houses also be razed and destroyed… their prayer books and Talmudic writings, in which such idolatry, lies, cursing and blasphemy are taught, be taken from them… their rabbis be forbidden to teach henceforth on pain of loss of life and limb… that safe-conduct on the highways be abolished completely for the Jews. For they have no business in the countryside, since they are not lords, officials, tradesmen, or the like. Let them stay at home… that usury be prohibited to them, and that all cash and treasure of silver and gold be taken from them and put aside for safekeeping… I commend putting a flail, an ax, a hoe, a spade, a distaff, or a spindle into the hands of young, strong Jews and Jewesses and letting them earn their bread in the sweat of their brow, as was imposed on the children of Adam…" and recommended that these "poisonous envenomed worms" be forced into labor or expelled "for all time."[42] Image File history File links Judensau-Wittenberg. ... Image File history File links Judensau-Wittenberg. ... Martin Luther has been accused of Anti-Semitism, primarily in relation to his work On the Jews and their Lies. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... Martin Luther has been accused of Anti-Semitism, primarily in relation to his work On the Jews and their Lies. ... Title page of Martin Luther’s On the Jews and Their Lies. ... Title page of Martin Luther’s On the Jews and Their Lies. ...


There is little doubt among historians that Luther's rhetoric may have contributed to,[43][44][45] or at the very least foreshadowed,[46] the actions of the Nazis when Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933, although the extent to which it played a direct role in the events leading to the Holocaust is debated. At the heart of the debate is whether it is anachronistic to view Luther's sentiments as an example, or early precursor, of racial anti-Semitism — hatred toward the Jews as a people — rather than anti-Judaism — contempt for Judaism as a religion. Hitler redirects here. ... ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A minority viewpoint disagrees with the attempt to link Luther's work causally to the rise of Nazi anti-Semitism, arguing that it is too simplistic an analysis.[47] Some Lutheran church bodies have distanced themselves from this aspect of Luther's work. In 1983, the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, denounced Luther's "hostile attitude" toward the Jews.[48] In 1994, the Church Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America announced: "As did many of Luther's own companions in the sixteenth century, we reject this violent invective, and yet more do we express our deep and abiding sorrow over its tragic effects on subsequent generations."[49] Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... LCMS redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


It should be noted, however, that Luther also made more-balanced statements in regard to the Jews: "We want to treat them with Christian love and to pray for them, so that they might become converted and would receive the Lord" [50].


Final years

Luther's grave in the Castle Church in Wittenberg.

During the later years of his life, Luther remained busy and active lecturing at the university on the Biblical book of Genesis, serving as dean of the theological faculty, and making many visitations to churches. During the final nine years of his life, Luther wrote 165 treatises in total and nearly ten letters a day, examined many candidates for doctoral degrees in theology, and hosted doctoral feasts for the successful candidates. His later years were marked by continuing illnesses and physical problems, making him short-tempered and even more pointed and harsh in his writings and comments. His wife Katy was overheard saying, "Dear husband, you are too rude," and he responded, "They teach me to be rude."[51] Luthers health declined in the years before his death. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 72 KB) Summary Photo by Paul T. McCain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (480x640, 72 KB) Summary Photo by Paul T. McCain. ...


Luther's final journey, to Mansfeld, was taken due to his concern for his siblings' families continuing in their father Hans Luther's copper mining trade. Their livelihood was threatened by Count Albrecht of Mansfeld bringing the industry under his own control. Luther journeyed to Mansfeld twice in late 1545 to participate in the negotiations for a settlement, and a third visit was needed in early 1546 for their completion.


The negotiations were successfully concluded on February 17. After 8:00 p.m. that day, Luther experienced chest pains. He died 2:45 a.m., February 18, 1546, aged 62, in Eisleben, the city of his birth. Luther was buried in the Castle Church in Wittenberg, beneath the pulpit.[52] February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ...


Footnotes and references

See also: List of books and films about Martin Luther
  1. ^ Ewald Plass, "Monasticism", in What Luther Says: An Anthology (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1959), 2:964.
  2. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, The Encyclopedia of Christianity (Grand Rapids, MI: Leiden, Netherlands: Wm. B. Eerdmans; Brill, 1999–2003), 1:244.
  3. ^ Tyndale's New Testament, trans. from the Greek by William Tyndale in 1534 in a modern-spelling edition and with an introduction by David Daniell (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989), ix–x.
  4. ^ Jacques Barzun, From Dawn to Decadence (New York: Harper Collins, 2000), 4.
  5. ^ Roland Bainton, Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther (New York: Penguin, 1995), 269.
  6. ^ Bainton, 223.
  7. ^ Lutheran World Federation, "Slight Increase Pushes LWF Global Membership to 66.2 Million", The Lutheran World Federation, accessed May 18, 2006.
  8. ^ "Major Branches of Religions Ranked by Number of Adherents", accessed April 20, 2006.
  9. ^ Martin Luther, "On the Jews and Their Lies," Tr. Martin H. Bertram, in Luther's Works ed. Franklin Sherman (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971), 47:268–72 (hereafter cited in notes as LW).
  10. ^ The Cambridge Companion to Martin Luther, ed. Donald K. McKim (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 58; Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, s.v. "Anti-Semitism," by Michael Berenbaum (accessed January 2, 2007).
  11. ^ Martin Brecht, Martin Luther, trans. James L. Schaaf (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985–93), 1:3–5.
  12. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s.v. "Martin Luther" by Ernst Gordon Rupp (accessed 2006).
  13. ^ Brecht, 1:48.
  14. ^ Schwiebert, E.G. Luther and His Times. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1950. ISBN 0-570-03246-6, p.136.
  15. ^ Bainton, 40–42.
  16. ^ James Kittelson, Luther The Reformer (Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Publishing House, 1986), 53.
  17. ^ Kittelson, 79.
  18. ^ Bainton, 44–45.
  19. ^ Brecht, 1:93.
  20. ^ Brecht, 1:12–27.
  21. ^ Markus Wriedt, "Luther's Theology," in The Cambridge Companion to Luther (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 88–94.
  22. ^ Martin Luther, The Smalcald Articles in Concordia: The Lutheran Confessions (Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2005), 289, Part two, Article 1.
  23. ^ Bainton, 60; Brecht, 1:182; Kittelson, 104.
  24. ^ Brecht, 1:204–205.
  25. ^ Luther, Martin (2006). Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 18 September 2006.
  26. ^ Martin Treu, Martin Luther in Wittenberg: A Biographical Tour (Wittenberg: Saxon-Anhalt Luther Memorial Foundation, 2003), 31.
  27. ^ Papal Bull Exsurge Domine.
  28. ^ Philip Schaff, History of the Christian Church (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1910), 7:99; W.G. Polack, The Story of Luther (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1931), 45.
  29. ^ The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, ed. Samuel Macauley Jackson and George William Gilmore, (New York, London, Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1908–1914; Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1951) s.v. "Luther, Martin," hereafter cited in notes as Schaff-Herzog, 71.
  30. ^ Lewis W. Spitz, The Renaissance and Reformation Movements, Revised Ed. (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1987), 338.
  31. ^ Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation, ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand, s.v. "Luther, Martin," (by Martin Brecht, tr. Wolfgang Katenz) New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 2:463.
  32. ^ Schaff-Herzog, "Luther, Martin," 72.
  33. ^ Edict of Worms, translated by De Lamar Jensen and Jacquelin Delbrouwire.
  34. ^ Martin Luther, "Preface," Small Catechism.
  35. ^ LW 50:172–173. Luther compares himself to the mythological Saturn, who devoured most of his children. Luther wanted to get rid of many of his writings except for the two mentioned. The Large and Small Catechisms are spoken of as one work by Luther in this letter.
  36. ^ Tyndale's New Testament, xv, xxvii.
  37. ^ Tyndale's New Testamemt, ix–x.
  38. ^ Schaff-Herzog, “Luther, Martin,” 73.
  39. ^ a b Schaff-Herzog, "Luther, Martin", 74.
  40. ^ LW 37:223–224.
  41. ^ Luther On Islam
  42. ^ Luther, "On the Jews and Their Lies," LW 47:268–271.
  43. ^ Ronald Berger, Fathoming the Holocaust: A Social Problems Approach (New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 2002), 28.
  44. ^ Paul Lawrence Rose, Revolutionary Antisemitism in Germany from Kant to Wagner (Princeton University Press, 1990), quoted in Berger, 28).
  45. ^ William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960).
  46. ^ Berenbaum, Michael. "The World Must Know": A History of the Holocaust as told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993, 2000), 8–9.
  47. ^ Those expressing the minority viewpoint include:
    • Roland Bainton, 297.
    • Russell Briese, “Martin Luther and the Jews,” Lutheran Forum (Summer 2000):32.
    • Brecht, Martin Luther, 3:351.
    • Mark U. Edwards, Jr. Luther’s Last Battles: Politics and Polemics 1531–46 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983), 139.
    • Eric Gritsch, “Was Luther Anti-Semitic?” 12 Christian History No. 3:39.
    • James M. Kittelson, Luther the Reformer, 274.
    • Richard Marius, Martin Luther: The Christian Between God and Death (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 377.
    • Heiko Oberman, The Roots of Anti-Semitism: In the Age of Renaissance and Reformation (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984), 102.
    • Gordon Rupp, Martin Luther, 75.
    • Siemon-Netto, "Luther and the Jews," Lutheran Witness 123 (2004) No. 4:19, 21.
  48. ^ Q&A: Luther's Anti-Semitism at Lutheran Church — Missouri Synod. Retrieved December 15, 2005.
  49. ^ Declaration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America to the Jewish Community, April 18, 1994, retrieved December 15, 2005.
  50. ^ Weimar edition, Vol. 51, p. 195
  51. ^ Spitz, 354.
  52. ^ cf. Brecht, 3:369–379.

// Books Bainton, Roland H. Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther. ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Dawn in Peng Chau, Hong Kong. ... NY redirects here. ... Roland H. Bainton (1894-1984) was born in England and came to the United States in 1902. ... Martin Brecht, D.D. (March 6, 1932- ) Church historian, professor emeritus of the University of Münster, Westphalia, Germany. ... Ernest Gordon Rupp, (Born January 7, 1910 in London)-(Died December 19,1986 in Cambridge, England). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Paul Lawrence Rose is the Professor of European History and Mitrani Professor of Jewish Studies at Pennsylvania State University. ... William Lawrence Shirer (1904 - 1993), U.S. historian & journalist. ... Michael Berenbaum is an American scholar, professor, writer, and film-maker, who specializes in the study of the memorialization of the Holocaust. ... Richard Curry Marius (1933-1999) was a Reformation scholar, a novelist of the American South, a speechwriter, and a teacher of writing and English literature at Harvard University. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Select bibliography

For the works of Luther himself, see List of books by Martin Luther
For books and films about Martin Luther, see List of books and films about Martin Luther This list of books by Martin Luther contains a bibliography of the works of Martin Luther in print, online or other formats, in English translation and original language. ... // Books Bainton, Roland H. Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther. ...

  • Bainton, Roland H. Here I Stand: a Life of Martin Luther. New York: Penguin, 1995 (1950). ISBN 0-452-01146-9.
  • Brecht, Martin. Martin Luther. Tr. James L. Schaaf. 3 Volumes. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985-1993. ISBN 0-8006-2813-6, ISBN 0-8006-2814-4, ISBN 0-8006-2815-2.
  • Kittelson, James M. Luther the Reformer: The Story of the Man and His Career. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1986. ISBN 0-8066-2240-7.
  • Oberman, Heiko A. Luther: Man Between God and the Devil. New York: Doubleday, 1989. ISBN 0-385-42278-4

External links

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  • Project Wittenberg, an archive of Lutheran documents
  • Full text of the 95 Theses
  • Full text of the Smalcald Articles
  • Full text of the Small Catechism
  • Full text of the Large Catechism
  • Excerpts from Against the Murderous, Thieving Peasants
  • Prelude On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
  • Commentary on The Magnificat (Luke 1:46-55), 1521 [1] [2]

Online information on Luther and his work

  • The Musical Reforms of Martin Luther
  • KDG Wittenberg's Luther site (7 languages)
  • Martin Luther – ReligionFacts.com
  • Memorial Foundation of Saxony Anhalt (German/English)
  • Martin Luther – PBS movie
  • Luther – theatrical release
  • Martin Luther: The Reformer Travelling Exhibition
  • New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge article on "Luther, Martin"
  • Martin Luther - Eine Bibliographie (German)
  • Works by Martin Luther at Project Gutenberg
  • Martin Luther
  • The "seat" of the Reformation - (BBC News)
  • Catholic Encyclopedia: Martin Luther
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Martin Luther
  • Luther, Martin in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Martin Luther and the German Reformation
  • The Weblog about Luther's hometown Wittenberg (in English)
  • Luther's Men - Discuss Theology and Beer
  • Luther On Islam

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References

  • This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain.
Persondata
NAME Luther, Martin
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION German theologian
DATE OF BIRTH November 10, 1483
PLACE OF BIRTH Eisleben, Germany
DATE OF DEATH February 18, 1546
PLACE OF DEATH Eisleben, Germany

The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a 1914 religious encyclopedia, published in thirteen volumes. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Eisleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Eisleben is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Martin Luther (14492 words)
Luther himself, in spite of an acquaintaince with some of the moving spirits of humanism, seems not to have been appreciably affected by it, lived on its outer fringe, and never qualified to enter its "poetic" circle.
Luther was ordained to the priesthood in 1507.
Luther by the creation of his "universal priesthood of all Christians", by delegating the authority "to judge all doctrines" to the "Christian assembly or congregation", by empowering it to appoint or dismiss teacher or preacher, sought the overthrow of the old Catholic order.
Martin Luther - MSN Encarta (1149 words)
Luther became a public and controversial figure when he published (October 31, 1517) his Ninety-five Theses, Latin propositions opposing the manner in which indulgences (release from the temporal penalties for sin through the payment of money) were being sold in order to raise money for the building of Saint Peter’s in Rome.
Luther's spirited defense and further development of his position through public university debates in Wittenberg and other cities resulted in an investigation by the Roman Curia that led to the condemnation (June 15, 1520) of his teachings and his excommunication (January 1521).
Luther continued his teaching and writing in Wittenberg but soon became involved in the controversies surrounding the Peasants’ War (1524-1526) because the leaders of the peasants originally justified their demands with arguments somewhat illegitimately drawn from his writings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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