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Encyclopedia > Marshall Plan
Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid per nation.
Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid per nation.

The Marshall Plan (from its enactment, officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the allied countries of Europe, and repelling communism after World War II. The initiative was named for Secretary of State George Marshall and was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan. Image File history File links Created by SimonP based on Image:Europe-GDP-PPP-per-capita-map. ... Image File history File links Created by SimonP based on Image:Europe-GDP-PPP-per-capita-map. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... Department of State redirects here. ... William L. Clayton on the cover of Time Magazine, August 17, 1936 William Lockhart Clayton February 7, 1880 - February 8, 1966 was an American business leader and government official. ... George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 – March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as the father of containment and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. ...


The reconstruction plan developed at a meeting of the participating European states was established on July 12, 1947. The Marshall Plan offered the same aid to Japan and its allies, if they would make political reforms and accept certain outside controls. However, the Soviet Union rejected this proposal with Vyacheslav Molotov describing the plan as dollar imperialism.[clarify] is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... Dollar imperialism was a term coined by Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, the Soveit Foreign Minister at the start of the Cold War. ...


The plan was in operation for four years beginning in July 1947. During that period some USD 13 billion in economic and technical assistance were given to help the recovery of the European countries that had joined in the Organization for European Economic Co-operation.[1] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


By the time the plan had come to completion, the economy of every participant state, with the exception of Germany, had grown well past pre-war levels. Over the next two decades, many regions of Western Europe would enjoy unprecedented growth and prosperity. The Marshall Plan has also long been seen as one of the first elements of European integration, as it erased tariff trade barriers and set up institutions to coordinate the economy on a continental level. An intended consequence was the systematic adoption of American managerial techniques. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... Barriers to international trade can take many forms, including: import duties import licenses export licenses import taxes tariffs agricultural subsidies non-tariff barriers However, most trade barriers all work on the same principle: the imposition of some sort of cost on trade that raises the price of the traded products. ...


In recent years historians have questioned both the underlying motivation and the overall effectiveness of the Marshall Plan. Some historians contend that the benefits of the Marshall Plan actually resulted from new laissez-faire policies that allowed markets to stabilize through economic growth.[2] It is now acknowledged that the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, which helped millions of refugees from 1944 to 1947, also laid the foundation for European postwar recovery. Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was founded in 1943 to provide relief to areas liberated from Axis powers. ...

Contents

Rejection by the Soviets

British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin heard Marshall's radio broadcast speech and immediately contacted French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault to begin preparing a quick European response to (and acceptance of) the offer. The two agreed that it would be necessary to invite the Soviets as the other major allied power. Marshall's speech had explicitly included an invitation to the Soviets, feeling that excluding them would have been too clear a sign of distrust. State Department officials, however, knew that Stalin would almost certainly not participate, and that any plan that did send large amounts of aid to the Soviets was unlikely to be approved by Congress. Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ... Georges Bidault, French statesman Georges-Augustin Bidault (October 5, 1899 – January 27, 1983) was a French politician and active in the French Resistance and Organisation de lArmée Secrète (OAS). ...


Stalin was at first cautiously interested in the plan. He felt that the Soviet Union stood in a good position after the war and would be able to dictate the terms of the aid. He thus dispatched foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov to Paris to meet with Bevin and Bidault.[3] The British and French leadership shared the American lack of genuine interest in Soviet participation, and they presented Molotov with conditions that the Soviets could never accept. The most important condition was that every country to join the plan would need to have its economic situation independently assessed, scrutiny to which the Soviets could not agree. Bevin and Bidault also insisted that any aid be accompanied by the creation of a unified European economy, something incompatible with the strict Soviet command economy. Molotov left Paris, rejecting the plan. For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ...


On July 12, a larger meeting was convened in Paris. Every country of Europe was invited, with the exceptions of Spain (which had stayed out of World War II but had sympathized with the Axis powers) and the small states of Andorra, San Marino, Monaco, and Liechtenstein. The Soviet Union was invited with the understanding that it would refuse. The states of the future Eastern Bloc were also approached, and Czechoslovakia and Poland agreed to attend. In one of the clearest signs of Soviet control over the region, the Czechoslovakian foreign minister, Jan Masaryk, was summoned to Moscow and berated by Stalin for thinking of joining the Marshall Plan. Polish Prime minister Josef Cyrankiewicz was rewarded by Stalin for the Polish rejection of the Plan. Russia rewarded Poland with a huge 5 year trade agreement, 450 million in credit, 200,000 tons of grain, heavy machinery and factories.[3] Stalin saw the Plan as a significant threat to Soviet control of Eastern Europe and believed that economic integration with the West would allow these countries to escape Soviet guidance. The Americans shared this view and hoped that economic aid could counter the growing Soviet influence. They were not too surprised, therefore, when the Czechoslovakian and Polish delegations were prevented from attending the Paris meeting. The other Eastern European states immediately rejected the offer.[4] Finland also declined in order to avoid antagonizing the Soviets. The Soviet Union's "alternative" to the Marshall plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with western Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan, and later, the COMECON. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Jan Masaryk (September 14, 1886 – March 10, 1948) was a Czechoslovak diplomat and politician. ... REDIRECT Józef_Cyrankiewicz ... Molotov The Molotov Plan was the system created by the Soviet Union in 1947 in order to provide aid to rebuild the countries in Eastern Europe that were politically and economically aligned to the Soviet Union. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ...


The Soviet representative to the United Nations said that the Marshall Plan violated the principles of the United Nations. He accused the United States of attempting to impose its will on other independent states, while at the same time using economic resources distributed as relief to needy nations as an instrument of political pressure. The United States was said to have attempted to split Europe into two camps to complete the formation of a bloc of several European countries hostile toward the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe.[4]


Negotiations

Turning the plan into reality required negotiations both among the participating nations, and also to get the plan through the United States Congress. Thus sixteen nations met in Paris to determine what form the American aid would take, and how it would be divided. The negotiations were long and complex, with each nation having its own interests. France's major concern was that Germany not be rebuilt to its previous threatening power. The Benelux countries, despite also suffering under the Nazis, had long been closely linked to the German economy and felt their prosperity depended on its revival. The Scandinavian nations, especially Sweden, insisted that their long-standing trading relationships with the Eastern Bloc nations not be disrupted and that their neutrality not be infringed. Britain insisted on special status, concerned that if it were treated equally with the devastated continental powers it would receive virtually no aid. The Americans were pushing the importance of free trade and European unity to form a bulwark against communism. The Truman administration, represented by William Clayton, promised the Europeans that they would be free to structure the plan themselves, but the administration also reminded the Europeans that for the plan to be implemented, it would have to pass Congress. The majority of Congress was committed to free trade and European integration, and also were hesitant to spend too much of the money on Germany.[5] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ... William Clayton can refer to: William Clayton, Mormon pioneer Sir William Clayton, prominent New Zealand Architect William Clayton, US assistant secretary of state for economic affairs (see the Bretton Woods system) William Clayton, publisher of Astounding Stories This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that...


Agreement was eventually reached and the Europeans sent a reconstruction plan to Washington. In this document the Europeans asked for $22 billion in aid. Truman cut this to $17 billion in the bill he put to Congress. The plan met sharp opposition in Congress, mostly from the portion of the Republican Party that advocated a more isolationist policy and was weary of massive government spending. This group's most prominent representative was Robert A. Taft. The plan also had opponents on the left, with Henry A. Wallace a strong opponent. Wallace saw the plan as a subsidy for American exporters and sure to polarize the world between East and West.[6] This opposition was greatly reduced by the shock of the overthrow of the democratic government of Czechoslovakia in February 1948. Soon after a bill granting an initial $5 billion passed Congress with strong bipartisan support. The Congress would eventually donate $12.4 billion in aid over the four years of the plan.[7] GOP redirects here. ... For the electronic album, see Isolationism (album). ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States (1941–45), the 11th Secretary of Agriculture (1933–40), and the 10th Secretary of Commerce (1945–46). ...


Truman signed the Marshall Plan into law on April 3, 1948, establishing the Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) to administer the program. ECA was headed by economic cooperation administrator Paul G. Hoffman. In the same year, the participating countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, West Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States) signed an accord establishing a master financial-aid-coordinating agency, the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (later called the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), which was headed by Frenchman Robert Marjolin. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA) was a United States government agency set up in 1948 to administer the Marshall Plan. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Robert Marjolin (27 July 1911 - 15 April 1986) was a French economist and politician, involved in the formation of the European Union. ...


Implementation

The first substantial aid went to Greece and Turkey in January 1947, which were seen as being on the front lines of the battle against communist expansion and were already being aided under the Truman Doctrine. Initially the UK had supported the anti-communist factions in those countries, but due to its dire economic condition it requested the U.S. to continue its efforts. The ECA formally began operation in July 1948. The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ...

First page of the Marshall Plan
First page of the Marshall Plan

The official mission statement of ECA was to give a boost to the European economy: to promote European production, to bolster European currency, and to facilitate international trade, especially with the United States, whose economic interest required Europe to become wealthy enough to import U.S. goods. Another unofficial goal of ECA (and of the Marshall Plan) was the containment of growing Soviet influence in Europe, evident especially in the growing strength of communist parties in Czechoslovakia, France, and Italy. Download high resolution version (600x890, 315 KB)First page of the Marshall Plan source File links The following pages link to this file: Marshall Plan Categories: National Archives and Records Administration images ... Download high resolution version (600x890, 315 KB)First page of the Marshall Plan source File links The following pages link to this file: Marshall Plan Categories: National Archives and Records Administration images ... Look up mission statement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ...


The Marshall Plan money was transferred to the governments of the European nations. The funds were jointly administered by the local governments and the ECA. Each European capital had an ECA envoy, generally a prominent American businessman, who would advise on the process. The cooperative allocation of funds was encouraged, and panels of government, business, and labor leaders were convened to examine the economy and see where aid was needed. Not to be confused with capitol. ...


The Marshall Plan aid was mostly used for the purchase of goods from the United States. The European nations had all but exhausted their foreign exchange reserves during the war, and the Marshall Plan aid represented almost their sole means of importing goods from abroad. At the start of the plan these imports were mainly much-needed staples such as food and fuel, but later the purchases turned towards reconstruction needs as was originally intended. In the latter years, under pressure from the United States Congress and with the outbreak of the Korean War, an increasing amount of the aid was spent on rebuilding the militaries of Western Europe. Of the some $13 billion allotted by mid-1951, $3.4 billion had been spent on imports of raw materials and semi-manufactured products; $3.2 billion on food, feed, and fertilizer; $1.9 billion on machines, vehicles, and equipment; and $1.6 billion on fuel.[8] Foreign exchange reserves are the foreign currency deposits held by national banks of different nations. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


Also established were counterpart funds, which used Marshall Plan aid to establish funds in the local currency. According to ECA rules 60% of these funds had to be invested in industry. This was prominent in Germany, where these government-administered funds played a crucial role lending money to private enterprises which would spend the money rebuilding. These funds played a central role in the reindustrialization of Germany. In 1949 – 50, for instance, 40% of the investment in the German coal industry was by these funds.[9] The companies were obligated to repay the loans to the government, and the money would then be lent out to another group of businesses. This process has continued to this day in the guise of the state owned KfW bank. The Special Fund, then supervised by the Federal Economics Ministry, was worth over DM 10 billion in 1971. In 1997 it was worth DM 23 billion. Through the revolving loan system, the Fund had by the end of 1995 made low-interest loans to German citizens amounting to around DM 140 billion. The other 40% of the counterpart funds were used to pay down the debt, stabilize the currency, or invest in non-industrial projects. France made the most extensive use of counterpart funds, using them to reduce the budget deficit. In France, and most other countries, the counterpart fund money was absorbed into general government revenues, and not recycled as in Germany. A counterpart fund is a technique for turning foreign aid into reserves of domestic currency. ... Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) is a development bank based in Frankfurt, Germany. ...


A far less expensive, but also quite effective, ECA initiative was the Technical Assistance Program. This program funded groups of European engineers and industrialists to visit the United States and tour mines, factories, and smelters so that they could then copy the American advances at home. At the same time several hundred American technical advisors were sent to Europe.


Expenditures

The Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states on a roughly per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was also directed towards the Allied nations, with less for those that had been part of the Axis or remained neutral. The table below shows Marshall Plan aid by country and year (in millions of dollars) from The Marshall Plan Fifty Years Later. There is no clear consensus on exact amounts, as different scholars differ on exactly what elements of American aid during this period was part of the Marshall Plan. Image File history File links Created by SimonP based on Image:Europe-GDP-PPP-per-capita-map. ... Image File history File links Created by SimonP based on Image:Europe-GDP-PPP-per-capita-map. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ...

Labeling used on aid packages
Labeling used on aid packages
Country 1948/49
($ millions)
1949/50
($ millions)
1950/51
($ millions)
Cumulative
($ millions)
Flag of Austria Austria 232 166 70 468
Flag of Belgium Belgium and Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg 195 222 360 777
Flag of Denmark Denmark 103 87 195 385
Flag of France France 1085 691 520 2296
Flag of West Germany West Germany[citation needed] 510 438 500 1448
Flag of Greece Greece 175 156 45 366
Flag of Iceland Iceland 6 22 15 43
Flag of Ireland Ireland 88 45 0 133
Flag of Italy Italy and Flag of Free Territory of Trieste Trieste 594 405 205 1204
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 471 302 355 1128
Flag of Norway Norway 82 90 200 372
Flag of Portugal Portugal 0 0 70 70
Flag of Sweden Sweden 39 48 260 347
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 0 0 250 250
Flag of Turkey Turkey 28 59 50 137
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 1316 921 1060 3297
Totals 4,924 3,652 4,155 12,721

Image File history File links US-MarshallPlanAid-Logo. ... Image File history File links US-MarshallPlanAid-Logo. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iceland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Free_Territory_Trieste_Flag. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Effects

One of a number of posters created to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe. The blue and white flag between those of Germany and Italy is a version of the Trieste flag.
One of a number of posters created to promote the Marshall Plan in Europe. The blue and white flag between those of Germany and Italy is a version of the Trieste flag.

The Marshall Plan ended in 1951, as originally scheduled. Any effort to extend it was halted by the growing cost of the Korean War and rearmament. U.S. Republicans hostile to the plan had also gained seats in the 1950 Congressional elections, and conservative opposition to the plan was revived. Thus the plan ended in 1951, though various other forms of American aid to Europe continued afterwards. Image File history File links One of a number of posters created by the Americans to sell the Marshall Plan in Europe. ... Image File history File links One of a number of posters created by the Americans to sell the Marshall Plan in Europe. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... The U.S. House election, 1950 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1950 which occurred in the middle of President Harry Trumans second term. ...


The years 1948 to 1952 saw the fastest period of growth in European history. Industrial production increased by 35%. Agricultural production substantially surpassed pre-war levels.[10] The poverty and starvation of the immediate postwar years disappeared, and Western Europe embarked upon an unprecedented two decades of growth that saw standards of living increase dramatically. There is some debate among historians over how much this should be credited to the Marshall Plan. Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe, as evidence shows that a general recovery was already underway. Most believe that the Marshall Plan sped this recovery, but did not initiate it.


The political effects of the Marshall Plan may have been just as important as the economic ones. Marshall Plan aid allowed the nations of Western Europe to relax austerity measures and rationing, reducing discontent and bringing political stability. The communist influence on Western Europe was greatly reduced, and throughout the region communist parties faded in popularity in the years after the Marshall Plan. The trade relations fostered by the Marshall Plan helped forge the North Atlantic alliance that would persist throughout the Cold War. At the same time the nonparticipation of the states of Eastern Europe was one of the first clear signs that the continent was now divided.


The Marshall Plan also played an important role in European integration. Both the Americans and many of the European leaders felt that European integration was necessary to secure the peace and prosperity of Europe, and thus used Marshall Plan guidelines to foster integration. In some ways this effort failed, as the OEEC never grew to be more than an agent of economic cooperation. Rather it was the separate European Coal and Steel Community, which notably excluded Britain, that would eventually grow into the European Union. However, the OEEC served as both a testing and training ground for the structures and bureaucrats that would later be used by the European Economic Community. The Marshall Plan, linked into the Bretton Woods system, also mandated free trade throughout the region. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


While some modern historians today feel some of the praise for the Marshall Plan is exaggerated, it is still viewed favorably and many thus feel that a similar project would help other areas of the world. After the fall of communism several proposed a "Marshall Plan for Eastern Europe" that would help revive that region. Others have proposed a Marshall Plan for Africa to help that continent, and U.S. vice president Al Gore suggested a Global Marshall Plan.[11] "Marshall Plan" has become a metaphor for any very large scale government program that is designed to solve a specific social problem. It is usually used when calling for federal spending to correct a perceived failure of the private sector.[12] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... The Global Marshall Plan is a plan first devised by Former American Vice-President Al Gore in his bestselling novel Earth in the Balance which gives specific ideas on how to save the global environment. ...


The West German economic recovery was partly due to the economic aid provided by the Marshall Plan, but mainly it was due to the currency reform of 1948 which replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender, halting rampant inflation. This act to strengthen the German economy had been explicitly forbidden during the two years that the occupation directive JCS 1067 was in effect. The Allied dismantling of the West German coal and steel industry finally ended in 1951 (The industrial plans for Germany). The Marshall Plan was only one of several forces behind the German recovery.[13][14] Even so, in Germany the myth of the Marshall Plan is still alive. According to Marshall Plan 1947–1997 A German View by Susan Stern, many Germans still believe that Germany was the exclusive beneficiary of the plan, that it consisted of a free gift of vast sums of money, and that it was solely responsible for the German economic recovery in the 1950s.[15] Monetary Reform is accounting reform that reaches more deeply into banking central bank, money supply and monetary policy. ... User(s) Germany Subunit 1/100 Reichspfennig Symbol RM Reichspfennig Rpf. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower the German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference the victorious Allies had decided to abolish the German armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that...


Repayment

The Organization for European Economic Cooperation took the leading role in allocating funds, and the ECA arranged for the transfer of the goods. The American supplier was paid in dollars, which were credited against the appropriate European Recovery Program funds. The European recipient, however, was not given the goods as a gift, but had to pay for them (though not necessarily at once, on credit etc.) in local currency, which was then deposited by the government in a counterpart fund. This money, in turn, could be used by the ERP countries for further investment projects.


Most of the participating ERP governments were aware from the beginning that they would never have to return the counterpart fund money to the U.S.; it was eventually absorbed into their national budgets and "disappeared." Originally the total American aid to Germany (in contrast to grants given to other countries in Europe) had to be repaid. But under the London debts agreement of 1953, the repayable amount was reduced to about $1 billion. Aid granted after 1 July 1951 amounted to around $270 million, of which Germany had to repay $16.9 million to the Washington Export-Import Bank. In reality, Germany did not know until 1953 exactly how much money it would have to pay back to the U.S., and insisted that money was given out only in the form of interest-bearing loans — a revolving system ensuring the funds would grow rather than shrink. A lending bank was charged with overseeing the program. European Recovery Program loans were mostly used to support small- and medium-sized businesses. Germany paid the U.S. back in installments (the last check was handed over in June 1971). However, the money was not paid from the ERP fund, but from the central government budget. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank, Exim Bank or Eximbank) is the official export credit agency of the United States Government. ...


Areas without the Marshall Plan

Large parts of the world devastated by World War II did not benefit from the Marshall Plan. The only major Western European nation excluded was Francisco Franco's Spain. After the war, it pursued a policy of self-sufficiency, currency controls, and quotas, with little success. With the escalation of the Cold War, the United States reconsidered its position, and in 1951 embraced Spain as an ally, encouraged by Franco's aggressive anti-communist policies. Over the next decade, a considerable amount of American aid would go to Spain, but less than its neighbors had received under the Marshall Plan.[16] Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ...


While the western portion of the Soviet Union had been as badly affected as any part of the world by the war, the eastern portion of the country was largely untouched and had seen a rapid industrialization during the war. The Soviets also imposed large reparations payments on the Axis allies that were in its sphere of influence. Finland, Hungary, Romania, and especially East Germany were forced to pay vast sums and ship large amounts of supplies to the USSR. These reparation payments meant that the Soviet Union received almost as much as any of the countries receiving Marshall Plan aid. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


It should be noted for the historical point of view that Finland is the only country so far (2008) which has paid all the reparation payments.


Eastern Europe saw no Marshall Plan money, as their governments rejected joining the program, and moreover received little help from the Soviets. The Soviets did establish COMECON as a rebuttal to the Marshall Plan. The members of Comecon looked to the Soviet Union for oil; in turn, they provided machinery, equipment, agricultural goods, industrial goods, and consumer goods to the Soviet Union. Some claim economic recovery in the east was much slower than in the west, and some feel the economies never fully recovered in the communist period, resulting in the formation of the shortage economies and a gap in wealth between East and West. However, the Soviet economy returned to pre-war levels in 1949 -- at the same time as West Germany. [5] Finland, which did not join the Marshall Plan and which was required to give large reparations to the USSR, saw its economy recover to pre-war levels in 1947. [6] France, which received billions of dollars through the Marshall Plan, similarly saw its economy return to pre-war levels in 1947.[7] By mid-1948 industrial production in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia had recovered to a level somewhat above pre-war level. [8] A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... Polish meat shop in the 1980s. ...


Japan too, had been badly damaged by the war. However, the American people and Congress were far less sympathetic towards the Japanese than they were to the Europeans. Japan was also not considered to have as great a strategic or economic importance to the United States. Thus no grand reconstruction plan was ever created, and the Japanese economic recovery before 1950 was slow. However, by 1952 growth had picked up, such that Japan continued, from 1952 to 1971 to grow in real GNP at an average annual rate of 9.6 percent. The US by contrast, grew at a rate of 2.9 percent from 1952 to 1991.[9] The Korean War may have played a role in the early economic growth in Japan. It began in 1950 and Japan became the main staging ground for the United Nations war effort, and a crucial supplier of material. One well known example is that of the Toyota company. In June 1950, the company produced 300 trucks, and was on the verge of going out of business. The first months of the war saw the military order over 5,000 vehicles, and the company was revived.[17] During the four years of the Korean War, the Japanese economy saw a substantially larger infusion of cash than had any of the Marshall Plan nations. Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... This article is about the automaker. ...


Canada, like the United States, was little damaged by the war and in 1945 was one of the world's largest economies. The Canadian economy had long been more dependent than the American one on trade with Europe, and after the war there were signs that the Canadian economy was struggling. In April 1948, the U.S. Congress passed the provision in the plan that allowed the aid to be used in purchasing goods from Canada. The new provision ensured the health of that nation's economy as Canada made over a billion dollars in the first two years of operation.[18] This contrasted heavily with the treatment Argentina, another major economy dependent on its agricultural exports with Europe, received from the ECA, as the country was deliberately excluded from participation in the Plan due to political differences between the U.S. and then-president Perón. This would damage the Argentine agricultural sector and help to precipitate an economic crisis in the country.[19] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine colonel and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina, serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ...


Criticism

The Marshall Plan has been described as "the most unsordid act in history". However, this may not be the case. The United States benefited from the plan, as aid-receiving countries were required to open their markets to US companies. The Russian newspaper Pravda in its June 25, 1947 issue accused the Marshall Plan of being motivated by a desire to prolong the boom in the United States, while merely lessening the economic crisis in Europe. This opinion was probably representative of Russian hostility to the Marshall Plan and is part of the reason the Soviet Union rejected it. For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ...


Early criticism of the Marshall Plan came from a number of liberal economists. Wilhelm Röpke, who influenced German chancellor Ludwig Erhard in his economic recovery program, believed recovery would be found in eliminating central planning and restoring a market economy in Europe, especially in those countries which had adopted more fascist and corporatist economic policies. Röpke criticized the Marshall plan for forestalling the transition to the free market by subsidizing the current, failing systems.[20] Erhard put Röpke's theory into practice and would later credit Röpke's influence for the West Germany's preeminent success.[21] Henry Hazlitt criticized the Marshall Plan in his 1947 book Will Dollars Save the World?, arguing that economic recovery comes through savings, capital accumulation and private enterprise, and not through large cash subsidies. Ludwig von Mises also criticized the Marshall Plan in 1951, believing that "The American subsidies make it possible for [Europe's] governments to conceal partially the disastrous effects of the various socialist measures they have adopted." He also made a general critique of foreign aid, believing it creates ideological enemies rather than economic partners by stifling the free market.[22] Wilhelm Röpke Wilhelm Röpke (October 10, 1899, Schwarmstedt, a village near Hannover - February 12, 1966, Geneva) was one of the most important spiritual fathers of the German social market economy. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Ludwig Erhard (February 4, 1897–May 5, 1977) was a German politician (CDU) and Chancellor of West Germany from 1963 until 1966. ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... Fascist redirects here. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian: corporativismo) refers to a political or economic system in which power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, social, cultural, and professional groups. ... Henry Hazlitt (November 28, 1894 - July 8, 1993) was a libertarian philosopher, economist and journalist for The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and Newsweek, among other publications. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 – October 10, 1973) (pronounced was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern libertarian movement. ...


Criticism of the Marshall Plan became prominent among historians of the revisionist school, such as Walter LaFeber, during the 1960s and 1970s. They argued that the plan was American economic imperialism, and that it was an attempt to gain control over Western Europe just as the Soviets controlled Eastern Europe. In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


The economist Tyler Cowen stated that nations receiving the most aid from the Marshall Plan (Britain, Sweden, Greece) saw the least returns and grew the least between 1947 and 1955. Those nations who received little (Austria, Germany & Italy) grew the most.[citation needed] Tyler Cowen (COW-en) (b. ...


In a review of West Germany's economy from 1945 to 1951, German analyst Werner Abelshauser concluded that "foreign aid was not crucial in starting the recovery or in keeping it going." The economic recoveries of France, Italy, and Belgium, Cowen found, also predated the flow of U.S. aid. Belgium, the country that relied earliest and most heavily on free market economic policies after its liberation in 1944, experienced the fastest recovery and avoided the severe housing and food shortages seen in the rest of continental Europe. [10]


Former U.S. Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank Alan Greenspan gives most credit to Ludwig Erhard for Europe's economic recovery. Greenspan writes in his memoir The Age of Turbulence that Erhard's economic policies were the most important aspect of postwar Western Europe recovery, far outweighing the contributions of the Marshall Plan. He states that it was Erhard's reductions in economic regulations that permitted Germany's miraculous recovery, and that these policies also contributed to the recoveries of many other European countries. Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (ISBN 1594201315) is the title of the memoir of former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, published on September 17, 2007. ... The term Wirtschaftswunder (English: economic miracle) designates the upturn experienced in the West German and Austrian economies after the Second World War. ...


Japan's recovery is also used as a counter-example, since it experienced rapid growth without any aid whatsoever. Its recovery is attributed to traditional economic stimuli, such as increases in investment, fueled by a high savings rate and low taxes.[23] Japan saw a large infusion of cash during the Korean war, but because this came in the form of investment and not subsidies, it proved far more beneficial.[citation needed] Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung...


Criticism of the Marshall Plan also aims at showing that it has begun a legacy of disastrous foreign aid. Since the 1990s, economic scholarship has been more hostile to the idea of foreign aid. For example, Alberto Alesina and Beatrice Weder, summing up economic literature on foreign aid and corruption, find that aid is primarily used wastefully and self-servingly by government officials, and ends up increasing governmental corruption.[24] This policy of promoting corrupt government is then attributed back to the initial impetus of the Marshall Plan.[25] Look up Aid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Noam Chomsky wrote that the amount of American dollars given to France and the Netherlands equaled the funds these countries used to finance their military forces in southeast Asia. The Marshall Plan was said to have "set the stage for large amounts of private U.S. investment in Europe, establishing the basis for the modern Transnational Corporations."[11] Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... For a Peruvian political party, see Alliance for Progress (Peru). ... Government and Relief in Occupied Areas (GARIOA) was the program under which the U.S. after World War II provided emergency aid to the occupied nations, Japan, Germany, Austria. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... The industrial plans for Germany or Level of Industry plans for Germany were the plans to lower the German industrial potential after World War II. At the Potsdam conference the victorious Allies had decided to abolish the German armed forces as well as all munitions factories and civilian industries that...

References

  1. ^ The $12 billion compares to the U.S. gross domestic product of $41 billion in 1949.
  2. ^ Thomas E. Woods, The Politically Incorrect Guide to American History, pp. 189-191. ISBN 0895260476
  3. ^ Gaddis, pg. 41.
  4. ^ Martin A. Schain, The Marshall Plan: fifty years after, Palgrave, 2001, ISBN 0312229623, p.132]
  5. ^ Michelle Cini, "From the Marshall Plan to the EEC," in The Marshall Plan: Fifty Years After, edited by Martin Schain, pg. 24.
  6. ^ Hogan, pg. 93.
  7. ^ Robert C. Grogin, Natural Enemies, pg. 118.
  8. ^ Hogan, pg. 415.
  9. ^ Nicholas Crafts and Gianni Toniolo, eds., Economic Growth in Europe Since 1945, pg. 464.
  10. ^ Grogin, pg. 118.
  11. ^ Marshall Plan style proposals for other parts of the world have been a perrenial idea. For instance, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown have referred to their African aid goals as "a Marshall Plan."[1]. After the end of the Cold War many felt Eastern Europe needed a rebuilding plan e.g. see [2].
  12. ^ John Agnew and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. Routledge. (2004)
  13. ^ German Economic "Miracle" by David R. Henderson
  14. ^ "Marshall Plan 1947–1997 A German View" by Susan Stern
  15. ^ "Marshall Plan 1947–1997 A German View" by Susan Stern
  16. ^ Crafts and Toniolo, eds., Economic Growth in Europe Since 1945, pg. 363.
  17. ^ William Whitney Stueck, Korean War in World History, pg. 146.
  18. ^ Robert Bothwell, The Big Chill: Canada and the Cold War, pg. 58.
  19. ^ Harold F. Peterson, Argentina and the United States II. (1914–1960), pg. 215.
  20. ^ Wilhelm Röpke (1899-1966): Humane Economist
  21. ^ Erhard, Ludwig, "Veröffentlichung von Wilhelm Röpke," in In Memoriam Wilhelm Röpke, Ed. by Universität Marburg,Rechts-und-Staatswissenschaftlice Fakultät, p. 22 ff. Cf. also, John Zmirak, Wilhelm Röpke: Swiss Localist, Global Economist (ISI Books, 2001)
  22. ^ from "Profit and Loss" presented to the Mont Pèlerin Society held in Beauvallon, France, September 9 to 16, 1951; reprinted in Planning for Freedom (South Holland, Ill.: Libertarian Press, 1952), http://www.mises.org/story/2321
  23. ^ Edward F. Denison & William K. Chung How Japan's Economy Grew So Fast Brookings Institute, 1976.
  24. ^ Alberto Alesina and Beatrice Weder, "Do Corrupt Governments Receive Less Foreign Aid?" American Economic Review 92 (4): (September 2002) pp. 1126–1137.
  25. ^ cf. for example, Jeffrey Tucker, "The Marshall Plan Myth" The Free Market 15:9 (Sept 1997)

GDP redirects here. ... The Politically Incorrect Guide to American History is a book by Thomas Woods, published in December of 2004. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ...

Bibliography

  • Arkes, Hadley. Bureaucracy, the Marshall Plan, and the National Interest. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1972.
  • Agnew, John and J. Nicholas Entrikin, eds. The Marshall Plan Today: Model and Metaphor. Routledge. (2004) online version
  • John Bledsoe Bonds; Bipartisan Strategy: Selling the Marshall Plan Praeger, 2002 online version
  • Bothwell, Robert. The Big Chill: Canada and the Cold War. Canadian Institute for International Affairs/Institut Canadien des Affaires Internationales Contemporary Affairs Series, No. 1. Toronto: Irwin Publishing Ltd., 1998.
  • Crafts, Nicholas, and Gianni Toniolo, eds. Economic Growth in Europe Since 1945. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Djelic, Marie-Laure A.; Exporting the American Model: The Post-War Transformation of European Business.Oxford University Press, 1998 online version
  • Chiarella Esposito; America's Feeble Weapon: Funding the Marshall Plan in France and Italy, 1948–1950, Greenwood Press, 1994 online version
  • Fossedal, Gregory A. Our Finest Hour: Will Clayton, the Marshall Plan, and the Triumph of Democracy. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1993.
  • Gaddis, John Lewis. We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Grogin, Robert C. Natural Enemies: The United States and the Soviet Union in the Cold War, 1917–1991. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2001.
  • Hogan, Michael J. The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947–1952. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
  • Matthias Kipping and Ove Bjarnar; The Americanisation of European Business: The Marshall Plan and the Transfer of Us Management Models Routledge, 1998 online version
  • Mee, Charles L. The Marshall Plan: The Launching of the Pax Americana. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.
  • Milward, Alan S. The Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1945–51. London: Methuen, 1984.
  • Schain, Martin, ed. The Marshall Plan: Fifty Years After. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
  • Stueck, William Whitney, ed. The Korean War in World History. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 2004.
  • Rhiannon Vickers; Manipulating Hegemony: State Power, Labour and the Marshall Plan in Britain Palgrave Publishers, 2000 online edition
  • Wallich, Henry Christopher. Mainsprings of the German Revival. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1955.
  • Wasser, Solidelle F. and Michael L. Dolfman; "BLS and the Marshall Plan: The Forgotten Story: The Statistical Technical Assistance of BLS Increased Productive Efficiency and Labor Productivity in Western European Industry after World War II; Technological Literature Surveys and Plan-Organized Plant Visits Supplemented Instruction in Statistical Measurement," Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 128, 2005
  • Wend, Henry Burke; Recovery and Restoration: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Politics of Reconstruction of West Germany's Shipbuilding Industry, 1945–1955. Praeger, 2001 online version

Hadley P. Arkes is a political science professor at Amherst College. ... Robert Bothwell is a professor of Canadian history, and the foremost scholar on Canadian Cold War participation, as well as a much published author. ... Nicholas F. R. Crafts (born March 9, 1949, Nottingham, England) is Professor of Economics and Economic History at the University of Warwick, a post he has held since 2005. ... Gregory Fossedal is a conservative activist. ... President George W. Bush and Laura Bush stand with 2005 National Humanities Medal recipient John Lewis Gaddis. ... Michael Hogan is an American academic who on August 1, 2007 was named as the 14th president of the University of Connecticut, succeeding Philip Austin who held the post 11 years. ... Charles L. Mee is an American playwright and author. ... Henry C Wallich, deceased. ...

Further reading

  • John Gimbel "The origins of the Marshall plan" (Stanford University Press, 1976). (reviewed here)
  • Greg Behrman The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe (Free Press, 2007) ISBN 0743282639

External links

James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 – April 9, 1972) was an American politician from the state of South Carolina. ... The Morgenthau Plan showing the planned partitioning of Germany into a North State, a South State, and an International zone. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Welcome Mr. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marshall Plan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6311 words)
It should be noted that when the Marshall Plan was initiated, the wartime alliances were still somewhat intact and the Cold War had not yet truly begun, and for most of those who developed the Marshall Plan, fear of the Soviet Union was not the overriding concern it would be in later years.
The Soviet Union's "alternative" to the Marshall plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with eastern Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan, and later, the COMECON.
Another unofficial goal of ECA (and of the Marshall Plan) was the containment of growing Soviet influence in Europe, evident especially in the growing strength of communist parties in Czechoslovakia, France, and Italy.
Marshall Plan - definition of Marshall Plan in Encyclopedia (1570 words)
The final plan was announced by Marshall at a speech at Harvard University on June 5, 1947 where he outlined the US government's preparedness to contribute to European recovery.
Marshall Plan aid to the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia) was extended through the Netherlands prior to transfer of sovereignty on December 30, 1949.
Because of its success, the Marshall Plan has often been cited as an example of how massive economic assistance can reduce poverty and how post war generosity by the victors on their defeated enemies can be more beneficial for all concerned.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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