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Encyclopedia > Marsilius of Padua

Marsilius of Padua (Italian Marsilio or Marsiglio da Padova; c. 1275 – c. 1342) was an Italian late medieval scholar. // April 22 - The first of the Statutes of Westminster are passed by the English parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses. ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births...


Born at Padua, Marsilius at first studied medicine in his own country. After practicing various professions, among others that of a soldier, he went to Paris about 1311. The reputation which he had gained in the physical sciences soon caused him to be raised to the position of rector of the university (for the first term of the year 1313). While still practicing medicine he composed the famous Defensor pacis (1324), one of the most extraordinary political and religious works which appeared during the Fourteenth century. A violent struggle had just broken out between Pope John XXII and Louis (Ludwig) IV the Bavarian, the imperial candidate at that time, and the latter, on being excommunicated and called upon to give up the empire, only replied to the pope’s threats with fresh provocations. Marsilius of Padua and John of Jandun, though they had both reason to be grateful for the benefits of John XXII, chose this moment to depart France for the German court. Marsilius - writing alone, not with John - set out to demonstrate, by arguments from reason and from authority the independence of the Empire from the Holy See, and the emptiness of the prerogatives “usurped” by the sovereign pontiffs—a demonstration naturally calculated to give him a claim on the gratitude of the German sovereign. Padua, Italy, (Italian: IPA: , Latin: Patavium, Venetian: ) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, the economic and communications hub of the region. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ... The tract Defensor pacis (The Defender of Peace) laid the foundations of modern doctrines of sovereignty. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (1282 – October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and crowned as... John of Jandun (Jean de Jandun) (d. ...


When in 1326 Louis saw the arrival in Nuremberg of the book dedicated to him, startled by the boldness of its political and religious theories, he was at first inclined to it as heretical heretics. He soon changed his mind, however, and, admitting Marsilius and John to the circle of his intimates, loaded them with favours. John XXII, for his part, excommunicated Louis on April 3, 1327. Having become one of the chief inspirers of the imperial policy, Marsilius accompanied Louis to Italy, where he preached or circulated written attacks against the pope, especially at Milan, and where he came within the sight of the realization of his wildest dreams. To see a king of the Romans crowned emperor at Rome, not by the pope, but by those who claimed to be the delegates of the people (January 17, 1328), to see John XXII deposed by the head of the Empire (April 18), and a mendicant friar, Pietro de Corbara, raised by an imperial decree to the throne of St Peter (as Antipope Nicholas V) after a "popular" election (May 12), all this was seemed an application of principles laid down in the Defensor pacis. Marsilius, appointed imperial vicar, persecuted the clergy who had remained faithful to John XXII. In recompense for his services, he seems to have been appointed archbishop of Milan, while John of Jandun obtained from Louis the bishopric of Ferrara. Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... “Nürnberg” redirects here. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicholas V, born Pietro Rainalducci (died October 16, 1333) was an antipope in Italy from May 12, 1328 to July 25, 1330 during the pontificate of Pope John XXII (1316–34) at Avignon. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The tract Defensor pacis (The Defender of Peace) laid the foundations of modern doctrines of sovereignty. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... Ferrara is a city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, capital city of the province of Ferrara. ...


Marsilius of Padua also composed a treatise De translatione [Romani] imperii , which is merely a rearrangement of a work of Landolfo Colonna, De jurisdictione imperatoris in causa matrimoniali, intended to prove the exclusive jurisdiction of the emperor in matrimonial affairs, or rather, to justify the intervention of Louis of Bavaria, who, in the interests of his policy, had just annulled the marriage of the son of the king of Bohemia and the countess of Tyrol. But, above all in the Defensor minor, Marsilius completed and elaborated on different points in the doctrine laid down in the Defensor pacis. He dealt here with problems concerning ecclesiastical jurisdiction, penances, indulgences, crusades and pilgrimages, vows, excommunication, the general church council, marriage and divorce, the unity with the Greeks. Here his challenging theory still more clearly leads up to a proclamation of the imperial supremacy.


References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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Encyclopedia: Marsilius of Padua (1415 words)
Marsilius was sent by Can Grande della Scala and Matteo Visconti to offer the captaincy of the Ghibelline League to Count Charles of La Marche some time before 1319; but nothing came of this, and Marsilius returned to Paris.
Marsilius began the first discourse with a quote from Cassiodorus on the importance of tranquility, and then he quoted Job, "Be at peace, and thereby thou shalt have the best fruits."5 He noted also how Jesus and his disciples emphasized peace among themselves and toward others.
Marsilius believed in divine scripture but held that it should be defined by a general council of believers, and only such a council can dispense with the commands or prohibitions of the divine law.
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