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Encyclopedia > Martin Chemnitz
Martin Chemnitz
Chemnitz in old age
Born November 9, 1522
Treuenbrietzen, Germany
Died April 8, 1586
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Germany

Martin Chemnitz (1522-1586) was an eminent Lutheran theologian, churchman, and confessor, born in Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg on November 9, 1522, the day before Martin Luther had been born in 1483. In the Lutheran tradition he is known as Alter Martinus, the "Second Martin": Si Martinus non fuisset, Martinus vix stetisset ("If Martin [Chemnitz] had not come along, Martin [Luther] would hardly have survived") goes a common saying concerning him. Image File history File links Scanned from a book in public domain, and reduced. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events November 19 - Henry Barrow, English Puritan and Separatist is imprisoned. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Events November 19 - Henry Barrow, English Puritan and Separatist is imprisoned. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Surrounding but excluding the national capital Berlin, Brandenburg is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... The Luther seal Martin Luther(November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian and an Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Lutheran, Protestant and other Christian traditions (a broad movement composed of many congregations and church bodies). ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ...

Contents


Early Life and Education

Sixteen-year-old Martin served as a weaver's apprentice in 1538; he attended school in Magdeburg from 1539-1542, and attended the Universities of Frankfurt (1543-1544), Wittenberg (1545-1547) where he studied under Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, and Königsberg (Kaliningrad) (1547–1548). He taught school at Calbe (1542-1543), Wrietzen an der Oder (1544-1545), and the Kneiphof school in Königsberg (1548–1549). Chemnitz served as castle librarian to Duke Albrecht of Prussia (1550-1552). It was during these years that his interest shifted from astrology, which he had studied in Magdeburg, to theology. Chemnitz moved to Wittenberg in 1553 as a guest of Melanchthon. Magdeburg, the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, lies on the Elbe river. ...   Frankfurt am Main? [ˈfraÅ‹kfÊŠrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... The Luther seal Martin Luther(November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian and an Augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines of Lutheran, Protestant and other Christian traditions (a broad movement composed of many congregations and church bodies). ... Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. ... Königsberg may refer to: The city of Kaliningrad in Russia, until 1945 Königsberg, the capital of East Prussia. ... Königsberg redirects here. ... Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. ...


His Vocation as Churchman Theologian

In January 1554 he joined the Wittenberg University faculty. He lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes from which lectures he compiled his own Loci Theologici, a system of theology. He was ordained into the office of the holy ministry on November 25, 1554 by Johannes Bugenhagen, and became co-adjutor of Joachim Mörlin, who was ecclesiastical superintendent in Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. When Mörlin resigned in 1567, Martin Chemnitz became his successor in a post he held for the rest of his life. Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. ... Johannes Bugenhagen (24 June 1485 in Wollin, Pomerania—20 April 1558 in Wittenberg, Saxony), also called Doktor Pomeranus, introduced the Protestant Reformation in Pomerania and Denmark in the 16th century. ...


Through his leadership Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was won to Lutheranism. There he helped his prince, Duke Julius, establish the University of Helmstedt (1575-1576). With Jakob Andreä, David Chytraeus, Nicholas Selnecker, Andrew Musculus, et. al. Chemnitz took part in a centrist movement that brought about concord among the German Lutherans in the writing and publication of the Formula of Concord (1577), of which Chemnitz is one of the primary authors. He was instrumental in the publication of the definitive Book of Concord in 1580, the doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church. Other major works are Examen Concilii Tridentini [Examination of the Council of Trent] and De Duabis Naturis in Christo [On the Two Natures in Christ]. These works demonstrate Martin Chemnitz's genius as a biblical, doctrinal, and historical theologian. His Examination remains unrefuted to this day in the view of many scholars, Lutheran as well as those of other Christian denominations. He died April 8, 1586. The Book of Concord, or Concordia was first published on June 25, 1580, fifty years after the presentation of the Augsburg Confession to Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg. ...


Works [Exhaustive; years denote earliest printed editions]

  • Acta formulae concordiae in Bergensi coenobio prope Magdeburgum [Records of the Formula of Concord in Bergen Abbey near Magdeburg]. 1707 with Nicholas Selnecker. (The deliberations of the writers of the Formula of Concord to finalize that document).
  • Anatome Propositionum Alberti Hardenbergii de Coena Domini [Anatomy/Dissection of the Propositions of Albert Hardenberg on the Lord's Supper]. 1561.
  • Andächtige Gebete wider die Teuffel in den armen besessen Leuten [Devout Prayers against the Devil in the Poor Possessed People].1596.
  • Eine andere Predigt von auffrichtung Christlicher Schulen [Another Sermon on the Erecting of Christian Schools]. 1573.
  • Apologia libri Christianae concordiae [literally: Apology of the Books of Christian Concord]. with Timothy Kirchner, 1583. (known as The Apology of the Formula of Concord)
  • An Autobiography of Martin Chemnitz. A.L. Graebner, trans. "Theological Quarterly," vol. 3, no. 4 (1899).
  • Bedencken der Theologen zu Braunschwiegk/von dem newen Wittenbergischen Catchismo gestallet/der gantzen Christenheit zur Warnung ausgengen [Reflection of the Theologians of Braunschweig on the New Placed Wittenberg Catechism to All Christendom Sent Out As a Warning]. 1571. (This document helped Elector August of Saxony uncover a plot to undermine the Lutheran faith of his duchy on the part of Crypto-Calvinist ministers and teachers.)
  • Bedencken: An justum sit, fures punire suspendie [Reflection: Whether It Be Just, to Punish Thieves By Hanging].
  • Bedencken: Ob die Worte der Einsetzung notwendig müssen recitiret werden? [Reflection: Whether the Words of Institution {of the Lord's Supper} Must Necessarily Be Recited]
  • Bedencken von Beruff und Enterlaubung der Predigter [Reflection on the Call and Licensing of Preachers].
  • Bekäntnitz von der ubiquität [Confession on Ubiquity]. 1623. (A document that presents Chemnitz's position on the doctrine of the omnipresence of Christ's human nature)
  • Bericht von Gelegenheit und Unterschiedt der Herzogstümer Schleswig und Holtzstein [Report on {the} Location and Division of the Duchies of Schleswig and Holtstein]. 1629.
  • Bericht vom newen Baptischen Gregoriano Calendario, an den Landgraffen zu Hessen [Report on the New Papal Gregorian calendar, to the Landgrave of Hesse]. 1584. (Chemnitz had been trained as an astrologer, and he was consulted on the advisability of adopting the new 1582 Gregorian calendar in place of the old Julian calendar).
  • Christliches Bedenken auf Doct. Majors Repetitio und endliche Erklärung belangend den Streit [Christian Reflections on Dr. Major's {work}, "Repetitio," and Finally {an} Explanation As Far As the Controversy Is Concerned]. 1568.
  • Consilium de vitandis Calvinianis [Counsel On Avoiding Calvinists]. 1623.
  • Confessio ministeri Saxoni Konfession und Erklärung [Confession of the Ministers of Saxony: Confession and Explanation]. 1571. (Text in German).
  • Consilium ... de lectione patrum [Counsel ... On the Reading of the {church} Fathers]. 1616.
  • Corpus doctrinae Prutenicum [The Prussian Body of Doctrine]. 1568. (An Anthology of Lutheran Statements of Faith for the German domain of Prussia)
  • Corpus doctrinae Julium [The {Duke} Julius Body of Doctrine]. 1576. (An Anthology of Lutheran Statements of Faith for Duke Julius's Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel).
  • De coelibatu judicium [Judgment Concerning Celebacy]. 1623.
  • De incarnatione filii Dei item de officio et maiestate Christi tractus [Treatise on the Incarnation of the Son of God, Also on the Office and Majesty of Christ]. 1865.
  • De orgine Jeswitarum, et quo concilio secta illa recens instituta sit [On the Origin of the Jesuits, and Counsel Concerning Which That Sect Is Recently Instituted]. 1611.
  • Disputatio Theologica de Beneficiis Filii Dei, Domini, & Redemptoris nostri JESU CHRISTI, pro summis in Theologia honoribus consequendis habita. 1568.
  • Echt evangelische aulegung de Sonn- und Festtags-evangelien des kirchenjahrs. 1872-1878.
  • Epistola de coena Domini in tertiam Apologiam Bezae [Letter Concerning the Lord's Supper in the Third Apology of Beza].
  • Epistolae Martini Chemnitii ad Matthiam Ritterum [Letters of Martin Chemnitz to Matthias Ritter].
  • Examination of the Council of Trent. Fred Kramer, trans. 4 vols. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971-86 (Originally published in 1565-73 as Examen Concilii Tridentini.)
  • Harmoniae Evangelicae [Harmony of the Gospels]. 1593.
  • Historia der Passion Christi [History of the Passion of Christ]. 1590.
  • Judicium von der Nohtwehre [Judgment concerning Self-Defense]. 1623.
  • Judicium de Controversiis qvibusdam circa qvosdam A.C. articulos [Judgment Concerning Some Controversies About Some Augsburg Confession Articles]. 1594.
  • Kirchen-Ordnung, wie es mit Lehr und Ceremonien des Fürstenthums-Braunschweig. 1569.
  • Leich-Pred., Herrn Victor Beseken, gewessen Bürgemeisters in Bremen. 1612.
  • Leich-Predigt, in funere Christoph von Blanckenburg, anno 1573 gethan. 1578.
  • Loci Theologici. J. A. O. Preus, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1989; Justification: The Chief Article of Christian Doctrine as Expoiunded in Loci Theologici. J.A.O Preus, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1985 (Originally published in 1591 as Loci Theologici.)
  • The Lord's Prayer. Georg Williams, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1999 (Originally published in English translation as A Svbstantial and godly exposition of the praier commonly called the Lords prayer. Cambridge, 1598; the original Latin text, never published, has been lost).
  • The Lord's Supper. J. A. O. Preus, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1979. (Originally published in 1561 as Repititio sanae doctrinae de vera praesentia corporis et sangvinis Domini in Coena.)
  • Martin Chemnitii einhändige Lebens-Beschreibung. Nebst denen ihm zu Braunschweig gesetzen Epitaphiis. 1719.
  • Martini Kemnitinii Von der Jesuwiten ankunfft unnd ursprung. 1586.
  • Ministry, Word, and Sacraments: An Enchiridion. Luther Poellot, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1981. (Originally published in 1593 [German] and 1603 [Latin] as Enchiridion D. Martini Chemnitii.)
  • Monita Chemnitiana oder heilsame Erinnerungen ehmals von D. Martino Chemnitio bey solenner Einführung der Julius-Universität. 1716.
  • Ob ein: Prediger am Ältare sich selbst communiciren möge [Whether a Preacher at the Altar Might Commune Himself]. 1623.
  • Oratio de Lectione Patrum, habita. 1554.
  • Oratio habita in Introductione Universitatis Juliae. 1576
  • Oratio panegyrica, das ist, Trost- und Ehren-Predigt bey des weyland ... M. Chemnitii ... Leichbestätigung. 1627.
  • Postille, oder Erklärung der ordentlichen Sonn- und Fest-Tags Evangelien. 1594.
  • Postilla: oder Auslegung der Euangelien welche auff die Sontage, auch die fürnembste Fest und Apostel Tage in der Gemeine Gottes abgelesen und erkläret werden. 1593.
  • Predigt am Sonntag Septuagesima [Sermon for Septuagesima Sunday]. 1866.
  • Eine Predigt bey der Einführung der Julius-Universität zu Helmstedt. 1576.
  • Eine Predigt über das Evangelion Matthew 22 [A Sermon on Matthew 22]. 1573.
  • Ein Predigt ... über John 3:1-15 (über Luke 18:9-14) [A Sermon ... on John 3:1-15 (on Luke 18:9-14]. 1856-1886.
  • Prefatio Doctoris M. Chemnitij [to] Heinrich Büting's Itineranium et Chronicon ecclesiasticum totius Sacrae Scriptureae. 1581.
  • Richtige und inn H. Schrifft wolgegründte Erklarung / entlicher hochwichtiger und nötiger Artickel unser Christlichen Religion / in sonderliche Tractat und Predigten gefasset. 1592.
  • Ein Schone vnnd richtige Form zu beichten [A Good and Proper Form for {Confess}ing {One's Sins}]. 1603.
  • Solida ac vera Confessionis Augustanae historie ... with Timothy Kirchner and Nicholas Selnecker, 1585.
  • Theologiae Jesuitarum praecipua capita [Important Chapters of the Theology of the Jesuits]. 1560.
  • Theses quaedam de unione duarum naturarum in Christo hypostatica: item de officiis et maiestate Christi Mediatoris [Some Theses Concerning the Hypostatic Union of the Two Natures in Chirst: That Is, Concerning the Offices and Majesty of Christ the Mediator]. 1558.
  • The Two Natures of Christ. J. A. O. Preus, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971. (Originally published in 1561 as De Duabus Naturis in Christo: De hypostatica earum unione: De communicatione idiomaticum..)
  • Tract. de Imagine DEI in homine [Treatise on the Image of God in Man]. 1570.
  • Veritas religionis Lutheranae defensa [Defense of the Truth of the Lutheran Religion]. (Text in German).
  • Von der ewigen gnadenwahl [On the Eternal Election of Grace]. 1892.
  • Wiederholte Christi gemeine Confession der Sächischen Kirchen.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar widely used in the Western world. ... The Julian calendar was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, taking force in 45 BC or 709 ab urbe condita. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar widely used in the Western world. ...

Biographies and Other Chemnitz-Related Works

  • Antiqvitates Ecclestiaticae inclytae urbiz Braunsvigae, oder: Der Beruhmten Stadt Braunschweig Kirchenhistorie. by Philippo Julio Rehtmeyer. Braunschweig: Gedruckt Verlagt von Christoph Friedrich Zilligers, 1710.
  • Formulators of the Formula of Concord. by Theodore R. Jungkuntz. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1977.
  • The Second Martin: The Life and Theology of Martin Chemnitz. by J. A. O. Preus. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1994.
  • "The Works of Martin Chemnitz," by D. Georg Williams. Concordia Theological Quarterly. Vol. 42, 1978.


This article incorporates text from the public domain 1907 edition of The Nuttall Encyclopaedia. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Nuttall Encyclopaedia is an early 20th century encyclopedia, edited by Rev. ...


 
 

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