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Encyclopedia > Martin Buber
Western Philosophy
20th-century philosophy
Name
Martin Buber
Birth February 8, 1878 (Vienna, Austria)
Death June 13, 1965 (aged 87) (Jerusalem, Israel)
School/tradition Existentialism
Main interests Ontology
Notable ideas Ich-Du and Ich-Es
Influenced by Kant, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Gustav Landauer
Influenced Paul Tillich, Gershom Scholem, Emil Brunner, Emmanuel Lévinas, Ludwig Binswanger, Iván Böszörményi-Nagy

Martin Buber (8 February 187813 June 1965) was an Austrian-Israeli-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered on theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community. Buber's evocative, sometimes poetic writing style has marked the major themes in his work: the retelling of Hasidic tales, Biblical commentary, and metaphysical dialogue. A cultural Zionist, Buber was active in the Jewish and educational communities of Germany and Israel. He was also a staunch supporter of a binational solution in Palestine, instead of a two-state solution, and after the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel, of a regional federation of Israel and Arab states. His influence extends across the humanities, particularly in the fields of social psychology, social philosophy, and religious existentialism. It has been suggested that Contemporary philosophy be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Buber. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Søren Kierkegaard Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (May 5, 1813 - November 11, 1855), a 19th century Danish philosopher, has achieved general recognition as the first existentialist philosopher, though some new research shows this may be a more difficult connection than previously thought. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... Gustav Landauer (7 April 1870 in Karlsruhe, Germany — 2 May 1919 in Munich, Germany) was a German anarchist. ... Paul Johannes Tillich (August 20, 1886 – October 22, 1965) was a German-American theologian and Christian existentialist philosopher. ... Gershom Scholem (born December 5, 1897 in Berlin, died February 21, 1982 in Jerusalem), also known as Gerhard Scholem, was a German-born Jewish philosopher and historian. ... Emil Brunner (1889-1966) A higly influential Swiss theologian, who along with Karl Barth, is associated with the movement called neo-orthodoxy or dialectical theology. ... Emmanuel Lévinas (IPA: , January 12, 1906 Kaunas, Lithuania - December 25, 1995 Paris) was a French philosopher and Talmudic commentator. ... Ludwig Binswanger (April 13, 1881 – February 5, 1966) was a Swiss psychiatrist and pioneer in the field of existential psychology. ... Iván Böszörményi-Nagy (born Budapest, May 19, 1920; died Glenside, Pennsylvania, January 28, 2007) was a Hungarian-American psychiatrist and one of the founders of the field of family therapy. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Cultural Zionism is a strain of the concept of Zionism that values Jewish culture and history, including language and historical roots, rather than other Zionist ideas such as Political Zionism. ... The binational solution, also known as the One-State Solution, is a proposed resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The two-state solution is the name for a class of proposed resolutions of the long-running Arab-Israeli conflict now explicitly backed by the Israeli and United States governments. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ...

Contents

Life and work

Martin (Hebrew name: מָרְדֳּכַי, Mordechai) Buber was born on February 8, 1878 in Vienna into a Jewish family. His grandfather, Solomon Buber, in whose house in Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) Buber spent much of his childhood, worked as a renowned scholar in the field of Jewish tradition and literature. Buber had a multilingual education: the household spoke Yiddish and German, he picked up Hebrew and French in his childhood, and Polish at secondary school. Hebrew redirects here. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Solomon (or Salomon) Buber was a Jewish Galician scholar and editor of Hebrew works; born at Lemberg (currently Lviv, Ukraine) on Feb. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Main article: Mitzvah i know year 11 stella girls are looking at this right. ... Template:Jews and Jewdaism Template:The Holy Book Named TorRah The Torah () is the most valuable Holy Doctrine within Judaism,(and for muslims) revered as the first relenting Word of Ulllah, traditionally thought to have been revealed to Blessed Moosah, An Apostle of Ulllah. ... Yiddish ( yidish or idish, literally: Jewish) is a non-territorial Germanic language, spoken throughout the world and written with the Hebrew alphabet. ...


In 1892, Buber returned to his father's house in Lemberg. A personal religious crisis led him to break with Jewish religious customs: he started reading Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, and Friedrich Nietzsche. The latter two, in particular, inspired him to pursue studies in philosophy. In 1896, Buber went to study in Vienna (philosophy, art history, German studies, philology). In 1898, he joined the Zionist movement, participating in congresses and organizational work. In 1899, while studying in Zürich, Buber met Paula Winkler (a non-Jewish Zionist writer who later converted to Judaism) from Munich, his future wife. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה ; alternate transliterations include Halocho and Halacha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law, as well as customs and traditions. ... Kant redirects here. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (pronounced , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) (5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and philologist. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ... Philology, etymologically, is the love of words. It is most accurately defined as an affinity toward the learning of the backgrounds as well as the current usages of spoken or written methods of human communication. The commonality of studied languages is more important than their origin or age (that is... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Approaching Zionism from his own personal viewpoint, Buber disagreed with Theodor Herzl about the political and cultural direction of Zionism. Herzl envisioned the goal of Zionism in a nation-state, but did not consider Jewish culture or religion necessary. In contrast, Buber believed the potential of Zionism was for social and spiritual enrichment. Herzl and Buber would continue, in mutual respect and disagreement, to work towards their respective goals for the rest of their lives. Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


In 1902, Buber became the editor of the weekly Die Welt, the central organ of the Zionist movement. However a year later Buber became involved with the Jewish Hasidism movement. Buber admired how the Hasidic communities actualized their religion in daily life and culture. In stark contrast to the busy Zionist organizations, which were always mulling political concerns, the Hasidim were focused on the values which Buber had long advocated for Zionism to adopt. In 1904, Buber withdrew from much of his Zionist organizational work and devoted himself to study and writing. In that year he published his thesis: Beiträge zur Geschichte des Individuationsproblems (on Jakob Böhme and Nikolaus Cusanus). Die Welt is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer company. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Idealized portrait of Böhmes from Theosophia Revelata (1730) Jakob Böhme (1575–1624) was a Christian mystic born in eastern Germany, near Görlitz. ... Nicholas of Cusa Nicholas of Cusa (1401– August 11, 1464) was a German cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, a philosopher, jurist, mathematician, and an astronomer. ...


In 1906, Buber published Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman, a collection of the tales of the Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, a renowned Hasidic rebbe, as interpreted and retold in a Neo-Hasidic fashion by Buber. Two years later, Buber published Die Legende des Baalschem (stories of the Baal Shem Tov), the founder of Hasidism. For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Nachman of Breslov (Hebrew: נחמן מברסלב) also known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Nachman from Uman, or simply as Rebbe Nachman (in local Yiddish reb Nokhmen Broslever) (April 4, 1772 – October 16, 1810 (18th of Tishrei)) was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic dynasty. ... For the tanna, see Judah HaNasi. ... Neo-Hasidism is a name frequently given to the significant revival of interest in Hasidic Judaism on the part of non-Orthodox Jews in different decades due to the writings of non-Orthodox teachers of Hasidic Judaism like Martin Buber, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Zalman Schachter-Shalomi and Arthur Green. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as the Baal Shem Tov, or...


From 1910 to 1914, Buber studied myths and published editions of mythic texts. In 1916 he moved from Berlin to Heppenheim. During World War I he helped establish the Jewish National Commission in order to improve the condition of Eastern European Jews. During that period he became the editor of Der Jude (German for "The Jew"), a Jewish monthly (until 1924). In 1921 Buber began his close relationship with Franz Rosenzweig. In 1922 Buber and Rosenzweig co-operated in Rosenzweig's House of Jewish Learning, known in Germany as Lehrhaus. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Cathedral and old town Cathedral and Starkenburg castle Heppenheim seen from the Starkenburg castle Heppenheim is a city in Hesse, Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Franz Rosenzweig (December 25, 1886 – December 10, 1929) was an influential Jewish theologian and philosopher. ...


In 1923 Buber wrote his famous essay on existence, Ich und Du (later translated into English as I and Thou). Though he edited the work later in his life, he refused to make substantial changes. In 1925 he began, in conjunction with Rosenzweig, translating the Hebrew Bible into German. He himself called this translation Verdeutschung ("Germanification"), since it does not always use literary German language but attempts to find new dynamic (often newly-invented) equivalent phrasing in order to respect the multivalent Hebrew original. Between 1926 and 1928 Buber co-edited the quarterly Die Kreatur ("The Creature"). Ich und Du, usually translated as I and Thou, is a book by Martin Buber, considered by many academics to be one of the seminal works of twentieth century philosophy. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...


In 1930 Buber became an honorary professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main. He resigned in protest from his professorship immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933. On 4 October 1933 the Nazi authorities forbade him to lecture. In 1935 he was expelled from the Reichsschrifttumskammer. He then founded the Central Office for Jewish Adult Education, which became an increasingly important body as the German government forbade Jews to attend public education. The Nazi administration increasingly obstructed this body. The Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main (commonly called the University of Frankfurt) was founded in 1914 as a Citizens University, which means that while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt am... Hitler redirects here. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


Finally, in 1938, Buber left Germany and settled in Jerusalem, in British-occupied Palestine. He received a professorship at Hebrew University there, lecturing in anthropology and introductory sociology. He participated in the discussion of the Jews' problems in Palestine and of the Arab question - working out of his Biblical, philosophic and Hasidic work. He became a member of the group Ichud, which aimed at a bi-national state for Arabs and Jews in Palestine. Such a binational confederation was viewed by Buber as a more proper fulfillment of Zionism than a solely Jewish state. In 1946 he published his work Paths in Utopia, in which he detailed his communitarian socialist views and his theory of the "dialogical community" founded upon interpersonal "dialogical relationships". For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... This article is about the social science. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The binational solution, also known as the One-State Solution, is a proposed resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Communitarianism as a philosophy began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


After World War II Buber began giving lecture-tours in Europe and the USA. In 1951 he received the Goethe award of the University of Hamburg and in 1953 the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade. In 1958 Buber's wife Paula died, and in the same year he won the Israel Prize. 1963 Buber won the Erasmus Award in Amsterdam. On 13 June 1965 Buber died in his house in the Talbiyeh quarter of Jerusalem. Until then he held friendly connections to old Prague friends like the philosopher Felix Weltsch, who led the weekly paper Selbstwehr in Prague, to Max Brod and to Hugo Bergman. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Goethe redirects here. ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ... The Israel Prize is the most prestigious award handed out by the State of Israel. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Felix Weltsch (born Oct. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ... Samuel(Schmuel) Hugo Bergman(n), or Samuel Bergman (December 25, 1883, Praha - † June 18, 1975, Jerusalem) is the Czech-born German and Israeli Jewish philosopher. ...


Philosophy

Buber is famous for his synthetic thesis of dialogical existence, as he described in the book I and Thou. However his work dealt with a range of issues including religious consciousness, modernity, the concept of evil, ethics, education, and Biblical hermeneutics.


Dialogue and existence

In I and Thou, Buber introduced his thesis on human existence. Inspired partly by Feuerbach's concept of ego in The Essence of Christianity and Kierkegaard's "Single One", Buber worked upon the premise of existence as encounter.[1] He explained this philosophy using the word pairs of Ich-Du and Ich-Es to categorize the modes of consciousness, interaction, and being through which an individual engages with other individuals, inanimate objects, and all reality in general. Philosophically, these word pairs express complex ideas about modes of being - particularly how a person exists and actualizes that existence (see existentialism). As Buber argues in I and Thou, a person is at all times engaged with the world in one of these modes. Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (July 28, 1804 - September 13, 1872), German philosopher, fourth son of the eminent jurist Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, was born in Landshut, Bavaria and died in Rechenberg (since 1899 a district of Nuremberg). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In ontology, a being is anything that can be said to be, either transcendantly or immanently. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ...


The generic motif Buber employs to describe the dual modes of being is one of dialogue (Ich-Du) and monologue (Ich-Es). The concept of communication, particularly language-oriented communication, is used both in describing dialogue/monologue through metaphors and expressing the interpersonal nature of human existence.


Ich-Du

Ich-Du ("I-Thou" or "I-You") is a relationship that stresses the mutual, holistic existence of two beings. It is a concrete encounter, because these beings meet one another in their authentic existence, without any qualification or objectification of one another. Even imagination and ideas do not play a role in this relation. In an I-Thou encounter, infinity and universality are made actual (rather than being merely concepts).


Buber stressed that an Ich-Du relationship lacks any composition (e.g. structure) and communicates no content (e.g. information). Despite the fact that Ich-Du cannot be proven to happen as an event (e.g. it cannot be measured), Buber stressed that it is real and perceivable. A variety of examples are used to illustrate Ich-Du relationships in daily life - two lovers, an observer and a cat, the author and a tree, and two strangers on a train. Common English words used to describe the Ich-Du relationship include encounter, meeting, dialogue, mutuality, and exchange.


One key Ich-Du relationship Buber identified was that which can exist between a human being and God. Buber argued that this is the only way in which it is possible to interact with God, and that an Ich-Du relationship with anything or anyone connects in some way with the eternal relation to God.


To create this I-Thou relationship with God, a person has to be open to the idea of such a relationship, but not actively pursue it. The pursuit of such a relation creates qualities associated with it, and so would prevent an I-You relation, limiting it to I-It. Buber says by being open to the I-Thou, God will eventually come to you. Also, because the God Buber describes is completely devoid of qualities, this I-You relation lasts as long as the individual chooses. When the individual finally chooses to return to the I-It world, they act as a pillar of deeper relation and community. An example of this is Jesus Christ.


Ich-Es

The Ich-Es ("I-It") relationship is nearly the opposite of Ich-Du. Whereas in Ich-Du the two beings encounter one another, in an Ich-Es relationship the beings do not actually meet. Instead, the "I" confronts and qualifies an idea, or conceptualization, of the being in its presence and treats that being as an object. All such objects are considered merely mental representations, created and sustained by the individual mind. This is based partly on Kant's theory of phenomenon, in that these objects reside in the cognitive agent’s mind, existing only as thoughts. Therefore, the Ich-Es relationship is in fact a relationship with oneself; it is not a dialogue, but a monologue. For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ...


In the Ich-Es relationship, an individual treats other things, people, etc., as objects to be used and experienced. Essentially, this form of objectivity relates to the world in terms of the self - how an object can serve the individual’s interest.


Buber argued that human life consists of an oscillation between Ich-Du and Ich-Es, and that in fact Ich-Du experiences are rather few and far between. In diagnosing the various perceived ills of modernity (e.g. isolation, dehumanization, etc.), Buber believed that the expansion of a purely analytic, material view of existence was at heart an advocation of Ich-Es relations - even between human beings. Buber argued that this paradigm devalued not only existents, but the meaning of all existence. Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ...


Note on translation

Ich und Du has been translated from the original German into many other languages. However, because Buber's use of German was highly idiomatic and often unconventional, there has naturally been debate on how best to convey the complex messages in his text. One critical debate in the English-speaking world has centered around the correct translation of the key word pairs Ich-Du and Ich-Es. In the German the word "Du" is used, while in the English two different translations are used: "Thou" (used in Ronald Smith’s version) and "You" (used by Walter Kaufmann). The key problem is how to translate the very personal, even intimate German "Du", which has no direct equivalent in English. Smith argued that "Thou" invokes the theological and reverential implications which Buber intended (e.g. Buber describes God as the eternal "Du"). Kaufmann asserted that this wording was archaic and impersonal, offering "You" because of its colloquial usage in intimate conversation. Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 - September 4, 1980) was a 20th-century Jewish German philosopher, scholar, and poet. ...


Despite this debate, Buber’s book is widely known in the English-speaking world as I and Thou, perhaps because the Smith translation appeared years before the Kaufmann one. However, both the Smith and Kaufmann translations are widely available and can be considered complementary.


Ronald Smith also translated Buber's Good And Evil, published by Prentice-Hall in 1952. Based on five Davidic Psalms, this little book describes a continuing 'generation of the lie', a most interesting perspective. Of the several quotes on the back page of the book, Maurice Friedman said, "Good and Evil is without question one of the clearest, most profound, and most concrete treatments of good and evil in modern times." Relatively unknown, this small but profound work deserves notice, particularly in contemporary times, as it exposes a heretofore hidden element of society.


Hasidism and mysticism

Buber was a scholar, interpreter, and translator of Hasidic lore. He viewed Hasidism as a source of cultural renewal for Judaism, frequently citing examples from the Hasidic tradition that emphasized community, interpersonal life, and meaning in common activities (e.g. a worker's relation to his tools). The Hasidic ideal, according to Buber, emphasized a life lived in the unconditional presence of God, where there was no distinct separation between daily habits and religious experience. This was a major influence on Buber's philosophy of anthropology, which considered the basis of human existence as dialogical. Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ...


Buber's interpretation of the Hasidic tradition, however, has been criticized by scholars such as Chaim Potok for its romanticization. In the introduction to Buber's Tales of the Hasidim, Potok notes that Buber overlooked Hasidism's "charlatanism, obscurantism, internecine quarrels, its heavy freight of folk superstition and pietistic excesses, its zaddik worship, its vulgarized and attenuated reading of Lurianic Kabbalah." Even more severe is the criticism that Buber deemphasized the importance of the Jewish Law in Hasidism. This is ironic, considering that Buber often delved into Hasidim to demonstrate that individual religiousity did not require a dogmatic, creedal religion. Rabbi Dr. Chaim Potok (February 17, 1929 - July 23, 2002) was an American author and rabbi. ...


Buber and Zionism

Already in the early 1920s Martin Buber started advocating a binational Jewish-Arab state, stating that the Jewish people should proclaim "its desire to live in peace and brotherhood with the Arab people and to develop the common homeland into a republic in which both peoples will have the possibility of free development." [1] The binational solution, also known as the One-State Solution, is a proposed resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ...


Buber rejected the idea of Zionism as just another national movement and wanted instead to see the creation of an exemplary society; a society which would not, he said, be characterised by Jewish domination of the Arabs. It was necessary for the Zionist movement to reach a consensus with the Arabs even at the cost of the Jews remaining a minority in the country. In 1925 he was involved in the creation of the organisation Brit Shalom (Covenant of Peace), which advocated the creation of a binational state, and throughout the rest of his life he hoped and believed that Jews and Arabs one day would live in peace in a joint nation. Nevertheless he was connected with decades of friendship to zionists and philosophers like Chaim Weizmann, Max Brod, Hugo Bergman and Felix Weltsch, who were close friends of his from old European times in Prague, Berlin and Vienna to the Jerusalem of the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. Brit shalom (Hebrew covenant of peace) is a naming ceremony for boys that is intended to replace the traditional brit milah ceremony as an initiative by some, more liberal, Jews that do not approve of circumcision. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Max Brod Max Brod (May 27, 1884 – December 20, 1968) was a German-speaking Jewish author, composer, and journalist. ... Samuel(Schmuel) Hugo Bergman(n), or Samuel Bergman (December 25, 1883, Praha - † June 18, 1975, Jerusalem) is the Czech-born German and Israeli Jewish philosopher. ... Felix Weltsch (born Oct. ...


After the Israeli state gained independence in 1948, Buber advocated Israel's participation in a federation of "Near East" states wider than just Palestine.[2]


References

  1. ^ Buber, Martin (1947; 2002). Between Man and Man. Routledge, pp. 250-251. 
  2. ^ Buber, Martin [1954] (2005). "We Need The Arabs, They Need Us!", in Paul Mendes-Flohr (ed.): A Land of Two Peoples. University of Chicago. ISBN 0-226-07802-7. 

Paul R. Mendes-Flohr is a leading scholar of modern Jewish thought. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ...

See also

For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Existential psychotherapy is partly based on the existential belief that human beings are alone in the world. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Intersubjectivity refers to the the common-sense, shared meanings constructed by people in their interactions with each other and used as an everyday resource to interpret the meaning of elements of social and cultural life. ... Iván Böszörményi-Nagy (born Budapest, May 19, 1920; died Glenside, Pennsylvania, January 28, 2007) was a Hungarian-American psychiatrist. ... Franz Rosenzweig (December 25, 1886 – December 10, 1929) was an influential Jewish theologian and philosopher. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Martin Buber
Persondata
NAME Buber, Martin
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Austrian-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator
DATE OF BIRTH February 8, 1878
PLACE OF BIRTH Vienna, Austria
DATE OF DEATH June 13, 1965
PLACE OF DEATH Talbiyeh, Jerusalem

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Martin Buber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1723 words)
Martin Buber (8 February 1878 - 13 June 1965) was an Austrian-Jewish philosopher, translator, and educator, whose work centered around theistic ideals of religious consciousness, interpersonal relations, and community.
Buber's evocative, sometimes poetic writing style have marked the major themes in his work: the retelling of Hasidic tales, Biblical commentary, and metaphysical dialogue.
Buber had a multilingual education: the household spoke Yiddish and German, he picked up Hebrew and French in his childhood, and Polish at secondary school.
Martin Buber - definition of Martin Buber in Encyclopedia (707 words)
Martin Buber (8 February 1878 - 13 June 1965) was a renowned Jewish philosopher, story-teller, and pedagogue.
His grandfather, Salomon Buber, in whose house in Lemberg (L'viv, now Ukraine) Buber spent much of his childhood, worked as a renowned scholar in the field of Jewish tradition and literature.
In 1906 Buber published Die Geschichten des Rabbi Nachman - a collection of the tales of the Rabbi Nachman of Breslau, a renowned Hasidic rabbi, as interpreted and retold in a Neo-Hasidic fashion by Buber.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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