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Encyclopedia > Marsupial mole
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Marsupial moles
Fossil range: Late Eocene - Recent (for its Order)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Notoryctemorphia
Kirsch, in Hunsaker, 1977
Family: Notoryctidae
Ogilby, 1892
Genus: Notoryctes
Stirling, 1891
Species

N. typhlops
N. caurinus hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... The critically endangered Siberian Tiger, a rare subspecies of tiger. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Docodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from... Orders Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Sparassodonta (extinct) Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ...

The marsupial moles are rare and poorly understood burrowing mammals of the deserts of western Australia. Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Docodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from...


Marsupial moles spend most of their time underground, coming to the surface only occasionally, probably mostly after rains. They are blind, their eyes having become reduced to vestigial lenses under the skin, and they have no external ears, just a pair of tiny holes hidden under thick hair.


The head is cone-shaped, with a leathery shield over the muzzle, the body tubular, the tail a short, bald stub. They are between 12 and 16 cm long, weigh 40 to 60 grams, and are uniformly covered in fairly short, very fine pale cream to white hair with an iridescent golden sheen. Their pouch has evolved to face backwards so that it does not fill with sand.


Marsupial moles provide a remarkable example of convergent evolution, with moles generally, and with the golden moles of Africa in particular. Although only related to other moles in that all are mammals, the external similarity is an extraordinary reflection of the similar evolutionary paths they have followed. In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Genera 17 genera, see text Moles are members of the family (Talpidae) of mammals in the order Soricomorpha that live underground, burrowing holes. ... Genera  Eremitalpa  Chrysospalax  Chrysochloris  Cryptochloris  Carpitalpa  Chlorotalpa  Calcochloris  Amblysomus  Neamblysomus Golden moles are small, insectivorous burrowing mammals native to southern Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


For many years their place within the Marsupials was hotly debated, some workers regarding it as an offshoot of the Diprotodontia (the order to which most living marsupials belong), others noting similarities to a variety of other creatures, and making suggestions that, in hindsight, appear bizarre. A 1989 review of the early literature, slightly paraphrased, states: Orders Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Sparassodonta (extinct) Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Suborders Vombatiformes Phalangeriformes Macropodiformes Diprotodontia is a large taxon of about 120 marsupial mammals including the kangaroos, wallabies, possums, Koala, wombats, and many others. ...

When Stirling (1888) initially was unable to find the epipubic bones in Marsupial Moles, speculation was rife: the Marsupial Mole was a monotreme, it was the link between monotremes and marsupials, it had it closest affinities with the (placental) golden moles, it was convergent with edentates, it was a polyprotodont diprotodont, and so on. [1]

The mystery was not helped by the complete silence of the fossil record. On the basis that marsupial moles have some characteristics in common with almost all other marsupials, they were eventually classified as an entirely separate order: the Notoryctemorphia. Molecular level analysis in the early 1980s showed that the marsupial moles are not closely related to any of the living marsupials, and that they appear to have followed a separate line of development for a very long time, at least 50 million years. However some morphological evidence suggests that they may be related to bandicoots. Families †Kollikodontidae Ornithorhynchidae - Platypus Tachyglossidae - Echidnas †Steropodontidae Monotremes (monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... Genera  Eremitalpa  Chrysospalax  Chrysochloris  Cryptochloris  Carpitalpa  Chlorotalpa  Calcochloris  Amblysomus  Neamblysomus Golden moles are small, insectivorous burrowing mammals native to southern Africa. ... Orders and suborders Order Pilosa Suborder Vermilingua Suborder Folivora Order Cingulata See text for more details The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals (infraclass Eutheria), extant today only in the Americas. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... The 1980s refers to the years of and between 1980 and 1989. ...


In 1985, the vast newly discovered limestone fossil deposits at Riversleigh in northern Queensland yielded a major surprise: a fossil between 15 and 20 million years old named Yalkaparidon coheni with molars like a marsupial mole, diprotodont-like incisors, and a skull base similar to that of the bandicoots. These features were by no means identical to the living species but clearly related, and possibly even of a direct ancestor. In itself, the discovery of a Miocene marsupial mole presented no great mysteries. Just like the modern forms, it had many of the features that are assumed to be adaptations for a life burrowing in desert sands, in particular the powerful, spadelike forelimbs. The Riversleigh fossil deposits, however, are from an environment that was not remotely desert-like: in the Miocene, the Riversleigh area was a tropical rainforest. Riversleigh, in North West Queensland, is a 100 km² area containing fossil remains of ancient mammals of the Oligocene and Miocene. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  4,070,400 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... A molar is the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ... Species Diprotodon opatum Diprotodon minor Diprotodon loderi Diprotodon annextans Diprotodonts were the largest marsupials that ever lived. ... Incisors are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... Families and Genera Chaeropodidae Chaeropus Peramelidae Isoodon Perameles Peroryctes Echymipera Microperoryctes Rhynchomeles A bandicoot is any of about 20 species of small to medium-sized, terrestrial marsupial omnivores in the order Peramelemorphia. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ...


One suggestion advanced was that the Miocene marsupial mole used its limbs for swimming rather than burrowing, but the mainstream view is that it probably specialised in burrowing through a thick layer of moss, roots, and fallen leaf litter on the rainforest floor, and thus, when the continent began its long, slow desertification, the marsupial moles were already equipped with the basic tools that they now use to burrow in the sand dunes of the Western Australian desert.


Classification

There are thought to be two species: the Southern Marsupial Mole (Notoryctes typhlops or itjaritjari as known by the Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara people in Central Australia [1], and the Northern Marsupial Mole (Notoryctes caurinus), so similar to one another that they cannot be reliably told apart in the field. Pitjantjatjara is the name of both an Aboriginal people (or Anangu) of the Central Australian desert and their language. ... Yankunytjatjara (also Yankuntatjara, Jangkundjara, Kulpantja) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ...


The marsupial mole, once classified as a monotreme, is now known to be a marsupial. Its ancestry goes back 50 million years or more, and its precise classification is still a matter for argument.


References

  • University of Western Australia marsupial mole home page
  • Research mission to discover conservation requirements (includes photo)
  • Nature news story (includes photo)
  • AusEmade: Marsupial Mole Information
  • Archer, Hand & Godthelp, Australia's lost world: Riversleigh, World Heritage Site, Reed New Holland, 1991. ISBN 1-876334-59-2
  • Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 22. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External link

  • ARKive - images and movies of the marsupial mole (Notoryctes typhlops)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Marsupial mole - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (588 words)
The marsupial moles are rare and poorly understood burrowing mammals of the deserts of western Australia.
Marsupial moles provide a remarkable example of convergent evolution, with moles generally, and with the golden moles of Africa in particular.
Molecular level analysis in the early 1980s showed that the marsupial moles are not closely related to any of the living marsupials, and that they appear to have followed a separate line of development for a very long time, at least 50 million years.
NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Notoryctidae (757 words)
In 1985, the vast newly discovered limestone fossil deposits at Riverseigh in northern Queensland yielded a major surprise: marsupial mole fossils between 15 and 20 million years old, which were by no means identical to the living species but clearly related, and possibly even of a direct ancestor.
The most striking difference between placental moles and marsupial moles is the color of their fur.
Because they live underground, Marsupial Moles are blind and have a very poor sense of hearing, but their senses of touch and of smell are quite highly developed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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