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Encyclopedia > Marshall McLuhan
Marshall McLuhan

Born July 21, 1911(1911-07-21)
Edmonton, Alberta
Died December 31, 1980 (aged 69)
Toronto, Ontario

Herbert Marshall McLuhan CC (July 21, 1911 - December 31, 1980) was a Canadian educator, philosopher, and scholar — a professor of English literature, a literary critic, and a communications theorist. McLuhan's work is viewed as one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory. McLuhan is well-known for coining the expressions "the medium is the message" and the "global village". Image File history File links MarshallMcLuhan. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Edmonton (disambiguation). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Eric McLuhan is the son of well known media theorist Marshall McLuhan and co-authored with him the book The Laws of Media. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... The term English literature refers to literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; Joseph Conrad was Polish, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, Salman Rushdie is Indian, V.S... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... There is much discussion in the academic world of communication as to what actually constitutes communication. ... Media studies, a communication science, studies the nature and effects of media upon individuals and society. ... The media is the message is a phrase meaning that available media shape human activity, more so than what media are used for. ... Global village is a term coined by Wyndham Lewis in his book America and Cosmic Man (1948). ...


McLuhan was a fixture in media discourse from the late 1960s to his death and he continues to be an influential and controversial figure. Years after his death he was named the "patron saint" of Wired magazine. This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Biography

Life and career

McLuhan's 1962 book , The Gutenberg Galaxy, popularised the terms global village and gutenberg galaxy. McLuhan analysed the effects of various communication media and techniques on European culture and human consciousness.

Marshall McLuhan was born in 1911 in Edmonton, Alberta, to Methodist parents Herbert Ernest McLuhan and the former Elsie Naomi McLuhan, née Hall. His brother, Maurice, was born two years later. "Marshall" was a family name: his maternal grandmother's surname. Both of his parents were born in Canada. His mother was a Baptist schoolteacher who later became an actress. His father had a real estate business in Edmonton. When war broke out, the business failed, and McLuhan's father was enlisted into the Canadian army. After a year of service he contracted influenza and remained in Canada, away from the front. After Herbert's discharge from the army in 1915, the McLuhan family moved to Winnipeg, Manitoba, where Marshall grew up and went to school, attending Kelvin Technical High School before enrolling in the University of Manitoba in 1928. [1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Global village is a term coined by Wyndham Lewis in his book America and Cosmic Man (1948). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ... The University of Manitoba is the largest university of the province of Manitoba, most comprehensive and only research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. ...


McLuhan earned a BA (1933) — winning a University Gold Medal in Arts and Sciences[2] — and MA (1934) in English from the University of Manitoba, after a one year stint as an engineering major. He had long desired to pursue graduate studies in England and, having failed to secure a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford, McLuhan was accepted for enrollment at the University of Cambridge. Although he already had earned BA and MA degrees at Manitoba, Cambridge required him to enroll as an undergraduate "affiliated" student, with one year's credit toward a three-year Cambridge Bachelor's degree, before any doctoral studies.[3] He entered Trinity Hall, Cambridge in the Fall of 1934, where he studied under I. A. Richards and F. R. Leavis, and was influenced by New Criticism.[4] Upon reflection years after, he credited the faculty there with influencing the direction of his later work because of their emphasis on the training of perception and such concepts as Richards's notion of feedforward.[5] These studies formed an important precursor to his later ideas on technological forms. [6] He received his second bachelor's degree from Cambridge in 1936[7] and began graduate work. Later, he returned from England to take a job as a teaching assistant at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, which he held for the 1936-37 academic year, unable to find a suitable job in Canada.[8] English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S., Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the Philippines, India, South Africa, and the Middle East, among other areas), English linguistics (including English phonetics, phonology... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... College name College of Scholars of the Holy Trinity of Norwich Named after The Holy Trinity Established 1350 Location Trinity Lane Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... Ivor Armstrong Richards (February 26, 1893-1979) was an influential literary critic and rhetorician. ... Frank Raymond Leavis (July 14, 1895 - April 14, 1978) was an influential British literary critic of the early-to-mid-twentieth century. ... New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ... “University of Wisconsin” redirects here. ...


While studying the trivium at Cambridge he took the first steps toward his eventual conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1937,[9] founded on his reading of G. K. Chesterton.[10] In the end of March 1937,[11] McLuhan culminated what was a slow but total conversion process when he was formally received into the Roman Catholic Church. After consulting with a minister, his father was accepting of the decision to convert; his mother, however, felt that his conversion would hurt his career and was inconsolable.[12] McLuhan was devout throughout his life, but his religion remained a private matter.[13] He had a lifelong interest in the number three[14] - the trivium, the Trinity - and sometimes said that the Virgin Mary provided intellectual guidance for him.[15] For any other uses see, see Trivium (disambiguation). ... Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ...


For the rest of his career he taught in Roman Catholic institutions of higher education. From 1937 to 1944 he taught English at Saint Louis University (with an interruption from 1939 to 1940 when he returned to Cambridge). At Saint Louis he tutored and befriended Walter J. Ong (1912-2003), who would go on to write his Ph.D. dissertation on a topic McLuhan had called to his attention, and who would himself also later become a well-known authority on communication and technology. Saint Louis University is a private, co-educational Catholic Jesuit university in the United States of America located in St. ... Walter Ong Father Walter Jackson Ong, Ph. ...


While in St. Louis, he also met his future wife. On 4 August 1939, McLuhan married teacher and aspiring actress Corinne Lewis of Fort Worth, Texas, and they spent 1939 to 1940 in Cambridge, where he completed his Masters degree (awarded in January 1940[16]) and began to work on his doctoral dissertation on Thomas Nashe and the verbal arts. War had broken out in Europe while the McLuhans were in England, and he obtained permission to complete and submit his dissertation from the United States, without having to return to Cambridge for an oral defense. They returned to Saint Louis University in 1940 where he continued teaching and, with his wife, started a family. He was awarded the Ph.D. in December 1943.[17] is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Tarrant and Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City  298. ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Returning to Canada, from 1944 to 1946 McLuhan taught at Assumption College in Windsor, Ontario. Moving to Toronto in 1946, McLuhan joined the faculty of St. Michael's College, a Catholic college of the University of Toronto. Hugh Kenner was one of his students and Canadian economist and communications scholar Harold Innis was a university colleague who had a strong influence on McLuhan's work. Assumption University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada has a heritage reaching back to 1857 and is the parent of the University of Windsor, administered by the Congregation of St. ... Nickname: Motto: The river and the land sustain us. ... The Brennan Hall complex at St. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Hugh Kenner (January 7, 1923 – November 24, 2003), Canadian literary scholar, critic, & professor. ... Harold Adams Innis (November 5, 1894-November 8, 1952) was a professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of many seminal works on Canadian economic history and on media and communications. ...


In the early 1950s, McLuhan began the Communication and Culture seminars, funded by the Ford Foundation, at the University of Toronto. As his notoriety grew, he received a growing number of offers from other universities and, to keep him, U of T created the Centre for Culture and Technology in 1963.[6]


He published his first major work during this period: The Mechanical Bride (1951) was an examination of the effect of advertising on society and culture. He also produced an important journal, Explorations, with Edmund Carpenter, throughout the 1950s. Together with Harold Innis, Eric Havelock, Derrick DeKerckhove, and Barry Wellman, McLuhan and Carpenter have been characterized as the Toronto School of Communication. Barry Wellman directs NetLab as a professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto. ...


McLuhan remained at U of T through 1979, spending much of this time as head of his Centre for Culture and Technology.


McLuhan was named to the Albert Schweitzer Chair in Humanities at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York, for one year (1967-68).[18] While at Fordham, McLuhan was diagnosed with a benign brain tumor; it was treated successfully. He returned to Toronto where for the rest of his life, he worked at the University of Toronto and lived in Wychwood Park, a bucolic enclave on a hill overlooking the downtown where Anatol Rapoport was his neighbour. Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965), was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[2] in the United States, with three residential campuses located in and around New York City. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Wychwood Park is a neighbourhood and former gated community in Toronto, Canada. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ...


Marshall and Corinne McLuhan had six children: Eric, twins Mary and Teresa, Stephanie, Elizabeth and Michael. In 1970, McLuhan was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. Eric McLuhan is the son of well known media theorist Marshall McLuhan and co-authored with him the book The Laws of Media. ... Seal of the Order of Canada The Order of Canada is Canadas highest civilian honour, with membership awarded to those who exemplify the Orders Latin motto Desiderantes meliorem patriam, which means (those) desiring a better country (Hebrews 11. ...


The McLuhans had a large family, and the associated costs eventually drove McLuhan to advertising work and accepting frequent consulting and speaking engagements for large corporations, IBM and AT&T among them.[6]


In September 1979 he suffered a stroke, which affected his ability to speak. The University of Toronto's School of Graduate Studies tried to close his research center shortly thereafter, but was deterred by substantial protests, most notably by Woody Allen with whom he appeared in the Oscar-winning motion picture Annie Hall. [19] The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Annie Hall is a 1977 romantic comedy film directed by Woody Allen from a script he co-wrote with Marshall Brickman. ...


He died in his sleep on New Year's Eve of 1980.


Scholarly works

During his years at Saint Louis University (1937-1944), McLuhan worked concurrently on two projects: his doctoral dissertation and the manuscript that was eventually published in 1951 as the book The Mechanical Bride, which included only a representative selection of the materials that McLuhan had prepared for it. Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ...


McLuhan's 1942 Cambridge University doctoral dissertation surveys the history of the verbal arts (grammar, dialectic and logic, and rhetoric -- collectively known as the trivium) from the time of Cicero down to the time of Thomas Nashe.[20] In his later publications, McLuhan at times uses the Latin concept of the trivium to outline an orderly and systematic picture of certain periods in the history of Western culture. McLuhan suggests that the Middle Ages, for instance, was characterized by the heavy emphasis on the formal study of logic. The key development that led to the Renaissance was not the rediscovery of ancient texts but a shift in emphasis from the formal study of logic to rhetoric and language. Modern life is characterized by the reemergence of grammar as its most salient feature -- a trend McLuhan felt was exemplified by the New Criticism of Richards and Leavis.[21] Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of spoken language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... New Criticism was the dominant trend in English and American literary criticism of the early twentieth century, from the 1920s to the early 1960s. ...


In The Mechanical Bride, McLuhan turned his attention to analyzing and commenting on numerous examples of persuasion in contemporary popular culture. This followed naturally from his earlier work as both dialectic and rhetoric in the classical trivium aimed at persuasion. At this point his focus shifted dramatically, turning inward to study the influence of communication media independent of their content. His famous slogan, "the medium is the message" (elaborated in his 1964 book, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man) calls attention to this intrinsic effect of communications media. (It should be noted that he titled his later, 1967, book The Medium is the Massage.) The slogan, "the medium is the message", is best understood in light of Bernard Lonergan's further articulation of related ideas: at the empirical level of consciousness, the medium is the message, whereas at the intelligent and rational levels of consciousness, the content is the message.[22] Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... It has been suggested that Mass wire media be merged into this article or section. ... The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects is a book co-created by media analyst Marshall McLuhan and graphic designer Quentin Fiore, and coordinated by Jerome Agel. ... Bernard Lonergan, S.J. (17 December 1904 – 26 November 1984) was a Canadian Jesuit Priest. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ...


When McLuhan declares that he is more interested in percepts than concepts, he is declaring in effect that he is more interested in what Lonergan refers to as the empirical level of consciousness than in what Lonergan refers to as the intelligent level of consciousness in which concepts are formed, which Lonergan distinguishes from the rational level of consciousness in which the adequacy of concepts and of predications is adjudicated. McLuhan's inward turn to attending to percepts and to the cultural conditioning of the empirical level of consciousness through the effect of communication media sets him apart from more outward-oriented studies of sociological influences and the outward presentation of self carried out by George Herbert Mead, Erving Goffman, Berger and Luckmann, Kenneth Burke, Hugh Duncan, and others. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Concept (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Mead (February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. ... Erving Goffman Erving Goffman (June 11, 1922 – November 19, 1982), was a sociologist and writer. ... Kenneth Burke (May 5, 1897–November 19, 1993) was a major American literary theorist and philosopher. ...


McLuhan also started the journal Explorations with Edmund "Ted" Carpenter.[23] Edmund (Snow) Ted Carpenter (born 1922) has taught anthropology for 40 years at the Universities of Toronto, California and Harvard. ...


Theoretical framework

The Mechanical Bride (1951)

McLuhan's The Mechanical Bride:Folklore of Industrial Man (1951) is a pioneering study in the field now known as popular culture. His interest in the critical study of popular culture was influenced by the 1933 book Culture and Environment by F.R. Leavis and Denys Thompson. Popular culture, sometimes abbreviated to pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... Frank Raymond Leavis (1895-1978) was an influential British literary critic of the early-to-mid-twentieth century. ...


In 1960 there were a few authors who captured the fancy of the Western World as well Marshal McLuhan did. Like his 1962 book The Gutenberg Galaxy, The Mechanical Bride is sui generis and composed of a number of short essays that can be read in any order – what he styled the "mosaic approach" to writing a book. Each essay begins with a newspaper or magazine article or an advertisement, followed by McLuhan's analysis thereof. The analyses bear on aesthetic considerations as well as on the implications behind the imagery and text. McLuhan chose the ads and articles included in his book not only to draw attention to their symbolism and their implications for the corporate entities that created and disseminated them, but also to mull over what such advertising implies about the wider society at which it is aimed. Sui generis is a (post) Latin expression, literally meaning a scholar like what pradeep is or unique in its characteristics. ...


Examples of advertisements

  • A nose for news and a stomach for whiskey: McLuhan analyzes an ad for Time Magazine in which he likens a reporter depicted as a romantic character from a Hemingway novel and asks "Why is it [his] plangent duty to achieve cirrhosis of the liver?"[24]
  • Freedom to Listen - Freedom to Look: An ad for the Radio Corporation of America depicts a rural family doing their business with the radio on. Earlier in the Bride McLuhan notes "We still have our freedom to listen?" and here "Come on kiddies. Buy a radio and feel free - to listen."[25]
  • For Men of Distinction - Lord Calvert: An ad for Lord Calvert whiskey depicts nine gentlemen holding a glass of their whiskey, while McLuhan notes the lack of non-artists amongst them; "Why pick on the arts? Hasn't anyone in science or industry ever distinguished himself by drinking whiskey?"[26]
  • The Famous DuBarry Success Course: An ad for beauty creams complete with female model in a swimsuit hawks itself as a "success course" complete with "tuition", to which McLuhan asks, "Why laugh and grow fat when you can experience anguish and success in a strait jacket?" [27]

nick is gay

The Gutenberg Galaxy (1962)

McLuhan's The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (written in 1961, first published in Canada by University of Toronto Press in 1962) is a pioneering study in the fields of oral culture, print culture, cultural studies, and media ecology. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Hemingway can mean: Ernest Hemingway, American writer (1899 – 1961) Margaux Hemingway, American actress (1955 – 1996) Mariel Hemingway, American actress (born 1961) George Hemingway, American businessman (born 1947) Hemingway: On The Edge, a one-man American play Hemingway, South Carolina, a town in the U.S. state of South Carolina Hemingway... RCA, formerly an initialism for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark used by two companies for products descended from that common ancestor: Thomson Consumer Electronics, which manufactures RCA-branded televisions, DVD players, video cassette recorders, direct broadcast satellite decoders, camcorders, audio equipment, telephones, and related accessories; and... The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (University of Toronto Press) is a 1962 book by Marshall McLuhan. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... Orality can be defined as thought and its verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy (especially writing and print) are unfamiliar to most of the population. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Media ecology is an interdisciplinary field of media theory involving the study of media environments. ...


Throughout the book, McLuhan takes pains to reveal how communication technology (alphabetic writing, the printing press, and the electronic media) affects cognitive organization, which in turn has profound ramifications for social organization: The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ...

...[I]f a new technology extends one or more of our senses outside us into the social world, then new ratios among all of our senses will occur in that particular culture. It is comparable to what happens when a new note is added to a melody. And when the sense ratios alter in any culture then what had appeared lucid before may suddenly become opaque, and what had been vague or opaque will become translucent.[28]

Movable type

His episodic and often rambling history takes the reader from pre-alphabetic tribal humankind to the electronic age. According to McLuhan, the invention of movable type greatly accelerated, intensified, and ultimately enabled cultural and cognitive changes that had already been taking place since the invention and implementation of the alphabet, by which McLuhan means phonemic orthography. (McLuhan is careful to distinguish the phonetic alphabet from logographic/logogramic writing systems, like hieroglyphics or ideograms.) This article is about the engineering discipline. ... A case of cast metal type pieces and typeset matter in a composing stick Movable type is the system of printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type, made by casting from matrices struck by letterpunches. ... A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... A Chinese logogram A logogram, or logograph, is a single written character which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... A Chinese character. ...


Print culture, ushered in by the Gutenberg press in the middle of the fifteenth century, brought about the cultural predominance of the visual over the aural/oral. Quoting with approval an observation on the nature of the printed word from Prints and Visual Communication by William Ivins, McLuhan remarks: The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... William Ivins, Jr. ...

In this passage [Ivins] not only notes the ingraining of lineal, sequential habits, but, even more important, points out the visual homogenizing of experience of print culture, and the relegation of auditory and other sensuous complexity to the background. [...] The technology and social effects of typography incline us to abstain from noting interplay and, as it were, "formal" causality, both in our inner and external lives. Print exists by virtue of the static separation of functions and fosters a mentality that gradually resists any but a separative and compartmentalizing or specialist outlook.[29]

The main concept of McLuhan's argument (later elaborated upon in The Medium is the Message) is that new technologies (like alphabets, printing presses, and even speech itself) exert a gravitational effect on cognition, which in turn affects social organization: print technology changes our perceptual habits ("visual homogenizing of experience"), which in turn affects social interactions ("fosters a mentality that gradually resists all but a... specialist outlook"). According to McLuhan, the advent of print technology contributed to and made possible most of the salient trends in the Modern period in the Western world: individualism, democracy, Protestantism, capitalism and nationalism. For McLuhan, these trends all reverberate with print technology's principle of "segmentation of actions and functions and principle of visual quantification."[30] The media is the message is a phrase meaning that available media shape human activity, more so than what media are used for. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ...


The global village

In the early 1960s, McLuhan wrote that the visual, individualistic print culture would soon be brought to an end by what he called "electronic interdependence": when electronic media replace visual culture with aural/oral culture. In this new age, humankind will move from individualism and fragmentation to a collective identity, with a "tribal base." McLuhan's coinage for this new social organization is the global village, a term which has predominantly negative connotations in The Gutenberg Galaxy (a fact lost on its later popularizers): A screenshot of a web page. ... Visual culture is a field of study within cultural studies focusing on aspects of culture that rely on visual images. ... Global village is a term coined by Wyndham Lewis in his book America and Cosmic Man (1948). ...

Instead of tending towards a vast Alexandrian library the world has become a computer, an electronic brain, exactly as an infantile piece of science fiction. And as our senses have gone outside us, Big Brother goes inside. So, unless aware of this dynamic, we shall at once move into a phase of panic terrors, exactly befitting a small world of tribal drums, total interdependence, and superimposed co-existence. [...] Terror is the normal state of any oral society, for in it everything affects everything all the time. [...] In our long striving to recover for the Western world a unity of sensibility and of thought and feeling we have no more been prepared to accept the tribal consequences of such unity than we were ready for the fragmentation of the human psyche by print culture.[31]

Note again McLuhan's stress on the importance of awareness of a medium's cognitive effects. He argues that, if we are not vigilant to the effects of media's influence, the global village has the potential to become a place where totalitarianism and terror rule. The Royal Library of Alexandria was once the largest in the world. ... This article is about the machine. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...


Key to McLuhan's argument is the idea that technology has no per se moral bent -- it is a tool that profoundly shapes an individual's and, by extension, a society's self-conception and realization:

Is it not obvious that there are always enough moral problems without also taking a moral stand on technological grounds? [...] Print is the extreme phase of alphabet culture that detribalizes or decollectivizes man in the first instance. Print raises the visual features of alphabet to highest intensity of definition. Thus print carries the individuating power of the phonetic alphabet much further than manuscript culture could ever do. Print is the technology of individualism. If men decided to modify this visual technology by an electric technology, individualism would also be modified. To raise a moral complaint about this is like cussing a buzz-saw for lopping off fingers. "But", someone says, "we didn't know it would happen." Yet even witlessness is not a moral issue. It is a problem, but not a moral problem; and it would be nice to clear away some of the moral fogs that surround our technologies. It would be good for morality.[32]

The moral valence of technology's effects on cognition is, for McLuhan, a matter of perspective. For instance, McLuhan contrasts the considerable alarm and revulsion that the growing quantity of books aroused in the latter seventeenth century with the modern concern for the "end of the book." If there can be no universal moral sentence passed on technology, McLuhan believes that "there can only be disaster arising from unawareness of the causalities and effects inherent in our technologies." For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Individualism is a term used to describe a moral, political, or social outlook that stresses human independence and the importance of individual self-reliance and liberty. ... -1... Valence, as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness (positive valence) or aversiveness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation[1] However, the term is also used to characterize and categorize specific emotions. ...


Though the World Wide Web was invented thirty years after The Gutenberg Galaxy was published, McLuhan may have coined and certainly popularized the usage of the term "surfing" to refer to rapid, irregular and multidirectional movement through a heterogeneous body of documents or knowledge, e.g., statements like "Heidegger surf-boards along on the electronic wave as triumphantly as Descartes rode the mechanical wave." Paul Levinson's 1999 book Digital McLuhan explores the ways that McLuhan's work can be better understood through the lens of the digital revolution. WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ... Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger (September 26, 1889 – May 26, 1976) was a German philosopher. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ...


McLuhan frequently quoted Walter Ong's Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue (1958), which evidently had prompted McLuhan to write The Gutenberg Galaxy. Ong wrote a highly favorable review of this new book in America.[33] However, Ong later tempered his praise, by describing McLuhan's The Gutenberg Galaxy as "a racy survey, indifferent to some scholarly detail, but uniquely valuable in suggesting the sweep and depth of the cultural and psychological changes entailed in the passage from illiteracy to print and beyond."[34] McLuhan himself said of the book, "I'm not concerned to get any kudos out of [The Gutenberg Galaxy]. It seems to me a book that somebody should have written a century ago. I wish somebody else had written it. It will be a useful prelude to the rewrite of Understanding Media [the 1960 NAEB report] that I'm doing now." [citation needed] Walter Ong Walter J. Ong (November 30, 1912 – August 12, 2003) is an educator, academic, and linguist known for his work in Renaissance literary and intellectual history and in contemporary culture as well as for his more wide-ranging studies on the evolution of consciousness. ...


McLuhan's The Gutenberg Galaxy won Canada's highest literary award, the Governor-General's Award for Non-Fiction, in 1962. The chairman of the selection committee was McLuhan's colleague at the University of Toronto and oftentime intellectual sparring partner, Northrop Frye.[35] This is a list of Governor Generals Award winners for English language non-fiction. ... Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ...


Understanding Media (1964)

Book cover Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man by Marshall McLuhan, 1964. It is the source of the phrase The medium is the message.
Book cover Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man by Marshall McLuhan, 1964. It is the source of the phrase The medium is the message.

McLuhan's most widely known work, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964), is also a pioneering study in media ecology. In it McLuhan proposed that media themselves, not the content they carry, should be the focus of study –- popularly quoted as "the medium is the message." McLuhan's theory was that a medium affects the society in which it plays a role not by the content delivered over the medium, but by the characteristics of the medium itself. McLuhan pointed to the light bulb as a clear demonstration of this concept. A light bulb does not have content in the way that a newspaper has articles or a television has programs, yet it is a medium that has a social effect; that is, a light bulb enables people to create spaces during nighttime that would otherwise be enveloped by darkness. He describes the lightbulb as a medium without any content. McLuhan states that "a light bulb creates an environment by its mere presence."[36] More controversially, he postulated that content had little effect on society –- in other words, it did not matter if television broadcasts children's shows or violent programming, to illustrate one example -– the effect of television on society would be identical. He noted that all media have characteristics that engage the viewer in different ways; for instance, a passage in a book could be reread at will, but a movie had to be screened again in its entirety to study any individual part of it. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The media is the message is a phrase meaning that available media shape human activity, more so than what media are used for. ... Understanding Media is a book by Marshall McLuhan. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


"Hot" and "cool" media

McLuhan also claimed in the first part of Understanding Media, that different media invite different degrees of participation on the part of a person who chooses to consume a medium. Some media, like the movies, enhance one single sense, in this case vision, in such a manner that a person does not need to exert much effort in filling in the details of a movie image. McLuhan contrasted this with TV, which he claimed requires more effort on the part of viewer to determine meaning, and comics, which due to their minimal presentation of visual detail require a high degree of effort to fill in details that the cartoonist may have intended to portray. A movie is thus said by McLuhan to be "hot", intensifying one single sense "high definition", demanding a viewer's attention, and a comic book to be "cool" and "low definition", requiring much more conscious participation by the reader to extract value.[37] Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ...


Hot media are usually, but not always, visual media; for example, print occupies visual space and is "hot". Hot media favour analytical precision, quantitative analysis and sequential ordering, as they are usually sequential, linear and logical. They emphasize one sense (for example, of sight or sound) over the others. For this reason, hot media also include radio, as well as film, the lecture and photograph. “Moving picture” redirects here. ... A lecture on linear algebra at the Helsinki University of Technology A lecture is an oral presentation intended to teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Cool media, on the other hand, are usually, but not always, associated with the sense of hearing. They require more active participation on the part of the user, including the perception of abstract patterning and simultaneous comprehension of all parts. Cool media, according to McLuhan, therefore include television, as well as the seminar and cartoons. A seminar is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at a university or offered by a commercial or professional organization. ... Cartoons started in the 1930s and 40s. ...


This concept appears to force media into binary categories. However, McLuhan's "hot" and "cool" exist on a continuum: they are more correctly measures on a scale than dichotomous terms. [6]


The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects (1967)

In this book, initiated by Quentin Fiore, McLuhan adopted the term "massage" to denote the effect each medium has on the human sensorium, inventorying the "effects" of numerous media in terms of how they "massage" the sensorium.[38] Quentin Fiore is a graphic designer, particularly of books. ...


Fiore, at the time a prominent graphic designer and communications consultant, set about composing the visual illustration of these theories. Near the beginning of the book, Fiore adopted a pattern in which an image demonstrating a media effect was presented with a textual synopsis on the facing page. The reader experiences a repeated shifting of analytic registers -- from "reading" typographic print to "scanning" photographic facsimiles -- reinforcing McLuhan's overarching argument in this book: namely, that each medium produces a different "massage" or "effect" on the human sensorium.


In The Medium is the Massage, McLuhan also rehashed the argument -- which first appeared in the Prologue to 1962's The Gutenberg Galaxy -- that media are "extensions" of our human senses, bodies and minds.


Finally, McLuhan described key points of change in how man has viewed the world and how these views were changed by the adoption of new media. "The technique of invention was the discovery of the nineteenth [century]", brought on by the adoption of fixed points of view and perspective by typography, while "[t]he technique of the suspended judgment is the discovery of the twentieth century", brought on by the bard abilities of radio, movies and television.[39] Perspective in theory of cognition is the choice of a context or a reference (or the result of this choice) from which to sense, categorize, measure or codify experience, cohesively forming a coherent belief, typically for comparing with another. ... The Bard (ca. ...


War and Peace in the Global Village (1968)

McLuhan used James Joyce's Finnegans Wake as a major inspiration for the study of war throughout history as an indicator as to how war may be conducted in the future. James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... For the street ballad which the novel is named after, see Finnegans Wake. ...


Joyce's Wake is claimed to be a gigantic cryptogram which reveals a cyclic pattern for the whole history of man through its Ten Thunders. Each "thunder" below is a 100 character portmanteau of other words to create a statement he likens to an effect that each technology has on the society into which it is introduced. In order to glean the most understanding out of each, the reader must break the portmanteau into separate words (and many of these are themselves portmanteaus of words taken from multiple languages other than English) and speak them aloud for the spoken effect of each word. There is much dispute over what each portmanteau truly denotes. A portmanteau (IPA pronunciation: RP, US) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ...


McLuhan claims that the ten thunders in Wake represent different stages in the history of man:[40]

Thunder 1: Paleolithic to Neolithic. Speech. Split of East/West. From herding to harnessing animals.
Thunder 2: Clothing as weaponry. Enclosure of private parts. First social aggression.
Thunder 3: Specialism. Centralism via wheel, transport, cities: civil life.
Thunder 4: Markets and truck gardens. Patterns of nature submitted to greed and power.
Thunder 5: Printing. Distortion and translation of human patterns and postures and pastors.
Thunder 6: Industrial Revolution. Extreme development of print process and individualism.
Thunder 7: Tribal man again. All choractors end up separate, private man. Return of choric.
Thunder 8: Movies. Pop art, pop Kulch via tribal radio. Wedding of sight and sound.
Thunder 9: Car and Plane. Both centralizing and decentralizing at once create cities in crisis. Speed and death.
Thunder 10: Television. Back to tribal involvement in tribal mood-mud. Last thunder = turbulent, muddy wake, and murk of non-visual, tactile man.

The Medium is the Massage (audio recording, late 1960s)

An audio recording version of McLuhan's famous work was made by Columbia Records. The recording consists of a pastiche of statements made by McLuhan interrupted by other speakers, including people speaking in various phonations and falsettos, discordant sounds and 1960s incidental music in what could be considered a deliberate attempt to translate the disconnected images seen on TV into an audio format, resulting in the prevention of a connected stream of conscious thought. Various audio recording techniques and statements are used to illustrate the relationship between spoken, literary speech and the characteristics of electronic audio media. McLuhan biographer Philip Marchand called the recording "the 1967 equivalent of a McLuhan video." In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Falsetto is a singing technique that produces sounds that are pitched higher than the singers normal range, in the treble range. ...

"I wouldn't be seen dead with a living work of art." - 'Old man' speaking
"Drop this jiggery-pokery and talk straight turkey." - 'Middle aged man' speaking

Key concepts

Tetrad

Main article: Tetrad of media effects

In Laws of Media (1988), published posthumously by his son Eric, McLuhan summarized his ideas about media in a concise tetrad of media effects. The tetrad is a means of examining the effects on society of any technology (i.e., any medium) by dividing its effects into four categories and displaying them simultaneously. McLuhan designed the tetrad as a pedagogical tool, phrasing his laws as questions with which to consider any medium: In Laws of Media (1988) and The Global Village (1989), published posthumously, Marshall McLuhan summarized his ideas about media in a concise tetrad of media effects. ... Eric McLuhan is the son of well known media theorist Marshall McLuhan and co-authored with him the book The Laws of Media. ...

  • What does the medium enhance?
  • What does the medium make obsolete?
  • What does the medium retrieve that had been obsolesced earlier?
  • What does the medium flip into when pushed to extremes?

The laws of the tetrad exist simultaneously, not successively or chronologically, and allow the questioner to explore the "grammar and syntax" of the "language" of media. McLuhan departs from his mentor Harold Innis in suggesting that a medium "overheats", or reverses into an opposing form, when taken to its extreme.[6] Harold Adams Innis (November 5, 1894-November 8, 1952) was a professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of many seminal works on Canadian economic history and on media and communications. ...


Visually, a tetrad can be depicted as four diamonds forming an X, with the name of a medium in the center. The two diamonds on the left of a tetrad are the Enhancement and Retrieval qualities of the medium, both Figure qualities. The two diamonds on the right of a tetrad are the Obsolescence and Reversal qualities, both Ground qualities.[41]

A blank tetrad diagram
A blank tetrad diagram
  • Enhancement (figure): What the medium amplifies or intensifies. For example, radio amplifies news and music via sound.
  • Obsolescence (ground): What the medium drives out of prominence. Radio reduces the importance of print and the visual.
  • Retrieval (figure): What the medium recovers which was previously lost. Radio returns the spoken word to the forefront.
  • Reversal (ground): What the medium does when pushed to its limits. Acoustic radio flips into audio-visual TV.

Image File history File links MediaTetrad. ... Image File history File links MediaTetrad. ...

Figure and ground

Main article: Figure and ground (media)

McLuhan adapted the Gestalt-Psychology idea of a figure and a ground, which underpins the meaning of, "The medium is the message." He used this concept to explain how a form of communications technology, the medium or figure, necessarily operates through its context, or ground. Figure and ground is a concept developed by media theorist Marshall McLuhan, which underpins the meaning of his famous phrase, The medium is the message. ...


McLuhan believed that to fully grasp the effect of a new technology, one must examine figure (medium) and ground (context) together, since neither is completely intelligible without the other. McLuhan argued that we must study media in their historical context, particularly in relation to the technologies that preceded them. The present environment, itself made up of the effects of previous technologies, gives rise to new technologies, which, in their turn, further affect society and individuals.[6]


Furthermore, all technologies have embedded within them their own assumptions about time and space. The message which the medium conveys can only be understood if the medium and the environment in which the medium is used — and which, simultaneously, it effectively creates — are analyzed together. He believed that an examination of the figure-ground relationship can offer a critical commentary on culture and society.[6] The terms time-bias and space-bias describe concepts that anchor communication theorist Harold Inniss understanding of dominant communication technologies in history. ...


Influence

After the publication of Understanding Media, McLuhan received an astonishing amount of publicity, making him perhaps the most publicized English teacher in the twentieth century and arguably the most controversial. This publicity had much to do with the work of two California advertising executives, Gerald Feigen and Howard Gossage, who used personal profits to fund their practice of "genius scouting."


Much enamoured with McLuhan's work, Feigen and Gossage arranged for McLuhan to meet with editors of several major New York magazines in May 1965 at the Lombardy Hotel in New York. Philip Marchand reports that, as a direct consequence of these meetings, McLuhan was offered the use of an office in the headquarters of both Time and Newsweek, any time he needed it. Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


In August 1965, Feigen and Gossage held what they called a "McLuhan festival" in the offices of Gossage's advertising agency in San Francisco. During this "festival", McLuhan met with advertising executives, members of the mayor's office, editors from the San Francisco Chronicle and Ramparts magazine. Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Ramparts was an American political and literary magazine, published from 1962 through 1975. ...


Perhaps more significant, however, was Tom Wolfe's presence at the festival, which he would later write about in his article, "What If He Is Right?", published in New York Magazine and Wolfe's own The Pump House Gang. According to Feigen and Gossage, however, their work had only a moderate effect on McLuhan's eventual celebrity: they later claimed that their work only "probably speeded up the recognition of [McLuhan's] genius by about six months."[42] For the early 20th century American novelist, see Thomas Wolfe. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... The Pump House Gang is a 1968 collection of essays and journalism by Tom Wolfe. ...


In any case, McLuhan soon became a fixture of media discourse. Newsweek magazine did a cover story on him; articles appeared in Life Magazine, Harper's, Fortune, Esquire, and others. Cartoons about him appeared in The New Yorker. Playboy magazine published a lengthy interview with him. The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ...


During his lifetime and afterward, McLuhan heavily influenced cultural critics, thinkers, and media theorists such as Neil Postman, Camille Paglia, Timothy Leary, William Irwin Thompson, Paul Levinson, Douglas Rushkoff, Jaron Lanier, and French philosopher Jean Baudrillard, as well as political leaders such as Pierre Elliott Trudeau[43] and Jerry Brown. When asked in the 70s for a way to sedate violences in Angola, he suggested a massive spread of TV devices.[44] A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis. ... Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 - October 5, 2003) was a prominent American educator, media theorist, and cultural critic. ... Camille Anna Paglia (born April 2, 1947[1] in Endicott, New York) is an American social critic, intellectual, author and teacher. ... Timothy Francis Leary, (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, modern pioneer and advocate of psychedelic drug research and use, and one of the first people whose remains have been sent into space. ... William Irwin Thompson (1938- ) is a writer, social critic, and visionary, especially interested in keeping alive the esoteric, most profound, human and spiritual traditions of mankind, as he sees it. ... Paul Levinson, 2002 Paul Levinson (b. ... Douglas Rushkoff (born 18 February 1961) is a New York-based writer, columnist and lecturer on technology, media and popular culture. ... Jaron Lanier Jaron Lanier (born 1960) is a virtual reality developer. ... Jean Baudrillard (July 29, 1929 – March 6, 2007) (IPA pronunciation: [1]) was a French cultural theorist, philosopher, political commentator, and photographer. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ...


In popular culture

As a result of the enormous publicity McLuhan received in the early 1960s, references to him began to appear in the popular culture. Some examples:

  • The late-1960s television program Laugh-In featured Goldie Hawn or Henry Gibson reciting a couplet from time to time, "Marshall McLuhan, what are ya doin'?".[45]
  • Toward the end of his life, McLuhan made a renowned cameo appearance as himself in Woody Allen's 1977 movie Annie Hall, in which Alvy Singer (Allen's character) presents McLuhan to show up a Columbia professor who was trying to impress his date by discussing McLuhan's work, but getting it all wrong. Singer confronts the pretentious scholar, saying that his statements about McLuhan are wrong. The professor defends himself by claiming he is an expert in McLuhan's teachings and demands what Singer has in his favor to rebut him. Singer calmly notes he has Marshall McLuhan himself and he immediately reaches out of the camera frame to pull in the media scholar who corrects the professor and scornfully declares, "You know nothing of my work, you mean my whole fallacy is wrong. How you ever got to teach a course in anything is totally amazing." Singer comments on the ludicrously convenient situation by breaking the fourth wall with the classic line, "Oh, if life were only like this!" Woody captured an important aspect of McLuhan's personality in this line; according to some of his biographers, McLuhan was fond of telling his students and others that they simply did not understand him, no matter how much of his work they had studied.[46]
  • The band Radio Free Vestibule have a song titled "The Ballad of Marshall McLuhan", which is in country-western style and features McLuhan as the hero who rides into town to bring order. The verses feature him interjecting into arguments about media and culture.
  • In the film The Doors, Jim Morrison, played by Val Kilmer, is seen reading "Understanding Media."

Allusions to McLuhan and his ideas continue, years after his death: Rowan & Martins Laugh-In was a United States comedy television show broadcast from January 22, 1968 through 1973 over the NBC Network. ... Goldie Jeanne Hawn (born November 21, 1945) is an Academy Award-winning American actress, director and producer. ... Henry Gibson (born September 21, 1935 in Germantown, Pennsylvania) is an American actor who was famous as a cast member of Rowan and Martins Laugh-In. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Genesis are an English rock band formed in 1967. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... John Mark Heard John Mark Heard (December 16, 1951 - August 16, 1992) was a record producer, folk-rock singer, and songwriter originally from Macon, Georgia. ... Fingerprint is the title of an album by Mark Heard, released in Europe, in 1980 on Palmfrond Communications. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Königsberg on December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian, and playwright. ... Annie Hall is a 1977 romantic comedy film directed by Woody Allen from a script he co-wrote with Marshall Brickman. ... Specifically in a proscenium theater, the term fourth wall applies to the imaginary invisible wall at the front of the stage in a theater through which the audience sees the action in the world of the play. ... Terence Bowman, Paul Pare, and Bernard Deniger are the three members of Radio Free Vestibule, a Canadian surrealist comedy troupe also known as simply The Vestibules. ...

  • David Cronenberg, a former student of McLuhan, lampoons his teacher in the 1983 film Videodrome. McLuhan's character, "Professor Brian O'Blivion", issued such memorable quotes as: "the television screen has become the retina of the mind's eye", "I refuse to appear on television, except on television" and "television is reality and reality is less than television."
  • During the late 1990s, the Canadian rock band 54-40 initially titled their sixth release for EMI Records Canada "Marshall McLuhan, Casual Viewin", but were forced to change it due to copyright infringement.
  • McLuhan was mentioned in the second season of The Sopranos, in the episode "House Arrest", which aired March 26, 2000. Junior gets a visit in the hospital from Michael McLuhan, a U.S. Marshal. The nurse asks if his name is really 'Marshal' McLuhan. Junior wonders what the "joke" is.
  • The first starship to Alpha Centauri in Paul Levinson's 2001 novel, Borrowed Tides, is named the "The Light Through", after one of McLuhan's key concepts; Levinson's podcast show (began 2006) is entitled Light On Light Through.
  • In the third episode of the Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex (the TV series based on the manga Ghost in the Shell) a hacker is responsible for the mass suicide of model GA07_JL cyborgs; he is the son of the Canadian Ambassador, whose name is Marshall McLuhan.
  • In Mtv's show "Daria", in the episode "Jane's Addition" McLuhan's last name appears in the classroom's blackboard when the teacher is describing a multi-media project they must turn in.

David Paul Cronenberg OC, FRSC (born May 15, 1943[2]) is a Canadian film director and occasional actor. ... Videodrome is a 1983 film directed by David Cronenberg. ... 54-40 is a Canadian alternative rock group from Vancouver, British Columbia, whose literate and melodic music is frequently compared to that of R.E.M. The band takes their name from the slogan Fifty-Four Forty or Fight, coined to express the expansionist agenda of James K. Polks... The Sopranos is an American television drama series created by David Chase and originally broadcast on the HBO network. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Alpha Centauri (α Cen / α Centauri, also known as Rigil Kentaurus), is the brightest star system in the southern constellation of Centaurus. ... Paul Levinson, 2002 Paul Levinson (b. ... Batou and a Tachikoma Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex is also titled Kōkaku Kidōtai: Stand Alone Complex (ManMachine Interface: STAND ALONE COMPLEX) in Japan, and is often refered to by its acronym GitS:SAC. GitS:SAC is a Japanese anime TV series set in...

In Wired magazine

McLuhan was named as the "patron saint" of Wired Magazine and a quote of his appeared on the masthead for the first ten years of its publication. Despite his death in 1980, someone claiming to be McLuhan was posting on a Wired mailing list in 1996. The information this individual provided convinced one writer for Wired that "if the poster was not McLuhan himself, it was a bot programmed with an eerie command of McLuhan's life and inimitable perspective."[47] This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Criticisms

McLuhan's work has been criticized by specialists in mass communication. For example, Raymond Williams criticizes his theory of technology. In Television: Technology and Cultural Form (1974) he argues that Mcluhan does not give enough attention to the social conditions that produce scientific discovery and technological changes. McLuhan's work also says little about large corporations that own and control mass media. Raymond Henry Williams (31 August 1921 - 26 January 1988) was a Welsh academic, novelist and critic. ...


Legacy

A portion of Toronto's St. Joseph Street is co-named Marshall McLuhan Way.
A portion of Toronto's St. Joseph Street is co-named Marshall McLuhan Way.
  • In 1987, Oxford University Press published the 550-page Letters of Marshall McLuhan. Two biographies have been published -one by Philip Marchand in 1989 and the other by W. Terrence Gordon in 1997. His work has been discussed in numerous other books (see Biographical Works below).
  • On March 27-28, 1998, Fordham University sponsored a symposium on the Legacy of McLuhan, who had taught at Fordham for one year in the 1960s. In 2005, Hampton Press published papers from the symposium as the book The Legacy of McLuhan, edited by Lance Strate and Edward Wachtel.
  • In 2000, the government of Canada honoured McLuhan with his image on a postage stamp.
  • Also in 2004, McLuhan's alma mater, the University of Manitoba, dedicated Marshall McLuhan Hall in his honor.
  • The section of St. Joseph Street running through the University of St. Michael's College in Toronto is co-named "Marshall McLuhan Way".
  • In 2006 the biographical film McLuhan Way: In Search of Truth was created by Masterworks Productions in Toronto. Written, directed and produced by filmmaker, Deiren Masterson. Eric McLuhan provides interviews and the voice of his father, with interviews by his biographer Philip Marchand, colleague Robert Logan, Fr. Robert Madden, and Marshall's youngest son, Michael. Once dubbed the 'guru' of the electric age, McLuhan was also a Catholic convert. The film explores the faith that drove McLuhan as he challenged modern society and his Church to understand the enormous changes happening to them both.
  • Marshall McLuhan Catholic Secondary School in Toronto is named after him.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[2] in the United States, with three residential campuses located in and around New York City. ... Lance Strate BA, MA, PhD is a Professor of Communication and Media Studies at Fordham University. ... This is a list of notables on stamps of Canada. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... Kevin Michael McMahon is a Cleveland-based musician, singer, and songwriter for the long-standing bands Lucky Pierre and Prick. ... Laurie Anderson (born Laura Phillips Anderson, on June 5, 1947, in Glen Ellyn, Illinois) is an American experimental performance artist and musician. ... Eric McLuhan is the son of well known media theorist Marshall McLuhan and co-authored with him the book The Laws of Media. ... Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 - October 5, 2003) was a prominent American educator, media theorist, and cultural critic. ... In Laws of Media (1988) and The Global Village (1989), published posthumously, Marshall McLuhan summarized his ideas about media in a concise tetrad of media effects. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Descent into the Maelström A Descent into the Maelström is a short story by Edgar Allan Poe. ... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... Walter Ong Walter J. Ong (November 30, 1912 – August 12, 2003) is an educator, academic, and linguist known for his work in Renaissance literary and intellectual history and in contemporary culture as well as for his more wide-ranging studies on the evolution of consciousness. ... Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ...

See also

Infosphere neologism coined by Luciano Floridi on the basis of biosphere, a term referring to that limited region on our planet that supports life. ... Technological determinism is a reductionist doctrine that a societys technology determines its cultural values, social structure, or history. ... The concept of hot and cool media was developed by media theorist Marshall McLuhan. ... Orality can be defined as thought and its verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy (especially writing and print) are unfamiliar to most of the population. ... The term secondary orality was coined by Walter J. Ong in the early 1970s. ... Figure and ground is a concept developed by media theorist Marshall McLuhan, which underpins the meaning of his famous phrase, The medium is the message. ... In Laws of Media (1988) and The Global Village (1989), published posthumously, Marshall McLuhan summarized his ideas about media in a concise tetrad of media effects. ...

Bibliography

  1. 1942 "The Place of Thomas Nashe in the Learning of His Time" (doctoral dissertation); published as The Classical Trivium, 2006 below.
  2. 1951 The Mechanical Bride: Folklore of Industrial Man; 1st Ed.: The Vanguard Press, NY; reissued by Gingko Press, 2002 ISBN 1-58423-050-9.
  3. 1960 "Report on Project in Understanding New Media"; National Association of Educational Broadcasters, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare.
  4. 1960 Explorations in Communication edited with Edmund Carpenter; Beacon Press, Boston.
  5. 1962 The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man; 1st Ed.: Univ. of Toronto Press; reissued by Routledge & Kegan Paul ISBN 0-7100-1818-5.
  6. 1964 Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man; 1st Ed. McGraw Hill, NY; reissued by Gingko Press, 2003 ISBN 1-58423-073-8.
  7. 1967 The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects with Quentin Fiore, produced by Jerome Agel; 1st Ed.: Random House; reissued by Gingko Press, 2001 ISBN 1-58423-070-3.
  8. 1967 Verbi-Voco-Visual Explorations; Something Else Press, NY.
  9. 1968 War and Peace in the Global Village design/layout by Quentin Fiore, produced by Jerome Agel; 1st Ed.: Bantam, NY; reissued by Gingko Press, 2001 ISBN 1-58423-074-6.
  10. 1968 Through the Vanishing Point: Space in Poetry and Painting with Harley Parker; 1st Ed.: Harper & Row, NY.
  11. 1969 Counterblast design/layout by Harley Parker; McClelland and Steward, Toronto.
  12. 1970 Culture is Our Business; McGraw Hill/Ballantine, NY.
  13. 1970 From Cliché to Archetype with Wilfred Watson; Viking, NY.
  14. 1972 Take Today: the Executive As Dropout with Barrington Nevitt; Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, NY.
  15. 1977 City As Classroom: Understanding Language and Media with Kathryn Hutchon and Eric McLuhan; Book Society of Canada, Agincourt, Ontario.
  16. 1988 Laws of Media: The New Science with Eric McLuhan; University of Toronto Press.
  17. 1989 The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century with Bruce R. Powers; Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-505444-X.
  18. 2003 The Medium and the Light: Reflections on Religion, Marshall McLuhan, Eric McLuhan (ed), Jacek Szlarek (ed).Ginkgo Press.
  19. 2004 Understanding Me edited by Stephanie McLuhan and David Staines; The MIT Press ISBN 0-262-13442-X.
  20. 2006 The Classical Trivium: The Place of Thomas Nashe in the Learning of His Time (first publication of McLuhan's 1942 doctoral dissertation); Gingko Press ISBN 1-58423-067-3.

Edmund (Snow) Ted Carpenter (born 1922) has taught anthropology for 40 years at the Universities of Toronto, California and Harvard. ... The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man is a book written by Marshall McLuhan and first published in 1962. ... The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects is a book co-created by media analyst Marshall McLuhan and graphic designer Quentin Fiore, and coordinated by Jerome Agel. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... David McKenzie Staines (born August 8, 1946) is a Canadian literary critic, university professor, writer, and editor. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

Published Interviews

  1. "Understanding Canada and Sundry Other Matters: Marshall McLuhan." Mademoiselle, January 1967, pp. 114-115, 126-130.
  2. "Playboy Interview: Marshall McLuhan." Playboy, March 1969, pp. 26-27, 45, 55-56, 61, 63.
  3. "The Table Talk of Marshall McLuhan." by Peter C. Newman. Maclean's, June 1971, pp. 42, 45.
  4. "An Interview With Marshall McLuhan: His Outrageous Views About Women." by Linda Sandler. Miss Chatelaine, September 3, 1974, pp. 58-59, 82-87, 90-91.
  5. "It Will Probably End the Motor Car: An Interview With Marshall McLuhan." by Kirwan Cox and S. M. Crean. Cinema Canada, August 1976, pp. 26-29.
  6. "Interview With Professor Marshall McLuhan." Maclean's, March 7, 1977.

is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

Biographical works

  1. Benedetti, Paul and Nancy DeHart. Forward Through the Rearview Mirror: Reflections on and by Marshall McLuhan. Boston:The MIT Press, 1997.
  2. Carpenter, Edmund. "That Not-So-Silent Sea" [Appendix B]. In The Virtual Marshall McLuhan edited by Donald F. Theall. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2001: 236-61. (For the complete essay before it was edited for publication, see the external link below.)
  3. Daniel, Jeff. "McLuhan's Two Messengers: Maurice McNamee and Walter Ong: world-class interpreters of his ideas." St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Sunday, August 10, 1997: 4C).
  4. Federman, Mark. McLuhan for Managers: New Tools for New Thinking. Viking Canada, 2003.
  5. Flahiff, F. T. Always Someone to Kill the Doves: A Life of Sheila Watson. Edmonton: NeWest Press, 2005.
  6. Gordon, W. Terrence. Marshall McLuhan: Escape into Understanding: A Biography. Basic Books, 1997.
  7. Levinson, Paul. Digital McLuhan: A Guide to the Information Millennium. Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-19251-X; book has been translated into Japanese, Chinese, Croatian, Romanian, and Korean
  8. Marchand, Philip. Marshall McLuhan: The Medium and the Messenger. Random House, 1989; Vintage, 1990; The MIT Press; Revised edition, 1998.
  9. Molinaro, Matie; Corinne McLuhan; and William Toye, eds. Letters of Marshall McLuhan. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  10. Ong, Walter J.: "McLuhan as Teacher: The Future Is a Thing of the Past." Journal of Communication 31 (1981): 129-35. Reprinted in Ong's Faith and Contexts: Volume One (Scholars Press, 1992: 11-18).
  11. Ong, Walter J.: [Untitled review of McLuhan's The Interior Landscape: The Literary Criticism of Marshall McLuhan 1943-1962]. Criticism 12 (1970): 244-51. Reprinted in An Ong Reader: Challenges for Further Inquiry (Hampton Press, 2002: 69-77).
  12. Theall, Donald F. The Virtual Marshall McLuhan. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2001.

Further information about McLuhan's thought can be found in The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism (1st ed. 1994: 481-83; 2nd ed. 2005: 643-45), Encyclopedia of Contemporary Literary Theory: Approaches, Scholars, Terms (U of Toronto P, 1993: 421-23), and Encyclopedia of Literary Critics and Criticism (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999: 744-47). Edmund (Snow) Ted Carpenter (born 1922) has taught anthropology for 40 years at the Universities of Toronto, California and Harvard. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Paul Levinson, 2002 Paul Levinson (b. ... Walter Ong Walter J. Ong (November 30, 1912 – August 12, 2003) is an educator, academic, and linguist known for his work in Renaissance literary and intellectual history and in contemporary culture as well as for his more wide-ranging studies on the evolution of consciousness. ...


External links

  1. The Narcissus Syndrome Revisited by Yves Doré
  2. McLuhan Program in Culture and Technology at the University of Toronto
  3. Useful introduction to some of McLuhan's ideas by Jim Andrews
  4. Marshall McLuhan page from the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory
  5. That Not-So-Silent Sea essay by Edmund Carpenter [PDF]
  6. UbuWeb Marshall McLuhan featuring the LP The Medium is the Massage
  7. Official Site
  8. CBC Digital Archives - Marshall McLuhan, the Man and his Message
  9. McLuhan global research network Jeffrey's McLuhan bibliography free online
  10. McLuhan Revisited by Cecil Adams
  11. The Media Ecology Association
  12. Playboy Interview with McLuhan
  13. Marshall McLuhan/Finnegans Wake Reading Club Venice, Calif. Very active West Coast USA club & link to Yahoo McLuhan group
  14. Blog about McLuhan's Tetrad , and media law
  15. summary of Digital McLuhan by Paul Levinson
  16. Mcluhan Tetrad Concept explained
  17. McLuhan facts, sources, and class
  18. McLuhan's Laws of Media
  19. Marshall McLuhan: The Medium and the Messenger by Philip Marchand
  20. The Wisdom of Saint Marshall, the Holy Fool by Gary Wolf Wired Magazine Jan 1996

Cecil Adams is a name, generally assumed to be a pseudonym, which designates the unknown author or authors of The Straight Dope, a popular question and answer column published in The Chicago Reader since 1973. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Gordon, pp. 9-10.
  2. ^ Marchand (1990), p.26
  3. ^ Gordon, p. 40; McLuhan later commented "One advantage we Westerners have is that we're under no illusion we've had an education. That's why I started at the bottom again." Marchand (1990), p 30.
  4. ^ Marchand, p. 33-34
  5. ^ Marchand, pp. 37-47.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Old Messengers, New Media: The Legacy of Innis and McLuhan, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada
  7. ^ Gordon, p. 94.
  8. ^ Gordon, pp. 69-70.
  9. ^ Gordon, p. 54-56
  10. ^ Understanding Media (First MIT Press Edition): Introduction by Lewis H. Lapham, p. xvii
  11. ^ Gordon, p.74, gives the date as March 25; Marchand (1990 ed.), p.44, gives it as March 30.
  12. ^ Marchand (1990 ed.), pp. 44-45.
  13. ^ Marchand (1990 ed.), p. 45.
  14. ^ Gordon, p. 75
  15. ^ Associates speculated about his intellectual connection to the Virgin Mary, one saying, "He [McLuhan] had a direct connection with the Blessed Virgin Mary... He alluded to it very briefly once, almost fearfully, in a please-don't-laugh-at-me tone. He didn't say, "I know this because the Blessed Virgin Mary told me," but it was clear from what he said that one of the reasons he was so sure about certain things was that the Virgin had certified his understanding of them." (cited in Marchand, p. 51).
  16. ^ Gordon, p. 94.
  17. ^ Gordon, p. 115.
  18. ^ During the time at Fordham University, his son Eric McLuhan conducted what came to be known as the Fordham Experiment, about the different effects of "light-on" versus "light-through" media.
  19. ^ University of Toronto Bulletin, 1979; Martin Friedland, The University of Toronto: A History, University of Toronto Press, 2002
  20. ^ McLuhan's doctoral dissertation from 1942 was published by Gingko Press in March 2006. Gingko Press also plans to publish the complete manuscript of items and essays that McLuhan prepared, only a selection of which were published in his book. With the publication of these two books a more complete picture of McLuhan's arguments and aims is likely to emerge.
  21. ^ For a nuanced account of McLuhan's thought regarding Richards and Leavis, see McLuhan's "Poetic and Rhetorical Exegesis: The Case for Leavis against Richards and Empson" in the Sewanee Review, volume 52, number 2 (1944): 266-76.
  22. ^ This sentence uses Lonergan's terminology from Insight: A Study of Human Understanding to clarify the meaning of McLuhan's statement that "the medium is the message"; McLuhan read this when it was first published in 1957 and found "much sense" in it -- in his letter of September 21, 1957, to his former student and friend, Walter J. Ong, S.J., McLuhan says, "Find much sense in Bern. Lonergan's Insight" (Letters of Marshall McLuhan, 1987: 251). Lonergan's Insight is an extended guide to "making the inward turn": attending ever more carefully to one's own consciousness, reflecting on it ever more carefully, and monitoring one's articulations ever more carefully.
  23. ^ In a letter to Ong dated May 31, 1953 (p. 236), McLuhan reported that he had received a two-year grant of $43,000 from the Ford Foundation to carry out a communication project at the University of Toronto involving faculty from different disciplines. In connection with this project, McLuhan and Ted Carpenter started the journal Explorations.
  24. ^ The Mechanical Bride, pg 9
  25. ^ The Mechanical Bride, pg 21
  26. ^ The Mechanical Bride, pg 56
  27. ^ The Mechanical Bride, pg 152
  28. ^ Gutenberg Galaxy 1962, p. 41.
  29. ^ Galaxy pp. 124-26.
  30. ^ Galaxy p. 154.
  31. ^ Galaxy p. 32.
  32. ^ Galaxy p. 158.
  33. ^ America 107 (Sept. 15, 1962): 743, 747.
  34. ^ New Catholic Encyclopedia 8 (1967): 838.
  35. ^ W. Terrence Gordon, p. 109.
  36. ^ Understanding Media, p. 8.
  37. ^ Understanding Media, p. 22.
  38. ^ According to McLuhan biographer W. Terrence Gordon, "by the time it appeared in 1967, McLuhan no doubt recognized that his original saying had become a cliché and welcomed the opportunity to throw it back on the compost heap of language to recycle and revitalize it. But the new title is more than McLuhan indulging his insatiable taste for puns, more than a clever fusion of self-mockery and self-rescue -- the subtitle is 'An Inventory of Effects,' underscoring the lesson compressed into the original saying." (Gordon, p. 175.) However, the FAQ section [1] on the website maintained by McLuhan's estate says that this interpretation is incomplete and makes its own leap of logic as to why McLuhan left it as is. "Why is the title of the book The Medium is the Massage and not The Medium is the Message? Actually, the title was a mistake. When the book came back from the typesetter's, it had on the cover 'Massage' as it still does. The title was supposed to have read The Medium is the Message but the typesetter had made an error. When McLuhan saw the typo he exclaimed, 'Leave it alone! It's great, and right on target!' Now there are possible four readings for the last word of the title, all of them accurate: Message and Mess Age, Massage and Mass Age."
  39. ^ The Medium is the Massage, p. 69.
  40. ^ War and Peace in the Global Village, p. 46.
  41. ^ Electric Language: Understanding the present, p. 28.
  42. ^ P. Marchand, pp. 182-184.
  43. ^ It's cool not to shave - Marshall McLuhan, the Man and his Message - CBC Archives. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
  44. ^ Daniele Luttazzi, interview at RAI Radio1 show Stereonotte, July 01 2007 2:00 am. Quote: "McLuhan era uno che al premier canadese che si interrogava su un modo per sedare dei disordini in Angola, McLuhan disse, negli anni 70, 'riempite la nazione di apparecchi televisivi'; ed è quello che venne fatto; e la rivoluzione in Angola cessò." (Italian)
  45. ^ Sometimes rendered "Marshall McLuhan, whatcha doin'?
  46. ^ Marchand, p. 117.
  47. ^ Channeling McLuhan by Gary Wolf, January 1996
  48. ^ See the back cover of Ong's Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason, which was reissued by the University of Chicago Press in 2004, with a new foreword by Adrian Johns.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Marshall McLuhan
Persondata
NAME McLuhan, Marshall
ALTERNATIVE NAMES McLuhan, Herbert Marshall
SHORT DESCRIPTION Canadian educator, philosopher, and scholar-- a professor of English literature, a literary critic, and a communications theorist
DATE OF BIRTH July 21, 1911
PLACE OF BIRTH Edmonton, Alberta
DATE OF DEATH December 31, 1980
PLACE OF DEATH Toronto, Ontario

  Results from FactBites:
 
Marshall McLuhan: "The Medium is the Message" (2451 words)
The subject that would occupy most of McLuhan's career was the task of understanding the effects of technology as it related to popular culture, and how this in turn affected human beings and their relations with one another in communities.
McLuhan is announcing what Lewis H. Lapham says is a world of people who worship the objects of their own invention in the form of fax machines and high speed computers, and accept the blessings of Coca-Cola and dresses by Donna Karan as the mark of divinity.
McLuhan died in 1980 and was beginning to see the first fruits of the television generations as well as the fulfillment of some of his predictions.
Marshall McLuhan: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (5854 words)
McLuhan suggests that the Middle Ages, for instance, was characterized by the heavy emphasis on the formal study of logic.
McLuhan chose the ads and articles included in his book not only to draw attention to their symbolism and their implications for the corporate entities that created and disseminated them, but also to mull over what such advertising implies about the wider society at which it is aimed.
McLuhan contrasted this with TV, which he claimed requires more effort on the part of viewer to determine meaning, and comics, which due to their minimal presentation of visual detail require a high degree of effort to fill in details that the cartoonist may have intended to portray.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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