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Encyclopedia > Marshal

Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word derives from Old Germanic marh "horse" and scalc "servant", and originally meant "stable keeper". As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for the most elevated offices. The American English spelling of the name ("Marshall") is often confused with the spelling of the title ("Marshal"). It is approximate to the position of Constable. For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, en-GB) is a broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Germanic languages form one of the branches of the Indo-European (IE) language family, spoken by the Germanic peoples who settled in northern Europe along the borders of the Roman Empire. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. ...

Contents

Military

Common Military Ranks
Naval Forces Land/Air Forces Commonwealth Air Forces
Admiral General Air Marshal
Commodore Brigadier Air Commodore
Captain Colonel Group Captain
Commander Lieutenant Colonel Wing Commander
Lieutenant Commander Major Squadron Leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight Lieutenant
Sub-Lieutenant Lieutenant Flying Officer
Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Warrant Officer
Petty Officer Sergeant Sergeant
Leading Rate Corporal Corporal
Seaman Private Aircraftman

In many countries, the rank of Marshal is the highest Army rank, outranking Field Marshals, Grand Admirals and Generals. Marshals are very sparsely appointed, and typically only in war-time (although this need not be the case). The special symbol of a Marshal is a baton, and so their insignia often incorporate batons. rank. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... General is a military rank, in most nations the highest rank, although some nations have the higher rank of Field Marshal. ... An air marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a rank in the Royal Air Force. ... Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a Flag Officer. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... An Air Commodoress sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Commodore is the fourth most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force today, after the deactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts of the 1990s. ... . Captain, is the name most often given in naval circles to the NATO rank code of OF-5. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A Group Captains sleeve/shoulder insignia A Group Captains command flag Group Captain is a senior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... A Wing Commanders sleeve/shoulder insignia A Wing Commanders command flag Wing Commander is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... A Squadron Leaders sleeve/shoulder insignia Squadron Leader (Sqn Ldr in the RAF, SQNLDR in the RNZAF and RAAF and S/L in the former RCAF) is a commissioned rank in some air forces. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... A Captain in armies, air forces and marine forces, is a rank an army or air force rank with a NATO rank code of OF-2. ... A Flight Lieutenants sleeve/shoulder insignia Flight Lieutenant (abbreviated as Flt Lt and pronounced as flight lef-tenant, see Lieutenant) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many Commonwealth countries. ... A Lieutenant, Junior Grade, is a division officer in the United States Navy. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... A Flying Officers sleeve/shoulder insignia Flying Officer (Fg Off in the RAF; FLGOFF in the RAAF; FGOFF in the RNZAF; F/O in the former RCAF) is a junior commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. ... Two Bermuda Regiment Warrant Officers. ... Two Bermuda Regiment Warrant Officers. ... Two Bermuda Regiment Warrant Officers. ... A Petty Officer is a noncommissioned officer or equivalent in many navies. ... Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organisations around the world. ... Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organisations around the world. ... Leading Rating (or Leading Rate) is the most senior of the junior rates in the British Royal Navy. ... Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries, police forces or other uniformed organizations around the world. ... Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries, police forces or other uniformed organizations around the world. ... This article is about a military rank. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... Aircraftman (AC) (or Aircraftwoman (ACW)) is the lowest rank in the Royal Air Force, ranking below Leading Aircraftman and having a NATO rank code of OR-1. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... rank. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... German Grand Admiral Sleeve Insignia Grand Admiral Shoulder Insignia In the German Navy the rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) was considered the highest Naval rank. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The word BATON, from the French bâton (stick, also in ordinary senses), indicates a type of formal attribute of office in the shape of a rather short stick, shorter then a staff, not destined for functional use (unlike the swagger stick) but as an ornate symbol of authority, often...


In some countries, the word Marshal is also used instead of General in the higher Air force ranks. The four highest Royal Air Force ranks are Marshal of the Royal Air Force, Air Chief Marshal, Air Marshal and Air Vice Marshal (although the first, which has generally been suspended as a peacetime rank, is the only one which can properly be considered a marshal). The 5 star rank of Marshal of the Air Force is used by some Commonwealth air forces. An Air force is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Marshal of the RAF sleeve/shoulder insignia Marshal of the Royal Air Force was the highest rank in the Royal Air Force. ... An Air Chief Marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Chief Marshal is the most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force (RAF) today, after the inactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts of the 1990s. ... An air marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a rank in the Royal Air Force. ... An Air Vice Marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia An Air Vice Marshals command flag Air Vice Marshal is the third most senior rank active in the Royal Air Force today, after the inactivation of Marshal of the Royal Air Force as a substantive rank in peacetime during defence cuts... An officer of 5 star rank is a very senior commander in any of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-10. ... Marshal of the Air Force is a generic term for the most senior rank in an air force, equivalent to Field Marshal or Fleet Admiral. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In the French army and some armies based on the French army, Maréchal des logis ( Marshal-of-Lodgings ) is a cavalry term equivalent to sergeant. Marshal-of-Lodgings is a French rank used by mounted arms of the French Army (such as armoured cavalry and the train) and by the Gendarmerie. ... Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organisations around the world. ...


Some historical rulers have used special Marshal titles to reward certain subjects. Though not strictly military ranks, these honorary titles have been exclusively bestowed upon successful military leaders, such as the famous Grand Marshal of Ayacucho Antonio Jose de Sucre. Most famous are the Marshals of France (Maréchaux de France), not least under Napoleon I. Another such title was that of Reich Marshal (Reichsmarschall), that was bestowed upon Hermann Göring by Adolf Hitler, although it was never a regular title. Grand Marshal is a ceremonial, military, or political office of very high rank. ... Antonio Jos de Sucre (1795-1830) was a South American independence leader, one of Sim n Bol vars closest friends. ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The Term Reich Marshal (German Reichsmarshal) was the highest rank of the German Luftwaffe during the course of World War II. The only person to ever hold the rank of Reich Marshal was Reichsmarshal Herman Goering. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Soviet Union and Russia have both General of the Army and Marshal in their rank system, which leaves the latter as a largely honorary rank. General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ...


Marshal ranks by country

The following articles deal with the rank of Marshal as used by specific countries:

These non-European ranks are considered the equivalent to a Marshal Marschall der DDR The Marshal of the German Democratic Republic (German: Marschall der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, was by regulation the highest rank in the National Peoples Army of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). ... GDR redirects here. ... The famous Mannerheims equestrian statue by the Mannerheim road in downtown Helsinki, the capital of Finland Baron Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim (June 4, 1867 – January 28, 1951) was Finlands reputed Commander-in-Chief and later President of Finland (1944–1946). ... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... Marshal-of-Lodgings is a French rank used by mounted arms of the French Army (such as armoured cavalry and the train) and by the Gendarmerie. ... Marshal of Italy was a rank in the Italian Army. ... Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. ... Marshal of the Russian Federation (Russian: ) is the highest military rank of Russia, created in 1991 following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... MareÅŸal insignia MareÅŸal (Marshal) is the highest rank in the Army of Turkey. ... Marshal of Yugoslavia (serbo-croat MarÅ¡al Jugoslavije) was the highest rank of Yugoslav Peoples Army. ... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... A European is primarily a person who was born into one of the countries within the continent of Europe. ...

Chom Phon is a military rank of Thailand, considered the equivalent to a General of the Army. ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A Mushir (Marshal) is the highest rank in most militaries of the Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A Wonsu is the highest military rank of the Republic of Korea (ROK) armed forces and is the combined equivalent of a General of the Army, Fleet Admiral and Marshal of the Royal Air Force in other nations. ... Yuan Shuai (元帥) was a Chinese military rank that corresponds to a marshal in other nations. ...

Ceremonial

  • In feudal times, at many courts one or more of the major dignitaries were styled marshal or a compound such as court marshal (not related to court martial) or grand marshal; their functions varied, also in time, but frequently included formally announcing guests at audiences, balls, dinners, etc. Such prestigious office was often made hereditary in the high nobility, e.g. the English Earl Marshal, or the Scots Earl Marischal.
  • The term is still used in modern pageantry; for example, the grand marshal of a parade is often an honored guest or dignitary

A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... Earl Marshal (alternatively Marschal or Marischal) is an ancient chivalric title used separately in England, Ireland and the United Kingdom. ... In Scotland, the office of Great Marischal of Scotland, which was granted to the Keith family as Knight Marischal and later on changed to Lord Marischal and later on again to Earl Marischal of Scotland, died out when a member of the family of Keith forfeited it by being part...

Racing and other competitions

Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... Petter Solberg driving on gravel at the 2006 Cyprus Rally, a World Rally Championship event. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Racing flags are traditionally used in auto racing and similar motorsports to communicate important messages to drivers. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, commonly referred to as the FIA, is a non-profit association established in 1904 to represent the interest of motoring organisations and motor car users. ... Results from the 2000 Formula One Italian Grand Prix held at Monza on September 10, 2000 Summary The 2000 Italian Grand Prix featured one of the most tragic first laps in Formula One history. ... Results from the 2001 Formula One Australian Grand Prix held at Melbourne on March 4, 2001 Classification Notes Fastest Lap: Michael Schumacher 1m 28. ... A tough guy is an intimidating man who excels at personal combat. ... This article is about the board game. ...

Law enforcement

The word Marechaussee seems to derive from the old French name Marecheaux given to an ancient court of justice in Paris called the "Tribunal of Constables and Marshals of France". These constables and marshals were to become members of the Gendarmerie which served as a model for the police forces of both Belgium and the Netherlands. The term Marechaussee was also used for the Continental Army's military police during the American Revolution. The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of... Baton of a modern Marshal of France The Marshal of France (French: Maréchal de France) is a military distinction in contemporary France, not a military rank. ... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... Illustration depicting uniforms and weapons used during the 1779 to 1783 period of the American Revolution by showing four soldiers standing in an informal group General George Washington, was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army on June 15, 1775. ... It has been suggested that Gendarmerie be merged into this article or section. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that...


United States

Particularly in the United States, marshal is used for various kinds of law enforcement officers.

  • Federal Marshals
  • At the state, local or municipal court level, marshals are petty court officers similar to constables. Although they may be sworn peace officers their job is civil rather than criminal law enforcement.
    • In the American Old West, marshals, also called the "Town Marshal", were appointed or elected police officers of small communities, with similar powers and duties to that of a sheriff, while federal marshals would work in a larger, possibly overlapping area, especially in pioneering country. The word is still used in this sense, especially in the Southwest United States. (See List of Western lawmen). Still the name for some police forces.
    • In California, several counties maintained separate county marshal's Offices which served as court officers similar to US Marshals. Most have been merged into or taken over by the local County Sheriff's Office.
    • In Connecticut, marshals serve as court officers. They are separated into two classes: State Marshals are charged with service of process, and Judicial Marshals perform court security and transport detainees to and from court.
    • In Georgia, the Marshal is a civil law enforcement officer in some counties and may have some patrol duties.
    • In Indiana, Marshals are responsible for law enforcement in a town.
    • In Maine the State Marshal Service provides physical security and law enforcement duties to the judicial system as well as protection of all state judges. Deputy Marshals are fully sworn state law enforcement officers with statewide authority.
    • In New York City, New York, Marshals are charged with the enforcement of civil judgments. A Marshal is appointed by the Mayor and the office is a private business which pays a percentage of fees it collects to the government. It is supervised by the Department of Investigation. Generally, the office performs the collection of money judgments, evictions, seizure of scofflaw vehicles, replevins, small claims as well as garnishments.
    • In Ohio the term village marshal has been used for the same, often without any colleague, directly under the Mayor.
    • In Texas, city marshals and deputy city marshals have, by law, the same authority as a municipal (village, town, or city) police officer. However, municipalities that have both a police force as well as a city marshal's office often utilize the police as the general law enforcement agency of the municipality, while court security and process service is provided by the city marshal's office. In municipalites that do not have a police department, the city marshal's office sometimes serves as the agency that provides general law enforcement services to residents.
    • In Washington, the City of Seattle employs Marshals in their Municipal Court, with the senior officer holding the title of Chief Marshal and the subordinate officers being Deputy Marshals.

United States Marshals star badge The United States Marshals Service (USMS) (sometimes incorrectly spelled “Marshals’ Service”) is an agency within the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 561) and is a federal police organization with special spheres of authority. ... An arrest warrant is a warrant issued by a public officer which authorizes the arrest and detention of an individual. ... Sky marshal (also known as air marshal or flight marshal) is a popular term for an undercover armed guard on board a commercial aircraft, to counter aircraft hijackings (skyjackings). Many carriers are known to have sky marshals on board on selected flights, for example, Swiss (since 1970; formerly Swissair), El... Security police are those persons, usually employed by a governmental agency, who provide police and security services to their properties. ... See also Airport security D. B. Cooper Categories: Pages needing attention | Law stubs | Terrorism ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Security police are those persons, usually employed by a governmental agency, who provide police and security services to their properties. ... A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1888. ... Chief of Police is the title typically given to the head of a police department, particularly in the United States and Canada. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... This is a list of known lawmen and other law enforment officials of the American frontier popularly known as the Wild West. See also sheriff, marshal, Texas Rangers, Arizona Rangers, wild west, List of Western Outlaws Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Largest metro area Hartford Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[2] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ...

Europe

France

In France the Maréchaussée was the forerunner of the French Gendarmerie. A military corps having such duties was first created in 1337 and was placed under the command of the Constable of France, and therefore named the connétablie. In 1626 after the aboliton of the title of connétable, it was put under the command of the Maréchal of France, and renamed Maréchaussée. Its main mission was protecting the roads from highwaymen. Gendarmes Gendarmes guarding the Paris Hall of Justice Gendarmerie motorcyclists police the roads and autoroutes of rural France. ... The Constable of France (French connétable de France, from Latin comes stabulari for count of the stables), as the First Officer of the Crown, was one of the original five Great Officers of the Crown of France (along with seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor) and Commander in Chief of... Constabulary may have several definitions. ... Folk image of a mounted highwayman Highwayman was a term used particularly in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries to describe robbers who targeted people traveling by stagecoach and other modes of transport along public highways. ...


The gens d'armes were originally heavy cavalry in the king's household, the equivalent of the "Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms". In 1720 the maréchaussée was subordinated to the gendarmerie; after the French Revolution the maréchaussée was abolished and the gendarmerie took over its duties in 1791. Her Majestys Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms is a bodyguard to the British Monarch. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


It was a mounted military police force organised and equipped along military lines. While its existence ensured the relative safety of French rural districts and roads, the marechaussee was regarded in contemporary England (which had no effective police force of any nature) as a symbol of foreign tyranny. In 1789, on the eve of the French Revolution, the marechaussee numbered 3,660 men divided into small detachments called brigades. By law dated 16 February 1791 this force was renamed the gendarmerie nationale. Its personnel and role remained unchanged. It has been suggested that Gendarmerie be merged into this article or section. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


Netherands

In the Netherlands the Koninklijke Marechaussee are the gendarmerie type force. Created by King William I to replace the French Gendarmerie on October 26, 1814 . The word gendarmerie had gained a negative connotation, so William called the new force "marechaussée" (maréchaussée is an alternate French word for Gendarmerie). At that time, the marechaussee was a part of the army (landmacht). The marechaussee was tasked with police duties for the army, as well as civilian police work as a part of the national police (rijkspolitie). The marechaussee would form the only police force in many small cities like Venlo, especially in the southern provinces of Limburg and North Brabant The Koninklijke Marechaussee (KMar) (Royal Constabulary in English) is one of the four military bodies of the Netherlands. ... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ... King William I of the Netherlands, born William Frederik of Orange-Nassau (The Hague, 24 August 1772 - Berlin, 12 December 1843), was the second King of the Netherlands (the first king was Louis I Napoleon Bonaparte). ...


Science fiction

Star Wars

The rank of Marshal has made frequent appearances in science fiction works, both live action productions and literature. In the universe of Star Wars, the rank of Marshal is conjectured to be connected to the TIE fighter forces, being ranks held by senior TIE fighter commanders, equivalent to Imperial Navy Admirals. Several sources of the Star Wars Expanded Universe have conjectured the following Marshal ranks of the starfighter service. Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... TIE Fighter, see X-wing computer game series. ... Executor and several escorting Star Destroyers In the fictional Star Wars galaxy, the Imperial Navy, also referred to as the Imperial Starfleet, was the military arm of the Galactic Empire charged with maintaining security, peace and order in the galaxy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Colonial Viper from Battlestar Galactica, an example of a starfighter. ...

  • Grand Marshal
  • High Marshal
  • Force Marshal
  • Chief Marshal
  • Marshal
  • Vice Marshal

Grand Marshal is a ceremonial, military, or political office of very high rank. ...

Others

In addition to Star Wars, the rank of Marshal may also be found in the novel Starship Troopers where the rank of Sky Marshal is held by the Commander-in-Chief of the military. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Starship Troopers Starship Troopers is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein, first published (in abridged form) as a serial in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (October, November 1959, as Starship Soldier) and published hardcover in 1959. ... Sky marshal (also known as air marshal or flight marshal) is a popular term for an undercover armed guard on board a commercial aircraft, to counter aircraft hijackings (skyjackings). Many carriers are known to have sky marshals on board on selected flights, for example, Swiss (since 1970; formerly Swissair), El...


Marshal is also a military rank frequently found in the universe of Doctor Who where, more often than not, it is held by various villains who seek galactic domination through military force. Doctor Who is a long-running award-winning British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The series depicts the adventures of a mysterious time-traveller known as the Doctor who travels in his TARDIS (Time And Relative Dimension(s) In Space) time ship, which appears from the exterior... For other uses of the term, see Villain (disambiguation). ...


In the Riddick universe, the leader of the diabolic Necromonger army is called the Lord Marshal. Vin Diesel as Riddick. ... The Necromongers are an interstellar nomadic religious extremist society in the fictional universe of the film The Chronicles of Riddick. ...


In the computer game StarCraft, the major character Jim Raynor holds the rank of Marshal at the story's outset. StarCraft is a real-time strategy game by Blizzard Entertainment. ... James Raynor, better known simply as Jim to his friends, is a fictional character in the StarCraft universe. ...


In the Warhammer 40,000 universe, the Black Templars Space Marines chapter has Marshals. This article is about the tabletop miniature wargame and the fictional universe in which it is set. ... Current Black Templars Sourcebook In the game Warhammer 40,000, the Black Templars are a Second Founding chapter derived from the Imperial Fists and their Primarch, Rogal Dorn. ... The current Space Marine sourcebook cover The Space Marines are one of the major forces available in the table-top wargame Warhammer 40,000. ...


Another example of the rank of Marshal in science fiction and fantasy can be found in Mercedes Lackey's world of Valdemar. One of the country's most important ranks is that of Lord Marshal. Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Mercedes Lackey (born June 24, 1950) (also known as Misty Lackey) is a prolific American author of fantasy novels. ... Several kings in Denmark and Sweden were named Valdemar: Valdemar I of Sweden Valdemar I of Denmark (Valdemar the Great) Valdemar II of Denmark (Valdemar the Victorious) Valdemar III of Denmark Valdemar IV of Denmark (Valdemar Atterdag) The fictional country of Valdemar is the setting for a number of books... Lord Marshal may refer to one of the following Lord Marshal of England Earl Marischal Lantmarskalk was the speaker of the Riksdag. ...


See also


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Thurgood Marshall - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1814 words)
Marshall was married twice; to Vivian "Buster" Burey from 1929 until her death from cancer in February 1955 and to Cecilia "Cissy" Suyat from December 1955 until his death in 1993.
Afterward, Marshall wanted to apply to his hometown law school at the University of Maryland School of Law, but the dean told him that he should bother because he would not be accepted due to the school's segregation policy.
Marshall was a prominent member of Alpha Phi Alpha, the oldest intercollegiate Black Greek-letter fraternity, established by African American students in 1906.
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