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Encyclopedia > Martin Heidegger
Western Philosophy
20th-century philosophy
Martin Heidegger

Name It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ...

Martin Heidegger

Birth

September 26, 1889 (Meßkirch, Germany) is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Meßkirch is a town in the Sigmaringen district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

Death

May 26, 1976 (aged 86) (Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany) is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Freiburg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ...

School/tradition

Phenomenology, Hermeneutics, Existentialism This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings and essence of their own lives. ...

Main interests

Ontology, Metaphysics, Greek philosophy, Technology, Art, Language, Poetry, Thinking This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... This article is about the art form. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

Notable ideas

Dasein, Gestell, see Heideggerian terminology Dasein is a concept forged by Martin Heidegger in his magnum opus Being and Time . ... Gestell is a German word used by Twentieth century German philosopher Martin Heidegger to describe a mode of enframing. ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ...

Influences

Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Plato, Aristotle, Duns Scotus, Kant, Hölderlin, Schelling, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dilthey, Brentano, Husserl, Rilke, Trakl Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Kant redirects here. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (January 27, 1775 – August 20, 1854), later von Schelling, was a German philosopher. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (IPA: ) (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and, with Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, one of the representatives of German idealism. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... Wilhelm Dilthey (November 19, 1833–October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of Hermeneutics, the study of interpretations and meanings, and a philosopher. ... · Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 Marienberg am Rhein (near Boppard) - March 17, 1917 Zürich) was an influential figure in both philosophy and psychology. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Rainer Maria Rilke (4 December 1875 – 29 December 1926) is considered one of the German languages greatest 20th century poets. ... Georg Trakl A poem by Trakl inscribed on a plaque in Mirabell Garden, Salzburg. ...

Influenced

Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Lévinas, Foucault, Ricoeur, Derrida, Marion, Vattimo, Borgmann, Stiegler Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Paul RicÅ“ur (February 27, 1913 Valence France – May 20, 2005 Chatenay Malabry France) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutic interpretation. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Jean-Luc Marion (b. ... Gianni Vattimo at the National Gay Pride march, Como, 1999 Gianni Vattimo (born January 4, 1936) is an internationally recognized Italian author and politician. ... Albert Borgmann is an American philosopher, specializing in the philosophy of technology. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889May 26, 1976) (IPA [ˈmaʀ.tɪn ˈhaɪ.də.gɐ]) was a highly influential German philosopher. His best known work is Being and Time. is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... // Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ...

Contents

Introduction

Heidegger claimed that Western philosophy has, since Plato, misunderstood what it means for something to be, tending to approach this question in terms of a being, rather than asking about being itself. In other words, Heidegger believed all investigations of being have historically focused on particular entities and their properties, or have treated being itself as an entity, or substance, with properties. A more authentic analytic of being would, for Heidegger, investigate "that on the basis of which beings are already understood," or that which underlies all particular entities and allows them to show up as entities in the first place.[1] But since philosophers and scientists have overlooked the more basic, pre-theoretical ways of being from which their theories derive, and since they have incorrectly applied those theories universally, they have confused our understanding of being and human existence. To avoid these deep-rooted misconceptions, Heidegger believed philosophical inquiry must be conducted in a new way, through a process of retracing the steps of the history of philosophy. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ...


Heidegger argues that Plato's fallacies resulted in two evolving but contradictory schools of thought, most readily observed during the Age of Reason as the division between British empiricism and German idealism, but traceable to every stage of Western thought. All that we understand, from the way we speak to our notions of "common sense," is susceptible to error, because it has evolved from Plato's fundamental mistakes about the nature of being. These mistakes filter into the terms through which being is articulated in the history of philosophy—reality, logic, God, consciousness, the present, et cetera. In his later philosophy, Heidegger argues that these errors have profoundly affected the way in which human beings relate to modern technology. 17th-century Western philosophy is conventionally seen as being dominated by the coming of symbolic mathematics and rationalism to philosophy, many of the most noted philosophers were also mathematicians. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... German idealism was a philosophical movement in Germany in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. ...


Philosophers are divided in their opinion of Heidegger: some regard him as the greatest philosopher of the 20th century, while others view his writing as bombastic nonsense.[2] Nonetheless, his work has exercised a deep influence on philosophy, theology and the humanities, being key to the development of existentialism, hermeneutics, deconstruction, postmodernism, and continental philosophy in general. Heidegger's thought directly informs the works of major philosophers such as Karl Jaspers, Leo Strauss, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Jean-Paul Sartre, Emmanuel Lévinas, Hannah Arendt, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida. Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings and essence of their own lives. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ...


Heidegger infamously supported National Socialism. This has provoked fierce debate among and between supporters and detractors: some see it as a personal folly largely irrelevant to his philosophy, while others think it reveals flaws inherent in his thought. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


Biography

Early years

The Mesmerhaus in Meßkirch, where Heidegger grew up.
The Mesmerhaus in Meßkirch, where Heidegger grew up.

Heidegger was born in rural Meßkirch, Germany. Raised a Roman Catholic, he was the son of the sexton of the village church. His family could not afford to send him to university, so he entered a Jesuit seminary. After studying theology at the University of Freiburg from 1909 to 1911, he switched to philosophy. Heidegger completed his doctoral thesis on psychologism in 1914, and in 1916 finished his venia legendi with a thesis on Duns Scotus. In the two years following, he worked first as an unsalaried Privatdozent, then served as a soldier during the final year of World War I, working behind a desk and never leaving Germany. After the war, he served as a salaried senior assistant to Edmund Husserl at the University of Freiburg until 1923. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2623 × 1977 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 796 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2623 × 1977 pixel, file size: 2. ... Meßkirch is a town in the Sigmaringen district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Meßkirch is a town in the Sigmaringen district of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A sexton is a church officer charged with the maintenance of the church buildings and/or the surrounding graveyard. ... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... Psychologism in the philosophy of mathematics is the explanation or derivation of mathematical or logical laws in terms of psychological facts. ... Venia Legendi (Lat. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Privatdozent (PD or Priv. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ...


Marburg years

In 1923, he was elected to an extraordinary Professorship in Philosophy at the equally reputable but very Protestant University of Marburg. At Marburg his colleagues included Rudolf Bultmann, Ernst Friedländer, Nicolai Hartmann, and Paul Natorp. His students included Hans-Georg Gadamer, Hannah Arendt, Karl Löwith, Gerhard Krüger, Leo Strauss, Günther Anders, and Hans Jonas. The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... University of Marburg - Department of Social Sciences and University library The old university The University of Marburg (German: Philipps-Universität Marburg Philips University, Marburg), was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous, although the updated meaning haughty is sometimes given) as the... Rudolf Karl Bultmann (August 20, 1884 - July 30, 1976) was a German theologian of Lutheran background, who was for three decades professor of New Testament studies at the University of Marburg. ... Nicolai Hartmann (February 20, 1882 – October 9, 1950) was a German philosopher. ... Paul Gerhard Natorp (24 January 1854-17 August 1924) was a German neo-Kantian philosopher, and educationalist, and one of the Marburg school. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Karl Löwith (9 January 1897 in Munich – 26 May 1973 in Heidelberg) was a German-Jewish philosopher, a student of Heidegger. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... Günther Anders (Günther Stern) (WrocÅ‚aw, July 12th, 1902 - Vienna, December 17th, 1992) was a German philosopher. ... German-born philosopher Hans Jonas (May 10, 1903 - February 5, 1993) studied under Martin Heidegger and Rudolf Bultmann in the 1920s. ...


Freiburg years

When Husserl retired in 1928, Heidegger accepted Freiburg's election to be his successor, in spite of a counter-offer by Marburg. Heidegger remained at Freiburg for the rest of his life, declining a number of later offers including one from Berlin, the most prestigious German university of the day. Among his students at Freiburg were Herbert Marcuse and Ernst Nolte. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... Ernst Nolte (born 11 January 1923, Witten, Germany) is a nationalistic German historian and philosopher, often described as one of the most brooding, German thinkers about history[1]. Nolte’s major interest is the comparative studies of fascism and Communism. ...


National Socialism and aftermath

In 1933, after Hitler's rise to power, Heidegger was elected Rector of the University of Freiburg and he subsequently joined the Nazi party. Heidegger's inaugural address, the Rektoratsrede, became notorious. His tenure was, however, unsuccessful, and he resigned his position in 1934 (though he retained his party membership until the end of the war). The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ...


After the war, Heidegger was forbidden by the French Occupation Authority from teaching in Germany, but this decision was rescinded in 1951, when he became Professor emeritus with all privileges. He then taught regularly from 1951 until 1958, and by invitation until 1967. The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Political structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Emeritus (IPA pronunciation: or ) is an adjective that is used in the title of a retired professor, bishop or other professional. ...


A more detailed account of the personal and philosophical relations between Heidegger and National Socialism is given below. Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) (IPA ) was a highly influential German philosopher. ...


Personal life

Heidegger's grave in Meßkirch
Heidegger's grave in Meßkirch

In 1917, Heidegger married Elfriede Petri on March 21 in a Catholic ceremony officiated by his friend Engelbert Krebs and a week later in a Protestant ceremony in the presence of her parents. Their first son Jörg was born in 1919. According to the recently published correspondence between the spouses[3], Hermann (born 1920) is the son of Elfriede and Friedel Caesar. Martin Heidegger had extramarital affairs with Hannah Arendt and Elisabeth Blochmann, both students of Heidegger and both Jewish. He helped the latter emigrate from Germany prior to World War II and resumed contact with both of them after the war.[4] Heidegger spent a good deal of his life at a somewhat isolated mountain hut at Todtnauberg, on the edge of the Black Forest. He considered the seclusion provided by the forest to be the best environment in which to engage in philosophical thought.[5] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 2. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Elisabeth Blochmann (April 14, 1892 in Apolda, Germany - 27 January 1972 in Marburg, Germany) was an eminent scholar of education, as well as of philosophy, and a pioneer in and researcher of womens education in Germany. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Todtnauberg is a town in Germanys Black Forest where German philosopher Martin Heidegger had a chalet. ... A map of Germany, showing the Black Forest in red. ...


Heidegger died on May 26, 1976 and was buried in the Meßkirch cemetery.


Philosophy

Being, time, and Dasein

Heidegger’s philosophy is essentially an attempt to marry two insights.

  • The first of these is Heidegger’s insight that, in the course of over two thousand years of history, philosophy has attended to all the beings that can be found in the world (including the “world” itself), but has forgotten to ask what “being” itself is. This is Heidegger’s “question of being,” and it is Heidegger’s fundamental concern throughout his work from the beginning of his career until its end. One crucial source of this insight was Heidegger’s reading of Franz Brentano’s treatise on Aristotle’s manifold uses of the word “being,” a work which provoked Heidegger to ask what kind of unity underlies this multiplicity of uses. Heidegger opens his magnum opus, Being and Time, with a citation from Plato’s Sophist indicating that Western philosophy has neglected being because it was considered obvious, rather than as worthy of question. Heidegger’s intuition about the question of being is thus an historical argument, which in his later work becomes his concern with the “history of being,” that is, the history of the forgetting of being, which according to Heidegger requires that philosophy retrace its footsteps through a productive “destruction” of the history of philosophy.
  • The second intuition animating Heidegger’s philosophy derives from the influence of Edmund Husserl, a philosopher largely uninterested in questions of philosophical history. Rather, Husserl argued that all that philosophy could and should be is a description of experience (hence the phenomenological slogan, “to the things themselves”). But for Heidegger, this meant understanding that experience is always already situated in a world and in ways of being. Thus Husserl's understanding that all consciousness is "intentional" (in the sense that it is always intended toward something, and is always "about" something; intentionality has been called the "aboutness" of things) is transformed in Heidegger's philosophy, becoming the thought that all experience is grounded in "care." This is the basis of Heidegger’s “existential analytic,” as he develops it in Being and Time. Heidegger argues that to be able to describe experience properly means finding the being for whom such a description might matter. Heidegger thus conducts his description of experience with reference to “Dasein," the being for whom being is a question.[6] In Being and Time, Heidegger criticized the abstract and metaphysical character of traditional ways of grasping human existence as rational animal, person, man, soul, spirit, or subject. Dasein, then, is not intended as a way of conducting a "philosophical anthropology," but is rather understood by Heidegger to be the condition of possibility for anything like a "philosophical anthropology."[7] In the course of his existential analytic, Heidegger argues that Dasein, who finds itself thrown into the world amidst things and with others, is thrown into its possibilities, including the possibility and inevitability of one’s own mortality. The need for Dasein to assume these possibilities, that is, the need to be responsible for one’s own existence, is the basis of Heidegger’s notions of authenticity and resoluteness—that is, of those specific possibilities for Dasein which depend on escaping the “vulgar” temporality of calculation and of public life.

The marriage of these two insights depends on the fact that each of them is essentially concerned with time. That Dasein is thrown into an already existing world and thus into its mortal possibilities does not only mean that Dasein is an essentially temporal being; it also implies that the description of Dasein can only be carried out in terms inherited from the Western tradition itself. For Heidegger, unlike for Husserl, philosophical terminology could not be divorced from the history of the use of that terminology, and thus genuine philosophy could not avoid confronting questions of language and meaning. The existential analytic of Being and Time was thus always only a first step in Heidegger’s philosophy, to be followed by the “destruction” of the history of philosophy, that is, a transformation of its language and meaning, that would have made of the existential analytic only a kind of “limit case” (in the sense in which special relativity is a limit case of general relativity). · Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 Marienberg am Rhein (near Boppard) - March 17, 1917 Zürich) was an influential figure in both philosophy and psychology. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... // Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Sophist (Greek: Σοφιστής) is one of the late Dialogues of Plato, which was written much more lately than the Parmenides and the Theaetetus, probably in 360 BC.After he criticized his own Theory of Forms in the Parmenides, Plato proceeds in the Sophist with a new conception of the Forms... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Dasein is a concept forged by Martin Heidegger in his magnum opus Being and Time . ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ...


That Heidegger did not write this second part of Being and Time, and that the existential analytic was left behind in the course of Heidegger’s subsequent writings on the history of being, might be interpreted as a failure to conjugate his account of individual experience with his account of the vicissitudes of the collective human adventure that he understands the Western philosophical tradition to be. And this would in turn raise the question of whether this failure is due to a flaw in Heidegger’s account of temporality, that is, of whether Heidegger was correct to oppose vulgar and authentic time.[8]


Being and Time

Todtnauberg, where Heidegger had his mountain hut. There he wrote Being and Time.
Todtnauberg, where Heidegger had his mountain hut. There he wrote Being and Time.
Main article: Being and Time

Being and Time (German title: Sein und Zeit), published in 1927, is considered by many to be Heidegger's most important work. This epochal book was his first significant academic work, and earned him a professorship at Freiburg University. It investigates the question of being by asking about the being for whom being is a question. Heidegger names this being Dasein (see above), and the book pursues its investigation through themes such as mortality, anxiety, temporality, and historicity. It was Heidegger's original intention to write a second half of the book, consisting in a "Destruktion" of the history of philosophy—that is, the transformation of philosophy by re-tracing its history—but he never completed this project. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1704 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 592 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1704 pixel, file size: 2. ... Todtnauberg is a town in Germanys Black Forest where German philosopher Martin Heidegger had a chalet. ... // Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... The University of Fribourg (in French: Université de Fribourg, in German: Universität Freiburg) is a university in the city of Fribourg, Switzerland. ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ...


Being and Time influenced many thinkers, including existentialist thinkers like Jean-Paul Sartre (although Heidegger distanced himself from existentialism—see below). Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings and essence of their own lives. ...


Die Kehre

Some have argued that Heidegger's thought after Being and Time exhibits a "turn" in his thinking (die Kehre). Heidegger denied this in a letter—published by William J. Richardson in Heidegger: Through Phenomenology to Thought (1963)—which stated that, if there had been a turn at all, it was simply a matter of going deeper into the same matters. In his later work, Heidegger largely abandons the account of Dasein as a pragmatic, engaged, worldly agent, and instead discusses other elements necessary to an understanding of being, notably language, the earth (as the almost ineffable foundation of world) and the presence of the gods. Nevertheless, Dasein (or "mortals," as he later prefers to say) remains a crucial part of the coming-about or event (Ereignis) of being. William J. Richardson, S. J. is an American philosopher, who was among the first to introduce the philosophy of Martin Heidegger to the English-speaking world. ...


Later works

"Am Feldweg" in Meßkirch. Heidegger often went for a walk on the path in this field. See the text "Der Feldweg" GA Nr. 13

In his later works, Heidegger turns from "doing" to "dwelling." He focuses less on the way in which the structures of being are revealed in everyday behavior and in the experience of Angst, and more on the way in which behavior itself depends on a prior "openness to being." The essence of being human is the maintenance of this openness. Heidegger contrasts this openness to the "will to power" of the modern human subject, who subordinates beings to his own ends. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 947 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 947 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Gesamtausgabe is the name given to the collected works of Martin Heidegger, published by Vittorio Klostermann. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ...


Heidegger understands the commencement of the history of Western philosophy as a brief period of authentic openness to being, during the time of the pre-Socratics, especially Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Anaximander. This was followed, according to Heidegger, by a long period increasingly dominated by the forgetting of this initial openness, a period which commences with Plato. The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


Two recurring themes of Heidegger's later writings are poetry and technology. Heidegger sees poetry as a pre-eminent way in which beings are revealed "in their being." The play of poetic language (which is, for Heidegger, the essence of language itself) reveals the play of presence and absence that is being itself. Heidegger focuses especially on the poetry of Friedrich Hölderlin. Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ...


Against the revealing power of poetry, Heidegger sets the force of technology. The essence of technology is the conversion of the whole universe of beings into an undifferentiated "standing reserve" (Bestand) of energy available for any use to which humans choose to put it. Heidegger described the essence of technology as Gestell, or "enframing." Heidegger does not unequivocally condemn technology; he believes that its increasing dominance might make it possible for humanity to return to its authentic task of the stewardship of being. Nevertheless, numerous commentators have concluded that an agrarian nostalgia permeates his later work. Gestell is a German word used by Twentieth century German philosopher Martin Heidegger to describe a mode of enframing. ...


Heidegger's important later works include Vom Wesen der Wahrheit ("On the Essence of Truth," 1930), Der Ursprung des Kunstwerkes ("The Origin of the Work of Art," 1935), Bauen Wohnen Denken ("Building Dwelling Thinking," 1951), and Die Frage nach der Technik ("The Question Concerning Technology," 1954) and Was heisst Denken? ("What Is Called Thinking?" 1954). Also important is Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis) (Contributions to Philosophy [From Enowning]), composed in the years 1936–38 but not published until 1989, on the centennial of Heidegger's birth. // Background German philosopher Martin Heidegger first drafted The Origin of the Work of Art between 1935 and 1937. ... Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning) is the title of the English translation of German philosopher Martin Heideggers Beitrage Zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis) (Trans. ...


Influences

Aristotle and the Greeks


Heidegger was influenced at an early age by Aristotle, mediated through Christian theology, Medieval philosophy, and Franz Brentano. Aristotle's ethical, logical, and metaphysical works were crucial to the development of his thought in the 1920s. Although he later worked less on Aristotle, Heidegger recommended postponing reading Nietzsche, and to "first study Aristotle for ten to fifteen years."[9] For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... · Franz Brentano Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano (January 16, 1838 Marienberg am Rhein (near Boppard) - March 17, 1917 Zürich) was an influential figure in both philosophy and psychology. ...


The idea of asking about being may be traced back via Aristotle to Parmenides. Heidegger claimed to have revived the question of being, the question having been largely forgotten by the metaphysical tradition extending from Plato to Descartes, a forgetfulness extending to the Age of Enlightenment and then to modern science and technology. In pursuit of the retrieval of this question, Heidegger spent considerable time reflecting on ancient Greek thought, in particular on Plato, Parmenides, Heraclitus, and Anaximander, as well as on the tragic playwright Sophocles. In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Parmenides of Elea (Greek: , early 5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Hellenic city on the southern coast of Italy. ... Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ancient Greek - Herákleitos ho Ephésios (Herakleitos the Ephesian)) (about 535 - 475 BC), known as The Obscure (Ancient Greek - ho Skoteinós), was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. ... Anaximander Possibly what Anaximanders map looked like Anaximander (Greek: Αναξίμανδρος)(c. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ...


Dilthey


Heidegger's very early project of developing a "hermeneutics of factical life" and his hermeneutical transformation of phenomenology was influenced in part by his reading of the works of Wilhelm Dilthey. Heidegger's portrayal of history, historicity, and generation need to be interpreted in this context and, in particular, the correspondence between Dilthey and Paul Yorck von Wartenburg. Facticity (French: facticité, German: faktizität) is the contingent conditions of an individual human life. ... Wilhelm Dilthey (November 19, 1833–October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of Hermeneutics, the study of interpretations and meanings, and a philosopher. ... Wilhelm Dilthey Wilhelm Dilthey (November 19, 1833–October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of Hermeneutics, the study of interpretations and meanings, and a philosopher. ... Hans Ludwig David Paul Count Yorck von Wartenburg (April 1, 1835- September 12, 1897) was a German lawyer, writer, and philosopher. ...


Of the influence of Dilthey, Hans-Georg Gadamer writes the following: "As far as Dilthey is concerned, we all know today what I have known for a long time: namely that it is a mistake to conclude on the basis of the citation in Being and Time that Dilthey was especially influential in the development of Heidegger's thinking in the mid-1920s. This dating of the influence is much too late." He adds that by the fall of 1923 it was plain that Heidegger felt "the clear superiority of Count Yorck over the famous scholar, Dilthey." Gadamer nevertheless makes clear that Dilthey's influence was important in helping the youthful Heidegger "in distancing himself from the systematic ideal of Neo-Kantianism, as Heidegger acknowledges in Being and Time."[10] Based on Heidegger's earliest lecture courses, in which Heidegger already engages Dilthey's thought prior to the period Gadamer mentions as "too late," recent scholars as diverse as Theodore Kisiel and David Farrell Krell have argued for the importance of Diltheyan concepts and strategies in the formation of Heidegger's thought.[11] Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Theodore Kisiel, Distinguished Research Professor of philosophy at Northern Illinois University, is a well-known translator of and commentator on the works of Martin Heidegger. ...


Gadamer's views on Heidegger are criticized in many quarters, but there can be no doubt that Heidegger seized upon Dilthey's concept of hermeneutics in much the same way that Husserl had seized on Brentano's idea that all of reality could be explained in terms of a descriptive psychology. Heidegger's novel ideas about ontology required a gestalt formation, not merely a series of logical arguments, in order to demonstrate his fundamentally new paradigm of thinking, and the hermeneutic circle offered a new and powerful tool for the articulation and realization of these ideas.


Husserl


There is disagreement over the degree of influence that Husserl had on Heidegger's philosophical development, just as there is disagreement about the degree to which Heidegger's philosophy is grounded in phenomenology. These disagreements centre around how much of Husserlian phenomenology is contested by Heidegger, and how much this phenomenology in fact informs Heidegger's own understanding.


On the relation between the two figures, Gadamer wrote the following: "When asked about phenomenology, Husserl was quite right to answer as he used to in the period directly after World War I: 'Phenomenology, that is me and Heidegger'." Nevertheless, Gadamer noted that Heidegger was no patient collaborator with Husserl, and that Heidegger's "rash ascent to the top, the incomparable fascination he aroused, and his stormy temperament surely must have made Husserl, the patient one, as suspicious of Heidegger as he always had been of Max Scheler's volcanic fire."[12] Max Scheler (August 22, 1874, Munich - May 19, 1928, Frankfurt am Main) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. ...


Robert J. Dostal understands the importance of Husserl to be profound:

Heidegger himself, who is supposed to have broken with Husserl, bases his hermeneutics on an account of time that not only parallels Husserl's account in many ways but seems to have been arrived at through the same phenomenological method as was used by Husserl. [...] The differences between Husserl and Heidegger are significant, but if we do not see how much it is the case that Husserlian phenomenology provides the framework for Heidegger's approach, we will not be able to appreciate the exact nature of Heidegger's project in Being and Time or why he let it unfinished.[13]

Daniel O. Dahlstrom sees Heidegger's presentation of his work as a departure from Husserl as unfairly misrepresenting Husserl's own work. Dahlstrom concludes his consideration of the relation between Heidegger and Husserl as follows:

Heidegger's silence about the stark similarities between his account of temporality and Husserl's investigation of internal time-consciousness contributes to a misrepresentation of Husserl's account of intentionality. Contrary to the criticisms Heidegger advances in his lectures, intentionality (and, by implication, the meaning of 'to be') in the final analysis is not construed by Husserl as sheer presence (be it the presence of a fact or object, act or event). Yet for all its "dangerous closeness" to what Heidegger understands by temporality, Husserl's account of internal time-consciousness does differ fundamentally. In Husserl's account the structure of protentions is accorded neither the finitude nor the primacy that Heidegger claims are central to the original future of ecstatic-horizonal temporality.[14]

Kierkegaard


Heidegger was also influenced by Søren Kierkegaard. Heidegger's concepts of anxiety (Angst) and mortality draw on Kierkegaard and are indebted to the way in which the latter lays out the importance of our subjective relation to truth, our existence in the face of death, the temporality of existence, and the importance of passionate affirmation of one's individual being-in-the-world. Nonetheless, it is important to notice the difference between the Danish philosopher, whose thought was both individualistic and Christian, and Heidegger, who conceived of human existence as thoroughly social and sharply distinguished philosophy itself from all personal, scientific, and religious commitments. Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ...


Contemporary Heideggerians regard Kierkegaard as by far the greatest philosophical contributor to Heidegger's own existentialist concepts. And although Heidegger was careful to point out the highly technical differences between his own philosophy and the traditional definition of existentialism, he is nonetheless regarded by existentialists as one of the most important existential philosophers, on a par with Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers and Sartre.


Hölderlin and Nietzsche


Friedrich Hölderlin and Friedrich Nietzsche were both important influences on Heidegger, and many of his lecture courses were devoted to one or other of these figures, especially in the 1930s and 1940s. The lectures on Nietzsche focused on fragments posthumously published under the title The Will to Power, rather than on Nietzsche's published works. Heidegger read The Will to Power as the culminating expression of Western metaphysics, and the lectures are a kind of dialogue between the two thinkers. Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... The will to power (German: Der Wille zur Macht) is a concept prominent in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. ...


This is also the case for the lecture courses devoted to the poetry of Friedrich Hölderlin, which became an increasingly central focus of Heidegger's work and thought. Heidegger grants to Hölderlin a singular place within the history of being and the history of Germany, as a herald whose thought is yet to be "heard" in Germany or the West. Many of Heidegger's works from the 1930s onwards include meditations on lines from Hölderlin's poetry, and several of the lecture courses are devoted to the reading of a single poem (see, for example, Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister"). Hölderlins Hymn The Ister (Ger: Hölderlins Hymne >>Der Ister<<) is the title given to a 1942 lecture course by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ...


Heidegger and Eastern thought

Some writers on Heidegger see possibilities within it for dialogue with traditions of thought outside of Western philosophy, particularly East Asian thinking. Despite perceived differences between Eastern and Western philosophy, some of Heidegger's later work, particularly "A Dialogue on Language between a Japanese and an Inquirer," does show an interest in initiating such a dialogue.[15] Heidegger himself had contact with a number of leading Japanese intellectuals, including members of the Kyoto School, notably Hajime Tanabe, Kuki Shūzō and Kyoshi Miki. The Kyoto School was a philosophical movement primarily active in the first half of the 20th century. ... Tanabe Hajime Major philosopher of the Kyoto School. ... Kuki Shuzo (九鬼 周造, February 15, 1888 - May 6, 1941) was a Japanese author. ...


Furthermore, it has also been claimed that a number of elements within Heidegger's thought bear a close parallel to Eastern philosophical ideas, particularly with Zen Buddhism and Taoism. An account given by Paul Hsao (in Heidegger and Asian Thought) records a remark by Chang Chung-Yuan claiming that "Heidegger is the only Western Philosopher who not only intellectually understands but has intuitively grasped Taoist thought." A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ... Taoism (Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...


According to Tomonubu Imamichi, the concept of Dasein was inspired — although Heidegger remains silent on this — by Okakura Kakuzo's concept of das-in-dem-Welt-sein (to be in the being of the world) expressed in The Book of Tea to describe Zhuangzi's philosophy, which Imamichi's teacher had offered to Heidegger in 1919, after having studied with him the year before.[16] Tomonobu Imamichi , born Tokyo, November 19, 1922) is a Japanese philosopher, who studies Chinese philosophy and has taught in Europe (Paris and Germany) as well as in Japan (he is also emeritus professor of the University of Palermo). ... Okakura Tenshin (岡倉 天心, February 14, 1863 - September 2, 1913) was a Japanese scholar who contributed the development of arts in Japan. ... The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th century. ... Zhuangzi (Traditional: 莊子; Simplified: 庄子, Pinyin: Zhuāng Zǐ, Wade-Giles: Chuang TzÅ­, lit. ...


Heidegger and Nazism

Main article: Heidegger and Nazism

The German philosopher Martin Heidegger joined the Nazi Party (NSDAP) on May 1, 1933, nearly three weeks after being appointed Rector of the University of Freiburg. ...

The rectorate

The university of Freiburg, where Heidegger was Rector from 1933-34
The university of Freiburg, where Heidegger was Rector from 1933-34

Adolf Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Heidegger was elected Rector of the University of Freiburg on April 21, 1933, assuming the position the following day, and on May 1 he joined the Nazi Party. Heidegger delivered his inaugural address, the Rektoratsrede, on May 27. It was entitled "The Self-Assertion of the German University," and became notorious. His tenure as Rector was, however, fraught with difficulties from the outset. He offered his resignation on April 23, 1934, and it was accepted on April 27. Heidegger remained a member of the academic faculty, and he also remained a member of the Nazi party until the end of the war. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1428x1071, 590 KB) de Beschreibung: Kollegiengebäude I der Universität, 1913 als Universitäts-Hauptgebäude errichtet. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1428x1071, 590 KB) de Beschreibung: Kollegiengebäude I der Universität, 1913 als Universitäts-Hauptgebäude errichtet. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The word rector (ruler, from the Latin regere) has a number of different meanings, but all of them indicate someone who is in charge of something. ... Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg was founded 1457 in Freiburg by the Habsburgs. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ...


Philosophical historian Hans Sluga places Heidegger's embrace of National Socialism during this period within the context of a similar and often even more enthusiastic acceptance of Nazism from many other German philosophers. He characterises Heidegger's stance while rector in the following way: Hans Sluga is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ...

Though as rector he prevented students from displaying an anti-Semitic poster at the entrance to the university and from holding a book burning, he kept in close contact with the Nazi student leaders and clearly signaled to them his sympathy with their activism.[17]

In 1945 Heidegger wrote a defence of his term as rector, which he gave to his son Hermann, and which was published in 1983. In it Heidegger referred to his 1933–34 involvement in the following terms:

The rectorate was an attempt to see something in the movement that had come to power, beyond all its failings and crudeness, that was much more far-reaching and that could perhaps one day bring a concentration on the Germans' Western historical essence. It will in no way be denied that at the time I believed in such possibilities and for that reason renounced the actual vocation of thinking in favor of being effective in an official capacity. In no way will what was caused by my own inadequacy in office be played down. But these points of view do not capture what is essential and what moved me to accept the rectorate.[18]

Treatment of Husserl

On April 14, 1933 (thus prior to Heidegger's rectorship), Husserl was given an enforced leave of absence because he was Jewish. It is not true, as is sometimes claimed, that during the rectorate Heidegger denied Husserl access to the university library. He did, however, break off contact with Husserl, other than via a "go-between" (though Heidegger claimed that the relationship with Husserl had already become strained after Husserl publicly "settled accounts" with Heidegger and Max Scheler in the early 1930s[19]). Heidegger did not attend his mentor's cremation in 1938, and in 1941, under pressure from publisher Max Niemeyer, agreed to remove the dedication to Husserl from Being and Time (restored in post-war editions).[20] Max Scheler (August 22, 1874, Munich - May 19, 1928, Frankfurt am Main) was a German philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology. ...


Post-rectorate National Socialist period

After the spectacular failure of Heidegger's rectorship, he withdrew from political activity, without canceling his membership of the NSDAP. Nevertheless, references to National Socialism continued to appear in his work, usually in ambiguous ways.


In the course of his 1935 lectures, Heidegger referred to the "inner truth and greatness of this movement" (die innere Wahrheit und Größe dieser Bewegung), that is, of National Socialism. This phrase remained when the lectures were published in 1953 under the title, An Introduction to Metaphysics; however, Heidegger added a parenthetical qualification, without mentioning this change at the time of publication: "(namely, the confrontation of planetary technology and modern humanity) (nämlich die Begegnung der planetarisch bestimmten Technik und des neuzeitlichen Menschen)."[21] Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


In the lectures of 1942, published posthumously as Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister", Heidegger makes the following remark: Hölderlins Hymn The Ister (Ger: Hölderlins Hymne >>Der Ister<<) is the title given to a 1942 lecture course by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ...

Today—if one still reads such books at all—one can scarcely read a treatise or book on the Greeks without everywhere being assured that here, with the Greeks, "everything" is "politically" determined. In the majority of "research results," the Greeks appear as the pure National Socialists. This overenthusiasm on the part of academics seems not even to notice that with such "results" it does National Socialism and its historical uniqueness no service at all, not that it needs this anyhow.[22]

Karl Löwith met Heidegger in 1936 while the latter was visiting Rome to lecture on Hölderlin. In an account set down in 1940 and not intended for publication, Löwith recounted an exchange with Heidegger over editorials published in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung: Karl Löwith (9 January 1897 in Munich – 26 May 1973 in Heidelberg) was a German-Jewish philosopher, a student of Heidegger. ... The Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ) is a major Swiss daily newspaper based in Zürich. ...

[I] told him that I did not agree either with the way in which Karl Barth was attacking him or in the way [Emil] Staiger was defending him, because my opinion was that his taking the side of National Socialism was in agreement with the essence of his philosophy. Heidegger told me unreservedly that I was right and developed his idea by saying that his idea of historicity [Geschichtlichkeit] was the foundation for his political involvement.[23] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Löwith went on to say:

In response to my remark that I could understand many things about his attitude, with one exception, which was that he would permit himself to be seated at the same table with a figure such as Julius Streicher (at the German Academy of Law), he was silent at first. At last he uttered this well-known rationalisation (which Karl Barth saw so clearly), which amounted to saying that "it all would have been much worse if some men of knowledge had not been involved." And with a bitter resentment towards people of culture, he concluded his statement: "If these gentlemen had not considered themselves too refined to become involved, things would have been different, but I had to stay in there alone." To my reply that one did not have to be very refined to refuse to work with a Streicher, he answered that it was useless to discuss Streicher; the Stürmer was nothing more than "pornography." Why didn't Hitler get rid of this sinister individual? He didn't understand it.[24] Julius Streicher (February 12, 1885 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi prior to and during World War II. He was the publisher of the Nazi Der Stürmer newspaper, which was to become a part of the Nazi propaganda machine. ...

For commentators such as Habermas who credit Löwith's account, there are a number of generally shared implications: one is that Heidegger did not turn away from National Socialism per se but became deeply disaffected with the official philosophy and ideology of the party, as embodied by Alfred Bäumler or Alfred Rosenberg, whose biologistic racist doctrines he never accepted. Alfred Baeumler (November 19, 1887 - March 19, 1968), was a German philosopher and pedagogue. ...   (January 12, 1893 Reval (nowadays Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ...


Post-war period

Heidegger's affair with Hannah Arendt, who was Jewish, occurred some time before Heidegger's involvement in National Socialism, but her friendship with Heidegger did not end when she moved to Heidelberg to continue her studies under Karl Jaspers. Arendt later spoke on his behalf at his denazification hearings. Jaspers spoke against him at the same hearings, suggesting he would have a detrimental influence on German students because of his powerful teaching presence. Arendt cautiously resumed their friendship after the war, despite or even because of the widespread contempt for Heidegger and his political sympathies. The denazification hearings resulted in Heidegger being forbidden to teach between 1945 and 1951. One consequence of his disfavour in Germany was that Heidegger began to engage far more in the French philosophical scene. Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Denazification (German: Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary and politics of any remnants of the Nazi regime. ...


In a lecture on technology delivered at Bremen in 1949, Heidegger made the following controversial remark:

Agriculture is now a motorized food industry, the same thing in its essence as the production of corpses in the gas chambers and the extermination camps, the same thing as blockades and the reduction of countries to famine, the same thing as the manufacture of hydrogen bombs.[25]

This quotation has been the subject of widespread criticism and interpretation. Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, for example, described it as "scandalously inadequate."[26] Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ...


In 1967 Heidegger had an encounter with the Jewish poet, Paul Celan, who had been interned during the war. On July 24 Celan gave a reading at the University of Freiburg, attended by Heidegger. Heidegger there presented Celan with a copy of What is Called Thinking?, and invited him to visit him at his hut at Todtnauberg, an invitation which Celan accepted. On July 25 Celan visited Heidegger at his retreat, signing the guestbook and spending some time walking and talking with Heidegger. The details of their conversation are not known, but the meeting was the subject of a subsequent poem by Celan, entitled "Todtnauberg" (dated August 1, 1967). The enigmatic poem and the encounter have been discussed by numerous writers on Heidegger and Celan, notably Lacoue-Labarthe. Paul Celan Paul Celan (November 23, 1920 – approximately April 20, 1970) was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel, one of the major poets of the post-World War II era. ... Todtnauberg is a town in Germanys Black Forest where German philosopher Martin Heidegger had a chalet. ...


Der Spiegel interview

On September 23, 1966, Heidegger gave an interview to Der Spiegel magazine, in which he agreed to discuss his political past provided that the interview be published posthumously (it was published on May 31, 1976). In the interview, Heidegger defended his entanglement with National Socialism in two ways: first, he argued that there was no alternative, saying that he was trying to save the university (and science in general) from being politicized and thus had to compromise with the Nazi administration. Second, he admitted that he saw an "awakening" ("Aufbruch") which might help to find a "new national and social approach" but stated that he changed his mind about this in 1934, largely prompted by the violence of the Night of the Long Knives. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Night of the Long Knives (disambiguation). ...


The Löwith account from 1936 has been cited to contradict the account given in the Spiegel interview in two ways: that there was no decisive break with National Socialism in 1934 and that Heidegger was willing to entertain more profound relations between his philosophy and political involvement. The Der Spiegel interviewers did not bring up Heidegger's 1949 quotation comparing the industrialization of agriculture to the extermination camps. In fact, the Der Spiegel interviewers were not in possession of much of the evidence now known for Heidegger's Nazi sympathies.[27]


Influence and reception in France

Heidegger was one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, and his ideas have penetrated into many areas, but in France there is a very long and particular history of reading and interpreting his work.


Existentialism and pre-war influence

Heidegger's influence on French philosophy began in the 1930s, when Being and Time, "What is Metaphysics?" and other Heideggerian texts were read by Jean-Paul Sartre and other existentialists, as well as by thinkers such as Emmanuel Lévinas, Alexandre Kojève and Georges Bataille.[28] Because Heidegger's discussion of ontology (the study of being) is rooted in an analysis of the mode of existence of individual human beings (Dasein, or being-there), his work has often been associated with existentialism. The influence of Heidegger on Sartre's Being and Nothingness is marked, but Heidegger felt this influence took the form of a misreading, as he argued in later texts such as the "Letter on 'Humanism'." In that text, intended for a French audience, Heidegger explained this misreading in the following terms: Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Alexandre Kojève (Александр Владимирович Кожевников, Aleksandr Vladimirovič Koževnikov) (April 28, 1902 – June 4, 1968) was a Marxist and Hegelian political philosopher, who had a substantial influence on Twentieth-Century French Philosophy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Being and Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology (1943) is a philosophical treatise by Jean-Paul Sartre that is regarded as the beginning of the growth of existentialism in the 20th century. ...

Sartre's key proposition about the priority of existentia over essentia [that is, Sartre's statement that "existence precedes essence"] does, however, justify using the name "existentialism" as an appropriate title for a philosophy of this sort. But the basic tenet of "existentialism" has nothing at all in common with the statement from Being and Time [that "the 'essence' of Dasein lies in its existence"]—apart from the fact that in Being and Time no statement about the relation of essentia and existentia can yet be expressed, since there it is still a question of preparing something precursory.[29]

Post-war forays into France

After the war, Heidegger was banned from university teaching for a period on account of his activities as Rector of Freiburg University. He developed a number of contacts in France, where his work continued to be taught, and a number of French students visited him at Todtnauberg (see, for example, Jean-François Lyotard's brief account in Heidegger and "the jews", which discusses a Franco-German conference held in Freiburg in 1947, one step toward bringing together French and German students). Heidegger subsequently made several visits to France, and made efforts to keep abreast of developments in French philosophy by way of correspondence with Jean Beaufret, an early French translator of Heidegger, and with Lucien Braun. Todtnauberg is a town in Germanys Black Forest where German philosopher Martin Heidegger had a chalet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jean Beaufret (1907-1982) was a French philosopher and Germanist tremendously influential in the reception of Martin Heideggers work in France. ...


Derrida and deconstruction

Deconstruction came to Heidegger's attention in 1967 by way of Lucien Braun's recommendation of Jacques Derrida's work (Hans-Georg Gadamer was present at an initial discussion and indicated to Heidegger that Derrida's work came to his attention by way of an assistant). Heidegger expressed interest in meeting Derrida personally after the latter sent him some of his work. There was discussion of a meeting in 1972, but this failed to take place. Heidegger's interest in Derrida is said by Braun to have been considerable (as is evident in two letters, of September 29, 1967 and May 16, 1972, from Heidegger to Braun). Braun also brought to Heidegger's attention the work of Michel Foucault. Foucault's relation to Heidegger is a matter of considerable difficulty; Foucault acknowledged Heidegger as a philosopher whom he read but never wrote about. (For more on this see Penser à Strasbourg, Jacques Derrida, et al, which includes reproductions of both letters and an account by Braun, "À mi-chemin entre Heidegger et Derrida"). Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ...


Jacques Derrida made emphatic efforts to displace the understanding of Heidegger's work that had been prevalent in France from the period of the ban against Heidegger teaching in German universities, which amounted to an almost wholesale rejection of the influence of Jean-Paul Sartre and existentialist terms. In Derrida's view, deconstruction is a tradition inherited via Heidegger (the French term "déconstruction" is a term coined to translate Heidegger's use of the words "Destruktion" - literally "destruction" - and "Abbau" - more literally "de-building"). According to Derrida, Sartre's interpretation of Dasein and other key Heideggerian concerns is overly psychologistic, anthropocentric, and misses the historicality central to Dasein in Being and Time. Sartre's reading of Heidegger, which formed the basis of the former's major work Being and Nothingness, was based on limited number of Heidegger's texts commonly studied in France up to that point (namely Being and Time, What is Metaphysics? and Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics). Because of his vehement attempts to "rescue" Heidegger from his existentialist interpreters, Derrida has at times been represented as an ultra-orthodox "French Heidegger," to the extent that he, his colleagues, and his former students are made to go proxy for Heidegger's worst (political) mistakes, despite ample evidence that the reception of Heidegger's work by later practitioners of deconstruction is anything but doctrinaire. The work of Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe may be taken as exemplary in this regard and was often commended as such by Derrida, who further contrasted Lacoue-Labarthe's extended work on Heidegger with Foucault's silence. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Being and Nothingness: A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology (1943) is a philosophical treatise by Jean-Paul Sartre that is regarded as the beginning of the growth of existentialism in the 20th century. ... Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ...


The Farías debate

In consideration of the contributions of Derrida, Lacoue-Labarthe, and Lyotard to scholarship on Heidegger and his ties to National Socialism, it is worth noting that Heidegger's relation to the Holocaust and Nazism was the subject of great and occasionally fractious debate across various "deconstructions". These included the extent to which specific practitioners of deconstruction could entirely do without Heideggerian deconstruction (as Lyotard in particular may have wished) or were - rather - obliged to further (and in the cases of many mis- and uninformed criticisms, recall) already extensive criticisms of Heidegger which considerably predated (in the case of Derrida, by decades) the broad recognition of Heidegger's activities as a National Socialist. The latter were precipitated by press attention to the Víctor Farías book "Heidegger et le nazisme" (Farías was an ex-student of Heidegger) and extensive treatments of the Holocaust and its implications. These included for example, the proceedings of the first conference dedicated to Derrida's work, published as "Les fins de l'homme" (the essay from which that title was taken), Derrida's "Feu la cendre/cio' che resta del fuoco", or the studies on Paul Celan by Lacoue-Labarthe and Derrida which shortly preceded the detailed studies of Heidegger's politics published in and after 1987. Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Victor Farias is a Chilean historian, whose book Heidegger and Fascism studies the philosophy of Martin Heidegger with the conclusion that this philosophy is inherently fascist. ... Paul Celan Paul Celan (November 23, 1920 – approximately April 20, 1970) was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel, one of the major poets of the post-World War II era. ...


Bernard Stiegler

More recently, Heidegger's thought has considerably influenced the work of the French philosopher Bernard Stiegler. This is evident even from the title of Stiegler's multi-volume magnum opus, La technique et le temps (volume one translated into English as Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus).[30] Stiegler offers an original reading of Heidegger, arguing that there can be no access to "originary temporality" other than via material, that is, technical, supports, and that Heidegger recognised this in the form of his account of world historicality, yet in the end suppressed that fact. Stiegler understands the existential analytic of Being and Time as an account of psychic individuation, and his later "history of being" as an account of collective individuation. He understands many of the problems of Heidegger's philosophy and politics as the consequence of Heidegger's inability to integrate the two. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... // Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ...


Criticism

Heidegger's influence upon 20th century continental philosophy is unquestioned and has produced a variety of critical responses. Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ...


Early criticisms

The content of Being and Time, according to Husserl, claimed to deal with ontology, but from Husserl's perspective only did so in the first few pages of the book. Having nothing further to contribute to an ontology independent of human existence, Heidegger changed the topic to Dasein. Whereas Heidegger argued that the question of human existence is central to the pursuit of question of being, Husserl criticized this as reducing phenomenology to "philosophical anthropology" and offering an abstract and incorrect portrait of the human being.[31]


The Neo-Kantian Ernst Cassirer and Heidegger engaged in an influential debate located in Davos in 1929, concerning the significance of Kantian notions of freedom and rationality. Whereas Cassirer defended the role of rationality in Kant, Heidegger argued for the priority of the imagination. Dilthey's student Georg Misch wrote the first extended critical appropriation of Heidegger in Lebensphilosophie und Phänomenologie. Eine Auseinandersetzung der Diltheyschen Richtung mit Heidegger und Husserl, Leipzig 1930 (3. ed. Stuttgart 1964). Neo-Kantianism means a revived or modified type of philosophy along the lines of that laid down by Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century. ... Ernst Cassirer (July 28, 1874 – April 13, 1945) was a German-Jewish philosopher. ... Davos viewed from air Davos is a town in eastern Switzerland, in the canton of Graubünden, on the Landwasser River. ... Georg Misch, born April 5, 1878 in Berlin, Germany, died June 10, 1965 in Göttingen, was a German philosopher. ...


Left-Hegelianism and critical theory

Marxist influenced thinkers, especially György Lukács and the Frankfurt School, associated the style and content of Heidegger's thought with German irrationalism and criticized its political implications. György Lukács (April 13, 1885 – June 4, 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ...


Initially members of the Frankfurt School were positively disposed to Heidegger, becoming more critical at the beginning of the 1930s. Heidegger's student Herbert Marcuse became associated with the Frankfurt School. Initially striving for a synthesis between Hegelian-Marxism and Heidegger's phenomenology, Marcuse later rejected Heidegger's thought for its "false concreteness" and "revolutionary conservativism." Theodor Adorno wrote an extended critique of the ideological character of Heidegger's early and later use of language in the Jargon of Authenticity. Contemporary social theorists associated with the Frankfurt School have remained critical of Heidegger's works and influence. In particular, Jürgen Habermas admonishes the influence of Heidegger on recent French philosophy in his polemic against "postmodernism" in The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity (1985). Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ...


Heidegger's politics and style has been criticized by Richard Wolin and Tom Rockmore, the latter arguing that Being and Time does not follow the norms of scholarly writing, i.e. defining new terms as they are introduced. Rockmore and other critics say this was due to an authoritarian style.[citation needed]


Reception in analytic and Anglo-American philosophy

Criticism of Heidegger's philosophy has also come from analytic philosophy, beginning with logical positivism. Accusing Heidegger of offering an "illusory" ontology, Rudolf Carnap criticized him, in "The Elimination of Metaphysics Through Logical Analysis of Language" (1932), of committing the fallacy of reification and of wrongly dismissing the logical treatment of language, which, according to Carnap, can only lead to writing "nonsensical pseudo-propositions." Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891, Ronsdorf, Germany – September 14, 1970, Santa Monica, California) was an influential philosopher who was active in central Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. ... Reification, also called hypostatization, is treating a concept, an abstraction, as if it were a real, concrete thing. ...


A ferocious critic of Heidegger's philosophy was the British logical positivist A. J. Ayer, who categorizes philosophers into laymen, pontiffs, and journeymen in The Meaning of Life. The pontiffs (whom Ayer considered to be the worst of the three categories) were philosophers who, according to Ayer, proposed vast, overarching theories regarding existence, which are completely unverifiable through empirical demonstration and logical analysis. For Ayer, this sort of philosophy was a poisonous strain in modern thought and he considered Heidegger to be the "arch-pontiff" of the classification, because of Heidegger's repudiation of the importance of reason and his invention of theories that seem empirically unverifiable. Ayer believed that pontification was entirely useless. Alfred Jules Ayer (October 29, 1910 - June 27, 1989), better known as simply A. J. Ayer (and called Freddie by friends), was a British philosopher. ...


Bertrand Russell commented, expressing the sentiments of many mid-20th-century English-speaking philosophers, that: "his philosophy is extremely obscure. One cannot help suspecting that language is here running riot. An interesting point in his speculations is the insistence that nothingness is something positive. As with much else in Existentialism, this is a psychological observation made to pass for logic."[32] Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ...


The analytic tradition values clarity of expression. For Heidegger, however, intelligibility is 'suicide for philosophy'. He stated, in opposition to positivism, that "those in the crossing must in the end know what is mistaken by all urging for intelligibility: that every thinking of being, all philosophy, can never be confirmed by 'facts,' i.e., by beings. Making itself intelligible is suicide for philosophy. Those who idolize 'facts' never notice that their idols only shine in a borrowed light. They are also meant not to notice this; for thereupon they would have to be at a loss and therefore useless. But idolizers and idols are used wherever gods are in flight and so announce their nearness."[33] Apart from the charge of obscurantism, other analytic philosophers considered the actual content of Heidegger's work to be either faulty and frivolous, subjective or uninteresting. Obscurantism in its current usage can imply one of two separate concepts, sometimes distinguished by capitalization: // The older sense of the term Obscurantism refers to a class of philosophies that favor limits on the extension and dissemination of scientific knowledge, believing it to be the enemy of faith. ...


However, not all analytic philosophers have been as hostile. Gilbert Ryle wrote a critical yet positive review of Being and Time and Ludwig Wittgenstein made some positive remarks in passing that only recently have seen the light of day. These positive and negative analytic evaluations have been collected in Michael Murray (ed.), Heidegger and Modern Philosophy: Critical Essays (Yale University Press, 1978). Heidegger's reputation within English-language philosophy has improved in philosophical terms in some part through the efforts of Hubert Dreyfus, Richard Rorty, and a recent generation of analytically-oriented phenomenology scholars. Pragmatist Rorty claimed that Heidegger's approach to philosophy in the first half of his career has much in common with that of the latter-day Ludwig Wittgenstein, a significant figure in analytic philosophy. Gilbert Ryle (born August 19, 1900 in Brighton, died October 6, 1976 in Oxford), was a philosopher, and a representative of the generation of British ordinary language philosophers influenced by Wittgensteins insights into language, and is principally known for his critique of Cartesian dualism, for which he coined the... Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (IPA: ) (April 26, 1889 in Vienna, Austria – April 29, 1951 in Cambridge, England) was an Austrian philosopher who contributed several ground-breaking ideas to philosophy, primarily in the foundations of logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of language, and the philosophy of mind. ... Hubert Dreyfus (born 1929) is a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 in New York City – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher. ...


Contemporary European reception

Although Heidegger is often thought to be the most influential philosopher of the 20th century in continental philosophy, the significance of his work has been debated even by philosophers sympathetic to some aspects of his work, such as Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jacques Derrida. However, rather than universal denouncements of his style, these criticisms tend to engage Heidegger's thought more substantively on the basis of content, including issues such as the priority of ontology, the status of animals, the nature of the religious, Heidegger's apparent neglect of ethics (Emmanuel Lévinas), the body (Maurice Merleau-Ponty), or air (Luce Irigaray). Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... Jacques Derrida (IPA: in French [1], in English ) (July 15, 1930 – October 8, 2004) was an Algerian-born French philosopher, known as the founder of deconstruction. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Maurice Merleau-Ponty (March 14, 1908 – May 4, 1961) was a French phenomenologist philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl. ... Luce Irigaray (born 1930 Belgium) is a French feminist and psychoanalytic and cultural theorist. ...


Emmanuel Lévinas was deeply influenced by Heidegger yet became one of his fiercest critics, contrasting the infinity of the good beyond being with the immanence and totality of ontology. Continental philosophy of religion is critical of Heidegger's perceived "atheism" (because of the early Heidegger's description of philosophy as "methodologically atheist") and/or "paganism" (because of his use of expressions such as earth and sky, mortals and immortals).


The new materialism from Gilles Deleuze to Antonio Negri and Alain Badiou has contested what they perceive to be the idealistic residue at work in Heidegger's account of human existence as understanding (verstehen). Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ... Antonio Toni Negri (born August 1, 1933) is an Italian Marxist political philosopher. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Cinema

  • The Ister (2004) is a film based on Heidegger's 1942 lecture course on Friedrich Hölderlin, and features Jean-Luc Nancy, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Bernard Stiegler, and Hans-Jürgen Syberberg. The official site is located here.
  • The film director Terrence Malick translated Heidegger's 1929 essay "Vom Wesen des Grundes" into English. It was published under the title The Essence of Reasons (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1969, bilingual edition).

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Hölderlins Hymn The Ister (Ger: Hölderlins Hymne >>Der Ister<<) is the title given to a 1942 lecture course by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Jean-Luc Nancy. ... Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Hans-Jürgen Syberberg (December 8, 1935 - ) is one of the most controversial directors of New German Cinema. ... Terrence Terry Malick (born November 30, 1943 in Waco, Texas) is an Assyrian American film director. ...

Bibliography

Gesamtausgabe

Heidegger's collected works are published by Vittorio Klostermann. The Gesamtausgabe was begun during Heidegger's lifetime. He defined the order of publication and controversially dictated that the principle of editing should be "ways not works." Publication has not yet been completed.


The contents are listed here: Gesamtausgabe. The Gesamtausgabe is the name given to the collected works of Martin Heidegger, published by Vittorio Klostermann. ...


Selected works

A complete list of English translations of Heidegger's work is available here.

Year Original German English Translation
1927 Sein und Zeit, Gesamtausgabe Volume 2 Being and Time, trans. by John Macquarrie and Edward Robinson (London: SCM Press, 1962); re-translated by Joan Stambaugh (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996)
1929 Kant und das Problem der Metaphysik, Gesamtausgabe Volume 3 Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics, trans. by Richard Taft (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990)
1935 Einführung in die Metaphysik (1935, published 1953), Gesamtausgabe Volume 40 An Introduction to Metaphysics, trans. by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000)
1936–8 Beiträge zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis) (1936–1938, published 1989), Gesamtausgabe Volume 65 Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning), trans. by Parvis Emad and Kenneth Maly (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999)
1942 Hölderlins Hymne »Der Ister« (1942, published 1984), Gesamtausgabe Volume 53 Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister", trans. by William McNeill and Julia Davis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996)
1949 "Die Frage nach der Technik," in Gesamtausgabe Volume 7 "The Question Concerning Technology" [1], in Heidegger, Martin, Basic Writings: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, ed. David Farrell Krell (New York: Harper Collins, 1993)
1950 Holzwege, Gesamtausgabe Volume 5. This collection includes "Der Ursprung der Kunstwerkes" (1935–1936) Off the Beaten Track. This collection includes "The Origin of the Work of Art"
1955–56 Der Satz vom Grund, Gesamtausgabe Volume 10 The Principle of Reason, trans. Reginald Lilly (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1991)
1955–57 Identität und Differenz, Gesamtausgabe Volume 11 Identity and Difference, trans. by Joan Stambaugh (New York: Harper & Row, 1969)
1959 Gelassenheit, in Gesamtausgabe Volume 16 Discourse On Thinking
1959 Unterwegs zur Sprache, Gesamtausgabe Volume 12 On the Way To Language, published without the essay "Die Sprache" ("Language") by arrangement with Heidegger
Academic Genealogy
Notable teachers Notable students
Edmund Husserl
Nicolai Hartmann
Heinrich Rickert
Hannah Arendt
Hans-Georg Gadamer
Hans Jonas
Karl Löwith
Herbert Marcuse
Leo Strauss
Jan Patočka
Xavier Zubiri

// Being and Time (German Sein und Zeit, 1927) is the most important work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning) is the title of the English translation of German philosopher Martin Heideggers Beitrage Zur Philosophie (Vom Ereignis) (Trans. ... Hölderlins Hymn The Ister (Ger: Hölderlins Hymne >>Der Ister<<) is the title given to a 1942 lecture course by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... William McNeill (born 1961) is Professor of Philosophy at DePaul University. ... // Background German philosopher Martin Heidegger first drafted The Origin of the Work of Art between 1935 and 1937. ... Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (April 8, 1859 – April 26, 1938) was a German philosopher, known as the father of phenomenology. ... Nicolai Hartmann (February 20, 1882 – October 9, 1950) was a German philosopher. ... Heinrich John Rickert ( 25 May 1863 - 25 July 1936) was a German philosopher of the Baden School. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Hans-Georg Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher best known for his 1960 magnum opus, Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). ... German-born philosopher Hans Jonas (May 10, 1903 - February 5, 1993) studied under Martin Heidegger and Rudolf Bultmann in the 1920s. ... Karl Löwith (9 January 1897 in Munich – 26 May 1973 in Heidelberg) was a German-Jewish philosopher, a student of Heidegger. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-born philosopher, sociologist and a member of the Frankfurt School. ... Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973), was a German-born political philosopher who specialized in the study of classical political philosophy. ... Jan Patočka (June 1, 1907 - March 13, 1977) is considered one of the most important contributors to Czech philosophical phenomenology, as well as one of the most influential central European philosophers of the 20th century. ... Xavier Zubiri (1889–1983) was a Spanish philosopher noted for his intellectual rigor. ...

Further reading

On Being and Time

  • Hubert Dreyfus, Being-in-the-World: A Commentary on Heidegger's Being and Time, Division I
  • Theodore Kisiel, The Genesis of Heidegger's Being and Time
  • Stephen Mulhall, Heidegger and Being and Time

Hubert Dreyfus (born 1929) is a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Theodore Kisiel, Distinguished Research Professor of philosophy at Northern Illinois University, is a well-known translator of and commentator on the works of Martin Heidegger. ... Stephen Mulhall (1962 -) is a Philosopher and Fellow of New College, at Oxford. ...

Biographies

Victor Farias is a Chilean historian, whose book Heidegger and Fascism studies the philosophy of Martin Heidegger with the conclusion that this philosophy is inherently fascist. ... Pierre Joris, born in Strasbourg, France in 1946, left Luxembourg at eighteen & has since lived in the US, Great Britain, North Africa & France. ...

Politics and Nazism

  • Pierre Bourdieu, The Political Ontology of Martin Heidegger
  • Miguel de Beistegui, Heidegger and the Political: Dystopias
  • Jacques Derrida, Of Spirit: Heidegger and the Question
  • Dominique Janicaud, The Shadow of That Thought
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, "Transcendence Ends in Politics," in Typography: Mimesis, Philosophy, Politics
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger, Art, and Politics: The Fiction of the Political
  • Karl Löwith, Martin Heidegger and European Nihilism
  • Jean-François Lyotard, Heidegger and "the jews"
  • Günther Neske & Emil Kettering (eds.), Martin Heidegger and National Socialism: Questions and Answers
  • Hans Sluga, Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany
  • Richard Wolin (ed.), The Heidegger Controversy ISBN 0-262-23166-2.

Pierre Bourdieu (August 1, 1930 â€“ January 23, 2002) was an acclaimed French sociologist whose work employed methods drawn from a wide range of disciplines: from philosophy and literary theory to sociology and anthropology. ... Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (born 1940) is a contemporary French philosopher, literary critic, and translator. ... Karl Löwith (9 January 1897 in Munich – 26 May 1973 in Heidelberg) was a German-Jewish philosopher, a student of Heidegger. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hans Sluga is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Richard Wolin is an intellectual historian. ...

Other secondary literature

  • Robert Bernasconi, Heidegger in Question: The Art of Existing
  • Walter A. Brogan, Heidegger and Aristotle: The Twofoldness of Being
  • Jacques Derrida, "Ousia and Gramme: Note on a Note from Being and Time," in Margins of Philosophy
  • Paul Edwards, Heidegger's Confusions
  • Christopher Fynsk, Heidegger: Thought and Historicity
  • Hans Köchler, God in the Thought of Martin Heidegger, in: S. A. Matczak (ed.), God in Contemporary Thought
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Poetry as Experience
  • Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger and the Politics of Poetry
  • William McNeill, The Glance of the Eye: Heidegger, Aristotle, and the Ends of Theory
  • William McNeill, The Time of Life: Heidegger and Ethos
  • Jean-Luc Nancy, "The Decision of Existence," in The Birth to Presence
  • Herman Philipse, Heidegger's Philosophy of Being: A Critical Interpretation
  • Richard Polt, Heidegger: An Introduction
  • François Raffoul, Heidegger and the Subject
  • François Raffoul and David Pettigrew (ed), Heidegger and Practical Philosophy
  • John Sallis, Echoes: After Heidegger
  • John Sallis (ed), Reading Heidegger: Commemorations, including articles by Robert Bernasconi, Jacques Derrida, Rodolphe Gasché, and John Sallis, among others.
  • Reiner Schürmann, Heidegger on Being and Acting: From Principles to Anarchy
  • Bernard Stiegler, Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus
  • Iain Thomson, Heidegger on Ontotheology Technology and the Politics of Education
  • Andrzej Warminski, Readings in Interpretation: Hölderlin, Hegel, Heidegger

Robert Bernasconi is the Lillian and Morrie Moss Professor of Philosophy at the University of Memphis. ... Paul Edwards may refer to Paul Edwards, Canadian politician and lawyer. ... Christopher Fynsk (born 1952) is a Professor in the School of Language and Literature at the University of Aberdeen. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is Full Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... William McNeill (born 1961) is Professor of Philosophy at DePaul University. ... Jean-Luc Nancy. ... Herman Philipse (b. ... Richard Polt is a professor of philosophy at Xavier University. ... François Raffoul received his doctorate at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in 1995 and is currently Associate Professor of Philosophy at Louisiana State University. ... John Sallis (born 1938) is an American philosopher. ... Rodolphe Gasché holds the Eugenio Donato Chair of Comparative Literature at the University of Buffalo, State University of New York. ... Reiner Schürmann (1941­ - 1993) was Professor of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research in New York. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Reception in France

  • Jean Beaufret, Dialogue avec Heidegger, 4 vols.
  • Dominique Janicaud, Heidegger en France, 2 vols.
  • Ethan Kleinberg, Generation Existential: Heidegger's Philosophy in France, 1927-1961

Jean Beaufret (1907-1982) was a French philosopher and Germanist tremendously influential in the reception of Martin Heideggers work in France. ...

See also

Aletheia in its current sense comes from Heideggers use of it as renewed attempt to understand Truth. ... // Martin Heidegger, the 20th-century German philosopher, introduced to the world a large body of work that represented a profound change of direction for philosophy. ... Hölderlins Hymn The Ister (Ger: Hölderlins Hymne >>Der Ister<<) is the title given to a 1942 lecture course by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... Ontotheology means the ontology of God and/or the theology of being. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Learning Theories The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, process, nature and ideals of education. ...

References

  1. ^ Martin Heidegger, Being and Time, pp. 25–26.
  2. ^ Peter Singer, quoted on the back cover of Paul Edwards, Heidegger's Confusions.
  3. ^ Heidegger, Martin & Heidegger, Gertrud (September 2005), Mein liebes Seelchen! Briefe von Martin Heidegger an seine Frau Elfride: 1915-1970, Munich: DVA, ISBN 978-3421058492
  4. ^ Martin Heidegger / Elisabeth Blochmann. Briefwechsel 1918–1969. Joachim W. Storck, ed. Marbach am Neckar: Deutsches Literatur-Archiv, 1989, 2nd edn. 1990.
  5. ^ Being There, a Spring 2007 article on Heidegger's hut for Cabinet magazine.
  6. ^ In everyday German, "Dasein" means "existence." It is composed of "Da" (here/there) and "Sein" (being). Dasein is transformed in Heidegger's usage from its everyday meaning to refer, rather, to that being that is there in its world, that is, the being for whom being matters. In later publications Heidegger writes the term in hyphenated form as Da-sein, thus emphasizing the distance from the word's ordinary usage.
  7. ^ Jacques Derrida describes this in the following terms: "We can see then that Dasein, though not man, is nevertheless nothing other than man." Jacques Derrida, "The Ends of Man," Margins of Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), p. 127.
  8. ^ Cf. Bernard Stiegler, "Technics of Decision: An Interview," Angelaki 8 (2003), pp. 154–67, and cf. the discussion of Stiegler's reading of Heidegger in the sub-section "Bernard Stiegler" below.
  9. ^ Heidegger, What is Called Thinking? (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), p. 73.
  10. ^ Hans-Georg Gadamer, "Martin Heidegger's One Path," in Theodore Kisiel & John van Buren (eds.), Reading Heidegger from the Start: Essays in His Earliest Thought (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994), pp. 22–4.
  11. ^ In The Genesis of Heidegger’s Being and Time (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), Theodor Kisiel designates the first version of the project that culminates in Being and Time, "the Dilthey draft" (p. 313). David Farrell Krell comments in Daimon Life: Heidegger and Life-Philosophy (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1992) that “Heidegger’s project sprouts (in part, but in good part) from the soil of Dilthey’s philosophy of factical-historical life” (p. 35).
  12. ^ Hans-Georg Gadamer, "Martin Heidegger—75 Years," Heidegger's Ways (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994), p. 18.
  13. ^ Robert J. Dostal, "Time and Phenomenology in Husserl and Heidegger," in Charles Guignon (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 142.
  14. ^ Daniel O. Dahlstrom, "Heidegger's Critique of Husserl," in Theodore Kisiel & John van Buren (eds.), Reading Heidegger from the Start: Essays in His Earliest Thought (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994), p. 244.
  15. ^ Heidegger, "A Dialogue on Language between a Japanese and an Inquirer," in On the Way to Language (New York: Harper & Row, 1971).
  16. ^ Tomonubu Imamichi, In Search of Wisdom. One Philosopher's Journey, Tokyo, International House of Japan, 2004 (quoted by Anne Fagot-Largeau during her lesson at the Collège de France on December 7, 2006).
  17. ^ Hans Sluga, Heidegger's Crisis: Philosophy and Politics in Nazi Germany (Cambridge, Massachusetts, & London: Harvard University Press, 1993), p. 149.
  18. ^ Heidegger, "The Rectorate 1933/34: Facts and Thoughts," in Günther Neske & Emil Kettering (eds.), Martin Heidegger and National Socialism: Questions and Answers (New York: Paragon House, 1990), p. 29.
  19. ^ Martin Heidegger, "Der Spiegel Interview," in Günther Neske & Emil Kettering (eds.), Martin Heidegger and National Socialism: Questions and Answers (New York: Paragon House, 1990), p. 48.
  20. ^ Rüdiger Safranski, Martin Heidegger: Between Good and Evil (Cambridge, Mass., & London: Harvard University Press, 1998), pp. 253-8.
  21. ^ Rainer Marten, letter to Jürgen Habermas, January 28, 1988, cited by Habermas in "Work and Weltanschauung: the Heidegger Controversy from a German Perspective," Critical Inquiry 15 (1989), pp. 452–54.
  22. ^ Heidegger, Hölderlin's Hymn "The Ister" (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1996), pp. 79-80.
  23. ^ Karl Löwith, Mein Leben in Deutschland vor und nach 1933: ein Bericht (Stuttgart: Metzler, 1986), p. 57, translated by Paula Wissing as cited by Maurice Blanchot in "Thinking the Apocalypse: a Letter from Maurice Blanchot to Catherine David," in Critical Inquiry 15:2, pp. 476-477.
  24. ^ ibid, p. 477
  25. ^ Cited in Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger, Art and Politics: The Fiction of the Political (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990), p. 34.
  26. ^ Lacoue-Labarthe, Heidegger, Art and Politics, p. 34.
  27. ^ For critical readings of the interview (published in 1966 as "Only a God Can Save Us," Der Spiegel), see the "Special Feature on Heidegger and Nazism" in Critical Inquiry 15:2 (Winter 1989), particularly the contributions by Jürgen Habermas and Blanchot. The issue includes partial translations of Derrida's Of Spirit and Lacoue-Labarthe's Of Spirit and Heidegger, Art, and Politics: the Fiction of the Political.
  28. ^ On the history of the French translation of Heidegger's "What is Metaphysics?," and on its importance to the French intellectual scene, cf. Denis Hollier, "Plenty of Nothing," in Hollier (ed.), A New History of French Literature (Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1989), pp. 894–900.
  29. ^ Heidegger, "Letter on 'Humanism'," Pathmarks (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 250–1.
  30. ^ Bernard Stiegler, Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998), part 2.
  31. ^ See Edmund Husserl, Psychological and transcendental phenomenology and the confrontation with Heidegger (1927-1931) (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997).
  32. ^ Bertrand Russell, Wisdom of the West (New York: Crescent Books, 1989), p. 303.
  33. ^ Martin Heidegger, Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning) (Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1999), p. 307.

For other persons named Peter Singer, see Peter Singer (disambiguation). ... Paul Edwards, born Paul Eisenstein, (September 2, 1923-December 9, 2004) was an Austrian-American moral philosopher. ... Cabinet issue 8, fall 2002. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Courtyard of the Collège de France. ... Hölderlins Hymn The Ister (Ger: Hölderlins Hymne >>Der Ister<<) is the title given to a 1942 lecture course by German philosopher Martin Heidegger. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ... Maurice Blanchot (September 27, 1907-February 20, 2003) was a French philosopher, literary theorist and writer of fiction. ...

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Persondata
NAME Heidegger, Martin
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION German philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH 26 September 1889
PLACE OF BIRTH Meßkirch, Germany
DATE OF DEATH 26 May 1976
PLACE OF DEATH Meßkirch, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Martin Heidegger - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4754 words)
Heidegger also challenged the idea of phenomenology as defined by his teacher Edmund Husserl and is regarded as a major influence on existentialism, deconstruction, hermeneutics and postmodernism.
Heidegger sees poetry as a pre-eminent way in which beings are revealed "in their being." The play of poetic language (which is, for Heidegger, the essence of language itself) reveals the play of presence and absence that is being itself.
Heidegger's importance to the world of continental philosophy (a subject he is even said by some to have created, although there was some distinction between analytic and continental philosophy before him, the origins of continental philosophy being traceable to romanticism and analytic philosophy to the work of Gottlob Frege) is probably unsurpassed.
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