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Encyclopedia > Mars (mythology)
Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez
Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez

Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. He was the most prominent of the military gods that were worshipped by the Roman legions. The martial Romans considered him second in importance only to Jupiter. His festivals were held in March (named for him) and October. A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... God, as a male deity, contrasts with female deities, or goddesses while the term goddess specifically refers to a female deity, words like gods and deities can be applied to all gods collectively, regardless of gender. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... In Greek mythology, Enyo (horror) was an ancient goddess known by the epithet Waster of Cities and frequently depicted as being covered in blood and carrying weapons of war. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... A festival or fest is an event, usually staged by a local community, which centers on some theme, sometimes on some unique aspect of the community. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ...


As the word Mars has no Indo-European derivation, it is most likely the Latinised form of the agricultural Etruscan god Maris. Initially the Roman god of fertility and vegetation and a protector of cattle, fields and boundaries, Mars later became associated with battle as the growing Roman Empire began to expand, and he was identified with the Greek god Ares. Unlike his Greek counterpart, Mars was generally well liked and rivaled Jupiter as the most honoured god. He was also the tutelary god of the city of Rome. As he was regarded as the legendary father of Rome's founder, Romulus, it was believed that all Romans were descendants of Mars. The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... The Etruscans were a race of unknown origin from North Italy who were eventually integrated into Rome. ... Maris was the Etruscan god of agriculture later associated with the Roman war/agricultual god Mars. ... Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ... A tutelary spirit is a god, usually a minor god, who serves as the guardian or watcher over a particular site, person, or nation. ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ...

Contents

Names and epithets

Mars celebrated as peace-bringer in this coin struck under Aemilianus.
Mars celebrated as peace-bringer in this coin struck under Aemilianus.

Mars was called Mavōrs in some poetry (Virgil VIII, 630), and Mamers was his Oscan name. He was also known as Marmor, Marmar and Maris, the latter from the Etruscan deity Maris. Image File history File links Aemilianus. ... Image File history File links Aemilianus. ... Aemilianus celebrating peace-maker Mars god of war. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Denarius of Marsican Confederation with Oscan legend. ... Maris was the Etruscan god of agriculture later associated with the Roman war/agricultual god Mars. ...


Like other major Roman deities, Mars had a large number of epithets representing his different roles and aspects. Many of Mars's epithets resulted from mythological syncretism between Mars and foreign gods. The most common and significant of these included: Look up epithet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Mars Alator, a fusion of Mars with the Celtic deity Alator (possibly meaning "Huntsman" or "Cherisher"), known from inscription found in England, on an altar at South Shields and a silver-gilt votive plaque at Barkway, Hertfordshire. [1][2]
  • Mars Albiorix, a fusion of Mars with the ancient Celtic deity Toutatis, using the epithet Albiorix ("King of the World"). Mars Albiorix was worshiped as protector of the Albici tribe of southern France, and was regarded as a mountain god. Another epithet of Toutatis, Caturix ("King of Combat"), was used in the combination Mars Caturix, which was worshipped in Gaul, possibly as the tribal god of the Caturiges.[3]
  • Mars Balearicus, statues of a warrior discovered in the Mallorca Island, associated by the archaeologists to the Roman god Mars [1].
  • Mars Barrex, from Barrex or Barrecis (probably meaning "Supreme One"), a Celtic god known only from a dedicatory inscription found at Carlisle, England.[2]
  • Mars Belatucadrus, an epithet found in five inscriptions in the area of Hadrian's Wall in England, based on equating the Celtic deity Belatu-Cadros with Mars.
  • Mars Braciaca, a synthesis of Mars with the Celtic god Braciaca. This deity is only known from a single inscription at Bakewell, England.[2]
  • Mars Camulos, from the Celtic war god Camulus.
  • Mars Capriociegus, from an Iberian god who was linked to Mars. He is invoked in two inscriptions in the Pontevedra region of north-west Spain.
  • Mars Cocidius, a combination of Mars with the Celtic woodland hunting god Cocidius. He is referenced around north-west Cumbria and Hadrian's Wall, and was chiefly a war god only in instances where he was equated with Mars.
  • Mars Corotiacus. A local British version of Mars from Martlesham in Suffolk. He appears on a bronze statuette as a cavalryman, armed and riding a horse which tramples a prostrate enemy beneath its hooves. [3]
  • Mars Gradivus, God of War.
  • Mars Lenus. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic healer-god Lenus. In the main cult centre of the god, the indigenous name always comes first (Lenus Mars), an indication that Lenus was an established god, with whom Mars was later equated. [3]
  • Mars Loucetius. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Loucetius.
  • Mars Mullo. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Mullo
  • Mars Nodens. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Nodens.
  • Mars Ocelus. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Ocelus.
  • Mars Olloudius. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Olloudius.
  • Mars Rigisamus. Mars was given this title (which means 'Greatest King' or 'King of Kings') in at West Coker in Somerset, where a bronze figurine and inscribed plaque dedicated to the god were found in a field, along with the remains of a building, perhaps a shrine. The figurine depicts a standing naked male figure with a close-fitting helmet; his right hand may have once held a weapon, and he probably originally also had a shield (both are now lost). The same epithet for a god is recorded from Bourges in Gaul. The use of this epithet implies that Mars had an extremely high status, over and above his warrior function. [3]Mars was also very popular with the ladies of Ancient Rome, a player if ever there was one,he made love to evryone he could and even reportedely his chickens and goats.
  • Mars Rigonemetis ("King of the Sacred Grove"). A dedication to Rigonemetis and the numen (spirit) of the Emperor inscribed on a stone was discovered at Nettleham (Lincolnshire) in 1961. Rigonemetis is only known from this site, and it seems he may have been a god belonging to the tribe of the Corieltauvi. [3]
  • Mars Segomo. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Segomo.
  • Mars Teutates. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Teutates (Toutatis).
  • Mars Thinesus. A form of Mars invoked at Homesteads at Hadrian's Wall, where his name is linked with two goddesses called the Alaisiagae. Anne Ross associated Thinesus with a sculpture, also from the fort, which shows a god flanked by goddesses and accompanied by a goose - a frequent companion of war gods. [3]
  • Mars Visucius. A fusion of Mars with the Celtic god Visucius.
  • Mars Vorocius. A Celtic healer-god invoked at the curative spring shrine at Vichy (Allier) as a curer of eye afflictions. On images, the god is depicted as a Celtic warrior. [3]

For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... , South Shields is a coastal town in Tyne and Wear, England, on the south bank of the mouth of the River Tyne, with a population of about 90,000. ... Barkway is a village and civil parish in the North Hertfordshire district of Hertfordshire, England, about five miles south-east of Royston. ... For the similarly named county in the West Midlands region, see Herefordshire. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Location Location of Mallorca in Balearic Islands Coordinates : 39° 30’N , 3°0E Time Zone : CET (UTC+1) - summer: CEST (UTC+2) General information Native name Mallorca (Catalan) Spanish name Mallorca Postal code 07001-07691 Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Illes Balears) Website http://www. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... For other uses, see Carlisle (disambiguation). ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... In Celtic mythology, Belatu-Cadros, or Belatucadros (fair shining one or the fair slayer), was a deity worshipped in northern Britain, particularly in Cumberland and Westmoreland. ... Bakewell is a small market town in Derbyshire, England, deriving its name from Badecas Well. According to the UK 2001 census the civil parish of Bakewell had a population of 3,979. ... In Celtic mythology, Camulus or Camulos was the god of war of the Remi, a Celtic tribe, who lived in the area of todays Belgium. ... The Lady of Baza, made by Iberians The Iberians were an ancient, Pre-Indo-European people who inhabited the east and southeast of the Iberian Peninsula in prehistoric and historic times. ... Pontevedra is a city in northwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Pontevedra in Galicia. ... In Celtic mythology, Cocidius was a deity worshipped in northern Britain. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... In Celtic mythology, Condatis (waters meet) was a deity worshipped primarily in northern Britain but also in Gaul. ... Piercebridge is an attractive village in the borough of Darlington and the ceremonial county of County Durham, England. ... Bowes is a village in the Pennines of England, situated close to Barnard Castle. ... Chester-le-Street is a market town in County Durham, England with a history going back to Roman times. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Lenus was a Celtic healing god sometimes equated with the Celtic god Iovantucarus (apparently as a protector of youth) and the Roman god Mars. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... Mullo is a Celtic god. ... Nodens, or Nodons, was a Celtic deity worshipped in Britain. ... Ocelus is a Celtic god known from three inscriptions in Roman Britain. ... Olloudiusis a widely venerated Celtic god, known from locations as far apart as Custom Shrubs in Gloucestershire and Ollioules in southern Gaul. ... West Coker is a village and parish in Somerset, England, situated three miles southwest of Yeovil in the South Somerset district. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ... Bourges is a town and commune in central France that is located on the Yèvre river. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Numina (presence, singular numen) conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... , Nettleham is a large village and civil parish within the West Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... The Coritani, or Corieltauvi, were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, previous to the Roman invasion of Britain. ... In Celtic mythology, Segomo (victor, mighty one) was a war god worshipped in Gaul, and possibly in Britain and Ireland. ... Toutatis or Teutates, ancient god of Celts and Gauls, whose name means father of the tribe. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... In Celtic mythology, the Alaisiagae were war goddesses, similar to the Valkyries. ... Anne Ross (born on 17 March 1985 in Papenburg, Germany) is a German singer. ... Visucius was a Gallo-Roman god, usually identified with Mercury. ... Vichy (Occitan: Vichèi) is a French commune, situated in the département of Allier and the région of Auvergne. ... Allier is a département in south-central France named after the Allier River. ...

Notes

  • The name Mars survives in everyday use in reference to military or extraordinary circumstances, such as martial arts or martial law.
  • The common forename or surname Martin (also spelt Martyn, Martijn and Marten, amongst other ways, in different languages) derives from Mars with the meaning dedicated to Mars or man of Mars.
  • The third day of the week in Roman times was dedicated to Mars: Martis Dies (Tuesday). It has survived in the Romanic languages as Martes (Spanish), Mardi (French), Martedi (Italian), Marţi (Romanian), An Mháirt (Irish/Gaelic), Dimarts (Catalan).
In the Thai solar calendar, Tuesday is named for Mars from a Pali word that also means "Ashes of the Dead".[[2]] The colour associated with the day is Scarlet.
In many languages Tuesday is named for the planet Mars or the God of War: See Days of the Week Planetary table.

Also known as the marsmon named after him Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... Pali (IAST: ) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Scarlet (from the Persian saqirlat or Latin astacus, crayfish) is a red color with a hue that is somewhat toward the orange. ... The god Týr, identified with Mars, after whom Tuesday is named. ... This article is about days of the week. ...

The Roman Consul and General Gaius Marius last name meant "son of Mars"
  • The month of March is inspired by this god's name.

So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... For other uses, see March (disambiguation). ...

Photo gallery

Image File history File links Ares_villa_Hadriana. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 300 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (875 × 1750 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1446x2509, 830 KB) 3D version of image. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Mars (god)

The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... The god Týr, identified with Mars, after whom Tuesday is named. ... Týr, depicted here with both hands intact, is identified with Mars in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god; for other uses, see Ares (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ Phillips, E.J. (1977). Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani, Great Britain, Volume I, Fascicule 1. Hadrian's Wall East of the North Tyne (p. 66). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-725954-5.
  2. ^ a b c d Ross, Anne (1967). Pagan Celtic Britain. Routledge & Kegan Paul. ISBN 0-902357-03-4.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Miranda J. Green. "Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend" (p. 142.) Thames and Hudson Ltd. 1997
  4. ^ Jones, Barri & Mattingly, David (1990). An Atlas of Roman Britain (p. 275). Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 1-84217-067-8.

External links

  • Mars in Roman Religion
Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... Bust of a flamen, 3rd century, Louvre A flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state supported god or goddess in Roman religion. ... The bronze sheeps liver of Piacenza, with Etruscan inscriptions In Roman practice inherited from the Etruscans, a haruspex (plural haruspices) was a man trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy, hepatoscopy or hepatomancy. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... The rex Nemorensis, (Latin: the king of Nemi or the king of the grove) was a sort of sacred king who served as priest of the goddess Diana at Aricia in Italy, by the shores of lake Nemi. ... A sacred king, according to the systematic interpretation of mythology developed by Sir James George Frazer in his influential book The Golden Bough, was a king who represented a solar deity in a periodically re-enacted fertility rite. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... This is a list of Roman deities with brief descriptions. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind... Lares (pl. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... Adranus or Adranos (Greek: ) was a fire god worshipped by the Sicels, the original inhabitants of the island of Sicily. ... The Averrunci, in antiquity, were an order of deities among the Romans, whose office was to avert dangers and evils. ... Averruncus is a minor god in Roman mythology. ... Bromius is the Roman god of wine. ... Caelus was the Latin name that the Romans used for the Greek sky god Uranus. ... In Roman mythology, Clitunno was a river god, an Oceanid. ... This article is about the Roman god. ... Dis Pater, or Dispater, was a Roman and Celtic god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Jupiter. ... Marble sculpture of Pan copulating with a goat, recovered from Herculaneum Pan (Greek Παν, genitive Πανος) is the Greek god who watches over shepherds and their flocks. ... Late second-century statue of Glycon. ... In Roman mythology, the god Inuus protected livestock. ... In Roman mythology, Lupercus was a name for the Greek god Pan. ... In Roman mythology, Orcus was a god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths, more equivalent to Pluto than to the Greek Hades, and later identified with Dis Pater. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Aius Locutius is a Roman legend. ... In Roman mythology, Angerona or Angeronia was an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. ... In Roman mythology, Concordia was the goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony. ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind... In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mars (444 words)
Mars is also mentioned as a chthonic god (earth-god) and this could explain why he became a god of death and finally a god of war.
According to some sources, Mars is the father of Romulus and Remus by the Vestal Ilia (Rhea Silvia).
Mars is portrayed as a warrior in full battle armor, wearing a crested helmet and bearing a shield.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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