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Encyclopedia > Martial law
War

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

Military History

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Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect when the military takes control of the normal administration of justice. Martial law may refer to: Martial law, or military rule. ...


Usually martial law reduces some of the personal rights ordinarily held by the citizen, limits the length of the trial processes, and prescribes more severe penalties than ordinary law. In many states martial law prescribes the death penalty for certain crimes, even if ordinary law does not contain that crime or punishment in its system.[citation needed] Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Martial law is sometimes imposed during wars or occupations in the absence of any other civil government. Examples of this form of military rule include Germany and Japan after World War II or the American South during the early stages of Reconstruction. In addition it is used by governments to enforce their rule, for example after a coup d'état (Thailand 2006), when threatened by popular protests (Tiananmen Square protests of 1989), or to crack down on the opposition (Poland 1981). Martial law can also be declared in cases of major natural disasters, however most countries use a different legal construct like "state of emergency". For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... An occupied territory is a region that has been taken over by a sovereign power after a military intervention, see belligerent occupation. ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... Coup redirects here. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is according to or provided by nature. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ...


In many countries martial law imposes particular rules, one of which is curfew. Often, under this system, the administration of justice is left to a military tribunal, called a court-martial. The suspension of the writ of habeas corpus is likely to occur. This article is about the restrictions and constraints of particular movements. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... A tribunal is a generic term for any body acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Martial law in other countries

Australia

Martial law was first used in Australia from midnight Sunday 4 March, 1804 during the Castle Hill convict rebellion, also known as the second Battle of Vinegar Hill, a reference to the Irish engagement of 1798 in which many of the convicts had previously been involved. The militia were called out under the auspices of posse comitatus to assist in suppressing the rebelling convicts. Martial law was then lifted. is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1803 in Australia, other events of 1804, 1805 in Australia and the Timeline of Australian history. ... A cartoon of the Irish rebellion some years later The Castle Hill Rebellion of 4 March 1804, also called the Irish Rebellion and the Battle of Vinegar Hill, was Australias only successful large-scale convict rebellion. ... In common law, posse comitatus (Latin, county force, meaning a sort of local militia) referred to the authority wielded by the county sheriff to conscript any able-bodied male over the age of fifteen to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon; compare hue...


Canada

Though the Canadian government has never actually imposed martial law, it has come close through a piece of legislation known as the War Measures Act. This act was invoked three times, in both world wars due to riots over conscription (the Conscription Crisis of 1917 and Conscription Crisis of 1944) and in the October Crisis of 1970, which resulted in 1628 raids and 200 subsequent arrests. The War Measures Act technically does not invoke martial law, as the military does not take over the administration of justice. A better comparison would be to declaring a State of Emergency. Indeed, the War Measures Act was later replaced by the Emergencies Act in 1988. The War Measures Act (enacted in August 1914, replaced by the Emergencies Act in 1988) was a Canadian statute that allowed the government to assume sweeping emergency powers. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1917 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. // At the outbreak of war in 1914, over 30,000 volunteers joined the army, far more than expected. ... The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War II. It was similar to the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but was not as politically damaging. ... This article is about the terrorist kidnappings in Quebec. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... The Emergencies Act is an Act of the Government of Canada to authorize the taking of special temporary measures to ensure safety and security during national emergencies and to amend other Acts in consequence thereof the Parliament of Canada. ...


Prior to Confederation, martial law was proclaimed and applied on the territory that would later become the Province of Quebec during the American invasion in 1775-1776, and on the territory of Lower Canada during the insurrections of 1837-1838. On December 5, following the events of November 1837, martial law was proclaimed in the district of Montreal by the Parliament of Lower Canada. It remained in force until April 27, 1838. Martial law was proclaimed a second time on November 4, 1838 and was applied until August 24, 1839.[1][2] Canadian Confederation, or the Confederation of Canada, was the process that ultimately brought together a union among the provinces, colonies and territories of British North America to form a Dominion of the British Empire, which today is a federal nation state simply known as Canada. ...


People's Republic of China (Mainland China)

The constitution of the People's Republic of China grants the President of the People's Republic of China the power to declare martial law in pursuance of a decision of the National People's Congress to declare martial law. In 1989, President Yang Shangkun unilaterally invoked the martial law clause to allow the military to stage a crackdown on Tiananmen Square protesters. The legality of this action, in the absence of a previous decision by the NPC, has been questioned, and in 2004 the clause was finally weakened into a provision that allowed the government to simply declare a State of Emergency. Martial law was declared in November 2004 to quell ethnic clashes in Langchenggang, Henan province. The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest legislative body in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yáng ShàngkÅ«n (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


Egypt

In Egypt, a State of Emergency has been imposed almost continuously since 1967. Due to the assassination of President Anwar el-Sadat in 1981, martial law was declared. Egypt has been under martial law ever since - the Parliament has renewed the emergency laws every three years since they were imposed. The legislation was last extended in 2003 and was due to expire at the end of May 2006; plans were in place to replace them with new anti-terrorism laws but after the Dahab bombings in April martial law was renewed for another two years. [1] [2] For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... The seaside town of Dahab is located on the Gulf of Aqaba The Dahab bombings of 24 April 2006 were three bomb attacks on the Egyptian resort city of Dahab. ...


Martial law allows the government to detain anyone deemed to be threatening state security for renewable 45-day periods without court orders and also give military courts the power to try civilians.


Public demonstrations are banned under the legislation.


India

Martial law in India is different from rest of the world. According to the Indian Constitution, during peacetime, governmental and the people's interests are under the control of the Prime Minister, Parliament, and the Supreme Court, but all armed forces (except police, which are under the control of the Home Ministry) are under the direct control of the Department of Defense and the President (who also controls the national guard and paramilitary forces). In case of a non-environmental crisis, all armed forces, national guard, and paramilitary forces, along with the Department of Defense, come under the strict orders of the President; while police, home ministry, justice department, and government comes under strict control of the Prime Minister (without any intervention by Parliament and the Supreme Court). In such a crisis, solving an issue/problem, stabilizing the nation, and defense are considered higher priorities than the people's interest.


In case of an environmental crisis, the Indian government declares states of emergency, in which the emergency relief forces of the Indian Armed Forces, the National Guard, and the police come under the strict control of the President of India.


So far, Indian government declared State of Emergency in the following times:-

  1. 1919 - After General Reginald Dyer fires upon a crowd of protesters, where 379 are killed, Martial Law is declared throughout Punjab.
  2. 1975 - Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency.
  3. 1984 December - Gas leak at Union Carbide pesticides plant in Bhopal. Thousands are killed immediately, many more subsequently die or are left disabled.
  4. 1999 October - Cyclone devastates eastern state of Orissa, leaving at least 10,000 dead.
  5. 2001 January - Massive earthquakes hit the western state of Gujarat, leaving at least 30,000 dead.
  6. 2004 December - Thousands are killed when tidal waves, caused by a powerful undersea earthquake off the Indonesian coast, devastate coastal communities in the south and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  7. 2005 July - More than 1,000 people are killed in floods and landslides caused by monsoon rains in Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra region.
  8. 2005 8 October - An earthquake, with its epicenter in Pakistani-administered Kashmir, kills more than 1,000 people in Indian-administered Kashmir.

NOTE:- Indian government declares state of emergency during any crisis that is administered as terrorist activity.

  1. 2003 August - At least 50 people are killed in two simultaneous bomb blasts in Bombay. Also, bombs kill 62 people in Delhi.
  2. 2006 14 people are killed by bomb blasts in the Hindu pilgrimage city of Varanasi.
  3. 2006 May - Suspected Islamic militants kill 35 Hindus in the worst attacks in Indian-administered Kashmir for several months.
  4. 2006 11 July - More than 180 people are killed in bomb attacks on rush-hour trains in Mumbai. Investigators blame Islamic militants based in Pakistan.
  5. 2006 8 September - Explosions outside a mosque in the western town of Malegaon kill at least 31 people.
  6. 2007 18 February - 68 passengers, most of them Pakistanis, are killed by bomb blasts and a blaze on a train traveling from New Delhi to the Pakistani city of Lahore.

For further reading please browse through BBC Archives in South Asia section, relating to India.[3]


Israel

Military administrative government was in effect from 1949 to 1966 over some geographical areas of Israel, which had large Arab populations, primarily the Negev, Galilee, and the Triangle. The residents of these areas were subject to a number of controlling measures that amounted to martial law.[4][5] Permits from the military governor had to be procured to travel more than a given distance from their registered place of residence and curfew, administrative detentions, and expulsions were common.[4] Though the military administration was officially for geographical areas, and not people, its restrictions were seldom enforced on the Jewish residents of these areas. In the 1950s, martial law ceased to be in effect for those Arab citizens living in predominantly-Jewish cities, but remained in place in all Arab localities within Israel until 1966.[4] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... The Triangle (‎, HaMeshulash; Arabic: ), formerly referred to as the Little triangle, is a concentration of Israeli Arab towns and villages adjacent to the Green Line, located in the eastern Sharon plain among the Samarian foothills. ... This article is about the restrictions and constraints of particular movements. ... Administrative detention is a military term used in Israel to refer to political prisoners —people held as criminals while not actually being charged. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ...


During the 2006 Lebanon war, martial law was declared by Defense Minister Amir Peretz over the North of the country. The Israel Defense Forces were granted the authority to issue instructions to civilians, and close down offices, schools, camps and factories in cities considered under threat of attack, as well as to impose curfews on cities in the North.[6] Instructions of the Home Front Command are obligatory under martial law, rather than merely recommendatory.[6] The order signed by Peretz was in effect for 48 hours.[6] It was extended by the Cabinet and the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee over the war's duration.[citation needed] Belligerents Hezbollah Amal[1] LCP[2] PFLP-GC[3] Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Imad Mughniyeh Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[4] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Amir Peretz (Hebrew: עמיר פרץ; born March 9, 1952) is an Israeli politician and Defense Minister of Israel. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


Pakistan

Martial law has been declared in Pakistan three times, though two times enforced under the name of "state of emergency", by Musharraf, as constitution was suspended. In the first instance President Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution in 1958 and declared Martial Law over the country. The second instance was when General Yahya Khan declared martial law in March, 1969 after Mirza's successor, General Ayub Khan handed over power to him. the 3rd by Gen Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Another debatable instance was when General Pervez Musharraf declared two times in the country "State of Emergency" once to topple Nawaz Sharif and other under thr self-created grounds i.e. mounting militant attacks and "interference by members of the judiciary". See 2007 Pakistani state of emergency for more information. Syed Iskander Ali Mirza or Iskander Mirza (Urdu: اسکندر مرزا) (November 13, 1899 – November 12, 1969) was the first President of Pakistan and held that position from 1956 until 1958. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917 – August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... This article is about a Pakistani military officer. ... (PA – 6920) General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ‎; born August 11, 1943) is currently the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... Pervez Musharraf has led Pakistan since 1999. ...


After several tumultuous years, which witnessed the secession of East Pakistan, politician Zulfikar Ali Bhutto took over in 1971 as the first civilian martial law administrator in recent history, imposing selective martial law in areas hostile to his rule, such as the country's largest province, Balochistan. Following widespread civil disorder, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq overthrew Bhutto and imposed martial law in its totality on July 5, 1977 in a bloodless coup d'etat. Unstable areas were brought under control through indirect military action, such as Balochistan under Martial Law Governor, General Rahimuddin Khan. Civilian government resumed in 1988 following General Zia's death in an aircraft crash. East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: , IPA: ; Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as the President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973 and as Prime Minister from 1973 to 1977. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... Civil disorder is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe one or more forms of disturbance caused by a group of people. ... General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq محمد ضياء الحق (b. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... Full General Rahimuddin Khan (Urdu: رحیم الدین خان) (born 21 July 1926) was the Governor of Balochistan, the largest province of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, for an unprecedented seven years (1978-1984), while simultaneously holding the military posts of Armoured Corps Commander as well as Martial Law Administrator of Balochistan, the latter... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


On October 12, 1999, the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was dissolved, and the Army took control once more. But no Martial Law was imposed. General Pervez Musharraf took the title of Chief Executive until the President Rafiq Tarar resigned and General Musharraf became President. Elections were held in October 2002 and Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali became Prime Minister. Jamili premiership was followed by Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain and Shaukat Aziz. While the government was supposed to be run by the elected Prime Minister, there was a common understanding that important decisions were made by the President General Parvez Musharraf. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: میاں محمد نواز شریف ) (born December 10, 1949 in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan)[1] is a Pakistani politician. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ... Chief Executive may refer to: Chief Executive of Hong Kong Chief Executive of Macau Chief Executive Officer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mumlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ... Muhammad Rafiq Tarar (b. ... The President of Pakistan (UrdÅ«: صدر مملکت Sadr-e-Mumlikat) is the head of state of Pakistan. ... Zafarullah Khan Jamali Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Urdu: میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی) (born January 1, 1944) is a former Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... The Prime Minister of Pakistan, in Urdu وزیر اعظم Wazir-e- Azam meaning Grand Vizier, is the Head of Government of Pakistan. ... Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain (Urdu: چودھری شجاعت حسین) (born 1946) is a politician from Pakistan who was the Prime Minister of that country from June 30, 2004 until August 28, 2004. ... Shaukat Aziz at the White House with US president George W. Bush. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرويز مشرف) (born August 11, 1943) is the President of Pakistan, the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army and the fourth military dictator to govern the country in wake of a coup. ...


On November 03, 2007, President General Pervez Musharraf declared the state emergency in the country which is claimed to be equivalent to the state of Martial Law as the constitution of Pakistan of 1973, was suspended, and the Chief Justices of the Supreme Court were fired. Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ...


On November 12, 2007, President General Pervez Musharraf issued some amendments in the Military Act, which gave the Armed forces some additional powers. Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ) (born 11 August 1943, Delhi) is the current President of Pakistan, Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. ...

Philippines

President Jose P. Laurel of the wartime Second Republic (puppet-government under Japan) placed the Philippines under martial law in 1944 through Proclamation No. 29, dated September 21. Martial law came into effect on September 22, 1944 at 9am. Proclamation No. 30 was issued the next day, declaring the existence of a state of war between the Philippines and the US and Great Britain. This took effect on September 23, 1944 at 10am. PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Jose P. Laurel José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ...


The Philippines was under martial law again from 1972 to 1981 under the authoritarian rule of Ferdinand Marcos. Martial law was declared to suppress increasing civil strife and the threat of communist takeover following a series of bombings in Manila. The declaration of martial law was initially well-received by some segment of the people but became unpopular as excesses and human rights abuses by the military emerged. Torture was used in extracting information from their enemies. Proclamation No. 1081 (Proclaiming a State of Martial Law in the Philippines) was signed on September 21, 1972 and came into force on September 22 - interestingly enough exactly 28 years after President Jose P. Laurel's similar proclamations. Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ... PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Jose P. Laurel José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 - November 6, 1959) was the president of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines from 1943 to 1945. ...


There were rumours that President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was planning to impose martial law to put an end to military coup plotters and general civilian dissatisfaction and criticism of the legitimacy of her presidency due to dubious election results. Instead, however, a "State of National Emergency" was imposed to crush a coup plot and tackle protesters which lasted from February 24, 2006 until March 3 of the same year. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947), also known by her initials G.M.A., is the 14th and current president of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


Poland

Main article: Martial law in Poland

Martial law was introduced in Poland by the Communist government on December 13, 1981 to prevent democratic movements from gaining popularity and political power in the country, and to reduce the risk of Soviet intervention. Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... CCCP redirects here. ...


Switzerland

There are no provisions for martial law as such in Switzerland. Under the Army Law of 1995 [3], the Army can be called upon by cantonal (state) authorities for assistance (Assistenzdienst). This regularly happens in the case of natural disasters or special protection requirements (e.g., for the World Economic Forum in Davos). This assistance generally requires parliamentary authorization, though, and takes place in the regular legal framework and under the civilian leadership of the cantonal authorities. On the other hand, the federal authorities are authorized to use the Army to enforce law and order when the Cantons no longer can or want to do so (Ordnungsdienst). This power largely fell into disuse after World War II. See [4]. Military of Switzerland On May 18, 2003, Swiss voters approved the military reform project Army XXI that will drastically reduce the size of the Swiss Army. ... Valais Ticino Graubünden (Grisons) Geneva Vaud Neuchâtel Jura Berne Thurgau Zurich Aargau Lucerne Solothurn Basel-Land Schaffhausen Uri Schwyz Glarus St. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Davos viewed from air Davos is a town in eastern Switzerland, in the canton of Graubünden, on the Landwasser River. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Republic of China (Taiwan)

After the Kuomintang (KMT) regime of the Republic of China (ROC) retreated from mainland China to Taiwan, the distinction of having the longest period of martial law in modern history was imposed on Taiwan and the other islands administered by the Republic of China. In the aftermath of the 2-28 Incident of 1947, martial law was declared in 1948, and the perceived need to suppress Communist and pro-democracy activities on the island meant that the martial law was not lifted until 1987. The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... ... This is a list of islands under the Republic of China administration (all claimed by the Peoples Republic of China). ...


Thailand

In Thailand many coups have taken place since the 1930s, but many have failed. In January of 2004, the former Prime Minister of Thailand, Thaksin Shinawatra, declared a state of martial law in the provinces of Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat in response to the growing South Thailand insurgency. On September 19, 2006, Thailand's Army declared martial law following a bloodless military coup in the Thai capital of Bangkok, declared while The Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra was in New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. General Sonthi Boonyaratglin took the control of the Government, and soon after handed the premiership to Ex-Army Chief General Surayud. Sonthi himself is Chief of the Administrative Reform Council. “Thaksin” redirects here. ... This article is about southern province of Thailand. ... Yala (Thai: ) is the southernmost province (changwat) of Thailand. ... Narathiwat (Thai นราธิวาส) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... Combatants  Thailand Mujahideen Pattani Movement (BNP) Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO) Pattani Islamic Mujahideen Movement (GMIP) Mujahideen Islamic Pattani Group National Revolution Front (BRN) Pattani Liberation National Front (BNPP) Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) Commanders Bunrot Somthat Surayud Chulanont Wan Kadir Wan Che Casualties More than 3,000 killed 2,729 civilian... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location within Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ... “Thaksin” redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... General Sonthi Boonyaratglin (Thai: , RTGS: Sonthi Bunyaratkalin) (b. ... General Surayud Chulanont (Thai: , RTGS: Surayut Chulanon) is the current Prime Minister of Thailand and head of Thailands Interim Government. ... The President of the Council for National Security is the head of the Council for National Security This is the name of the current military regime governing the Kingdom of Thailand following the 2006 coup détat ousting Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. ...


FR Yugoslavia

During the Yugoslav Wars in 1991, it was declared "State of Direct War Treat". Although forces from whole SFRY were included in this conflict, martial law was never announced, but after secession, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina declared Martial law. In March 23, 1999, "State of Direct War Treat" was declared in Yugoslavia, following possibility of NATO air-strikes. Day after, when strikes had begun, Martial law has been declared, and it had duration until June 15, that year, although strikes ended on June 10, following Kumanovo agreement. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


United States of America

See also: Suspension clause

The martial law concept in the U.S. is closely tied with the right of habeas corpus, which is in essence the right to a hearing on lawful imprisonment, or more broadly, the supervision of law enforcement by the judiciary. The ability to suspend habeas corpus is often equated with martial law. Article 1, Section 9 of the U.S. Constitution states, "The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion, the public Safety may require it." The Suspension Clause is clause two of section nine of Article One of the United States Constitution. ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


In United States law, martial law is limited by several court decisions that were handed down between the American Civil War and World War II. In 1878, Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act, which forbids military involvement in domestic law enforcement without congressional approval. The Military Commissions Act of 2006 possibly rescinds these limits by suspending habeas corpus, but the law is not clear on whether it applies to U.S. Citizens. Since, USNORTHCOM [5] has increased its direct involvement with civilian administration. The law of the United States is derived from the common law of England, which was in force at the time of the Revolutionary War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law () passed on June 16, 1878 after the end of Reconstruction. ... President George W. Bush signs into law S. 3930, the Military Commissions Act of 2006, during a ceremony on October 17, 2006 in the East Room of the White House. ... Emblem of United States Northern Command. ...


The National Guard is an exception, since unless federalized, they are under the control of state governors. [6]. This has now changed. Public Law 109-364, or the "John Warner Defense Authorization Act of 2007" (H.R.5122), was signed by President Bush on October 17, 2006, and allows the President to declare a "public emergency" and station troops anywhere in America and take control of state-based National Guard units without the consent of the governor or local authorities. Title V, Subtitle B, Part II, Section 525(a) of the JWDAA of 2007 reads "The [military] Secretary [of the Army, Navy or Air Force] concerned may order a member of a reserve component under the Secretary's jurisdiction to active duty...The training or duty ordered to be performed...may include...support of operations or missions undertaken by the member's unit at the request of the President or Secretary of Defense." [7] The President vetoed the Defense Authorization Act of 2008 on December 27, 2007.A provision in the 2008 defense authorization bill would have repealed this section of PL 109-364. [8] The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... H.R. 5122, also known as the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 was a bill passed in the United States Congress on September 30, 2006 and signed by President George W. Bush on October 17, 2006. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ...


New Orleans, Louisiana in the War of 1812

During the War of 1812, U.S. General Andrew Jackson imposed martial law in New Orleans, Louisiana after capturing the encampment of New Orleans from the British in the Battle of New Orleans. This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses of the name, see Battle of New Orleans (disambiguation). ...


The Territory of Hawaii

During World War II (1939 to 1945) what is now the State of Hawaii was held under martial law from 1941 to 1945. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the 1959 novel and 1966 movie, see Hawaii (novel). ...


Hurricane Katrina

Contrary to many media reports at the time, martial law was not declared in New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, because no such term exists in Louisiana state law. However, a State of Emergency was declared, which does give unique powers to the state government similar to those of martial law. On the evening of August 31, 2005, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin nominally declared "martial law" and said that officers don't have to worry about civil rights and Miranda rights in stopping the looters. [9] Federal troops were a common sight in New Orleans after Katrina. At one point, as many as 15,000 federal troops and National Guardsmen patrolled the city. Additionally it has been reported that armed contractors from Blackwater USA assisted in policing the city.[10] New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... fuck you // Fuck you Fuck you fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you Fuck you btw Mister Nagin, don`t be angry. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The Miranda warning is a police warning that is given to criminal suspects in police custody or in a custodial situation in the United States before they are asked questions relating to the commission of a crime. ... Blackwater USA is an international security contractor founded in 1997 by Erik Prince and Al Clark. ...


See also "What Is Martial Law? And is New Orleans under it?" by the Slate Explainer. Slate is an online news and culture magazine created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley and owned by Microsoft (as part of MSN). ...


See also

Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Military law is a distinct legal system to which members of armed forces are subject. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Broadcast of Wojciech Jaruzelski declaring martial law (December 13, 1981) The period of martial law in Poland refers to the period of time from December 13, 1981 to July 22, 1983 when the government of the Peoples Republic of Poland drastically restricted normal life. ... The office of the Chief martial law administrator was a senior government post created in countries such as Pakistan, Bangladesh and Indonesia that gave considerable executive authority and powers to the holder of the post to enforce martial law in the country. ... The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is a measure of the activation and readiness level of the United States Armed Forces. ...

References

  1. ^ Françoise Dubuc, La Loi martiale telle qu'imposée au Québec en 1837 et en 1838, in Les Patriotes de [email protected], May 20, 2000
  2. ^ Chronology of the October Crisis, 1970, and its Aftermath - Quebec History
  3. ^ BBC News
  4. ^ a b c Valerie Féron (2001). Palestine(s): Les déchirures. Paris, Editions du Felin. ISBN 2866453913. 
  5. ^ Bassma Kodmani-Darwish (1997). La Diaspora Palestinienne. ISBN 2130484867. 
  6. ^ a b c Yaakov Katz and Amir Mizroch (15 July 2006). Martial Law Declared in the North.
  7. ^ Remarks Of Sen. Patrick Leahy, National Defense Authorization Act For Fiscal Year 2007
  8. ^ CQ Today - Hill Reverses Course on Martial Law
  9. ^ Thompson, Irwin; AP contributions. "Nagin declares Martial Law to crack down on looters", WWLTV, 2005-08-31. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. 
  10. ^ Blackwater: Shadow Army by Jeremy Scahill

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jeremy Scahill is an American investigative journalist. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Martial law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1918 words)
Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice.
Martial law was first used in Australia from midnight Sunday 4 March, 1804 during the Castle Hill convict rebellion, also known as the second Battle of Vinegar Hill, a reference to the Irish engagement of 1798 in which many of the convicts had previously been involved.
In the aftermath of the 228 Incident of 1947, martial law was declared in 1948, and the perceived need to suppress Communist and pro-democracy activities on the island meant that the martial law was not lifted until 1987.
Martial law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (484 words)
Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a particular situation requires that a military authority take control of the normal administration of justice (and usually of the whole state).
Martial law is instituted most often when it becomes necessary to favour the activity of military authorities and organs, usually for urgent unforeseen needs, and when the normal institutions of justice either cannot function or could be deemed too slow or to weak for the new situation, i.e.
Martial law was introduced in Poland by the Communist regime on December 13, 1981 to prevent democratic movements (such as Solidarity) from gaining popularity and attendant political power in the country.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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