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Encyclopedia > Marriage
Close relationships

Affinity • Attachment • Bonding • Boyfriend • Casual • Cohabitation • Compersion • Concubinage • Courtship • Divorce • Domestic partnership • Dower, dowry, and bride price • Family • Friendship • Girlfriend • Husband • Infatuation • Intimacy • Jealousy • Limerence • Love • Marriage • Monogamy • Nonmonogamy • Office romance • Partner • Passion • Platonic love • Polyamory • Polyfidelity • Polygamy • Psychology of monogamy • Relationship abuse • Romance • Separation • Sexuality • Serial monogamy • Sexual orientation • Wedding • Widowhood • Wife
 This box: view  talk  edit  Ancient Christian Marriage symbol: two gold rings and Greek letters chi (X) and rho (P) for Jesus Christ // The Christian views of marriage historically have regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... Marriage Records is a small, independent record label based in Portland, Oregon, USA. It was founded in late 2002 by Curtis Knapp and Adrian Orange. ... In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... Image File history File links KarenWhimseyValentineMain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Attachment in adults deals with the theory of attachment in adult romantic relationships. ... The term human bond -- or, more generally, human bonding -- refers to the process or formation of a close personal relationship, as between a parent and child, especially through frequent or constant association. ... For other uses, see Boyfriend (disambiguation). ... A casual relationship is a term used to describe the physical and emotional relationship between two people who may have a sexual relationship or a near-sexual relationship without necessarily demanding or expecting a more formal relationship as a goal. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... Compersion is a term used by practitioners of polyamory to describe the experience of taking pleasure when ones partner is with another person. ... Concubinage refers to the state of a woman or youth in an ongoing, quasi-matrimonial relationship with a man of higher social status. ... Suitor redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live... Dower (Lat. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Friendship is a term used to denote co-operative and supportive behavior between two or more humans. ... For other uses, see Girlfriend (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infatuation (disambiguation). ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Jealous redirects here. ... Look up Limerence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... An office romance, work romance, or corporate affair is a romance that occurs between two people who work together in the same office, work location, or business. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... Polyamory (from Greek (, literally “multiple”) and Latin (literally “love”)) is the desire, practice, or acceptance of having more than one loving, intimate relationship at a time with the full knowledge and consent of everyone involved. ... Polyfidelity, is a form of polyamorous group marriage wherein all members consider each other to be primary partners and agree to be sexual only with other members of this group. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... The psychology of monogamy deals with the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that commonly occur in monogamous relationships. ... Abuser redirects here. ... Romance is a general term that refers to an intimate and often sexual relationship between two people. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... Serial polygamy is a form of marriage in which participants have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime (hence polygamy), but not at the same time (hence serial). ... Sexual orientation refers to an enduring emotional, romantic, sexual, or affectional attraction toward others,[1] usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ...

Family law
Entering into marriage
Prenuptial agreement  · Marriage
Common-law marriage
Same-sex marriage
Legal states similar to marriage
Cohabitation  · Civil union
Domestic partnership
Registered partnership
Putative marriage
Dissolution of marriage
Annulment  · Divorce  · Alimony
Issues affecting children
Paternity  · Legitimacy  · Adoption
Legal guardian  · Ward
Emancipation of minors  · Foster care
Child Protective Services
Parental responsibility
Contact (including Visitation)
Residence in English law
Custody  · Child support
Areas of possible legal concern
Spousal abuse  · Child abuse
Child abduction
Adultery  · Bigamy  · Incest
Conflict of Laws Issues
Marriage  · Nullity  · Divorce

Marriage is a personal union between individuals. This union may also be called matrimony, while the ceremony that marks its beginning is called a wedding and the status created is sometimes called wedlock. The act of marriage changes the personal status of the individuals in the eyes of the law and society. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice_2. ... Family Law was a television drama starring Kathleen Quinlan as a divorced lawyer who attempted to start her own law firm after her lawyer husband took all their old clients. ... A prenuptial agreement or antenuptial agreement, commonly abbreviated to prenup or prenupt, is a contract entered into by two people prior to marriage or civil union. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R, VCP) Australia (TAS, VIC eff. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R) Australia (TAS, VIC 1 July... A putative marriage is an apparently valid marriage, entered into in good faith on part of at least one of the partners, but is invalid because of an impediment, such as a currently valid marriage on part of one of them. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ... In law, Paternity is the legal acknowledgment of the parental relationship between a father and his child usually based on biological factors, but sometimes based on social factors. ... Freiheitsrechte Recht auf Leben, Freiheit, Eigentum, Sicherheit der Person Allgemeine, nur durch Gesetz beschränkbare Handlungsfreiheit Freiheit von willkürlichen Eingriffen in die Privatsphäre (Wohnung, Briefgeheimnis etc. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... A legal guardian is a person who has the legal authority (and the corresponding duty) to care for the personal and property interests of another person, called a ward. ... In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian. ... Emancipation of minors is a legal mechanism by which a person below the age of majority (adulthood) gains certain rights, generally identical to those of adults. ... Foster care is a system by which a certified, stand-in parent(s) cares for minor children or young people who have been removed from their biological parents or other custodial adults by state authority. ... Child Protective Services is the name of a governmental agency in many states in the United States that responds to child abuse and neglect. ... In the states of the European Union and elsewhere, parental responsibility refers to the rights and privilieges which underpin the relationship between a child and either its parents or those adults who have a significant role in its life. ... In Family Law, contact (or in the United States, visitation) is one of the general terms which denotes the level of contact a parent or other significant person in a childs life can have with that child. ... In Family Law, residence is an Order of the Family court under s8 Children Act 1989 following the breakdown of a marriage and determining where the child(ren) are to live and with whom. ... Child custody and guardianship are legal terms which are sometimes used to describe the legal and practical relationship between a parent and his or her child, such as the right of the parent to make decisions for the child, and the parents duty to care for the child. ... In many countries, child support or child maintenance is the ongoing obligation for a periodic payment made by a non-custodial parent to a custodial parent, caregiver or guardian, for the care and support of children of a relationship or marriage that has been terminated. ... Spousal abuse refers to a wide spectrum of abuse. ... Child abuse is the physical, psychological or sexual abuse or neglect of children. ... Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... Private International Law, International Private Law, or Conflict of Laws is that branch of law regulating all lawsuits involving a foreign law element where a difference in result will occur depending on which laws are applied as the lex causae. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of marriage has assumed increasing public policy significance in a world of increasing multi-ethnic, multi-cultural community existence. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of nullity (known as annulment in the United States) in Family Law inspires a wide response among the laws of different states as to the circumstances in which a marriage will be valid, invalid or null. ... In modern society, the role of marriage and its termination through divorce have become political issues. ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ...


Marriage is an institution in which interpersonal relationships (usually intimate and sexual) are sanctioned with governmental, social, or religious recognition. It is often created by a contract or through civil processes. Civil marriage is the legal concept of marriage as a governmental institution, in accordance with marriage laws of the land. In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... A marriage is a committed relationship between or among individuals, recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ...


Marriage may take many forms: for example, a union between one man and one woman as husband and wife is a monogamous heterosexual marriage; polygamy — in which a person takes more than one spouse — is common in many societies[1]; and, in some jurisdictions[2] and denominations, a same-sex marriage unites people of the same sex. (Other jurisdictions may not allow this, but instead provide civil unions or domestic partnerships conferring some or all of the benefits of married status.) It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with marriage. ... Photograph of a nude man by Wilhelm von Gloeden, ca. ... Diverse women. ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... One version of a Heterosexuality symbol Heterosexuality is sexual or romantic attraction between opposite sexes, and is the most common sexual orientation among humans. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... The term spouse refers to either partner in marriage, generally called a husband or wife, depending on gender. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R, VCP) Australia (TAS, VIC eff. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live...


People marry for many reasons, but usually one or more of the following: legal, social and economic stability; the formation of a family unit; procreation and the education and nurturing of children; legitimizing sexual relations; public declaration of love; or to obtain citizenship.[3][4] For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ...


A marriage is often declared by a wedding ceremony,[5] which may be performed either by a religious officiant, by a secular government-sanctioned officiator, or (in weddings that have no church or state affiliation) by a trusted friend of the wedding participants. The act of marriage usually creates obligations between the individuals involved, and in many societies, their extended families. For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...

Contents

Finding a partner

In order to get married, it is necessary to find a suitable partner. A partner may be found by the person wishing to be married through the process of courtship. Alternatively, two marriage candidates may be matched by a third party, typically with the match finalized only if both candidates approve of the union. This is known as an arranged marriage. Suitor redirects here. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ...


The choice between courtship and arranged marriage is made by the person seeking marriage or by his or her parents. In some cases, the parents will be ready to enforce an arranged marriage because of cultural tradition or for some other special reason (e.g., dowry). It is worth noting however, that in many cases the person seeking marriage is comfortable with having his or her marriage arranged and, even disregarding parental preference, would freely choose an arranged marriage. Actual forced marriage is common in only a few communities and often attracts harsh criticism even from people who are generally in favor of arranged marriage.[citation needed] Suitor redirects here. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Forced marriage is a term used in the Occident to describe traditional arranged marriages in which one or more of the parties (usually the woman) is married without his/her consent or against his/her will. ...


Arranged marriage

An arranged marriage between Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain
An arranged marriage between Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain

A pragmatic (or 'arranged') marriage is made easier by formal procedures of family or group politics. A responsible authority sets up or encourages the marriage; they may, indeed, engage a professional matchmaker to find a suitable spouse for an unmarried person. The authority figure could be parents, family, a religious official, or a group consensus. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1304x986, 296 KB) Mariage du Duc de Bourgogne, Louis de France (1682-1712). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1304x986, 296 KB) Mariage du Duc de Bourgogne, Louis de France (1682-1712). ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Marie Thérèse redirects here. ... This page refers to human matchmakers, for modern matchmaking which tends to substitute information technology or game-like rules for the experts finesse see dating system. ...


In some cases, the authority figure may choose a match for purposes other than marital harmony. Some of the most popular uses of arranged marriage are for dowry or immigration. A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ...


Though now a rarity in Western countries, arranged marriages in countries such as India are still prevalent today.[citation needed] In rural villages, the marriage of a child often has much to do with family property. Parents adopt the practice of child marriage and arrange the wedding, sometimes even before the child is born (though this practice was made illegal by the Child Marriage Restraint Act of the Indian Government). In urban India, people use thriving institutions known as Marriage Bureaus or Matrimonials Sites, where candidates register themselves for small fees.[citation needed] A related form of pragmatic marriage, sometimes called a marriage of convenience, involves immigration laws. According to one publisher of information about "green card" marriages, "Every year over 450,000 United States citizens marry foreign-born individuals and petition for them to obtain a permanent residency (Green Card) in the United States."[6] While this is likely an over-estimate, in 2003 alone 184,741 immigrants were admitted to the U.S. as spouses of U.S. citizens.[7] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A marriage of convenience (plural marriages of convenience) is a marriage contracted for reasons other than the traditional reasons of love or family. ...


Marriage in Europe

A woodcut of a medieval wedding ceremony from Germany
A woodcut of a medieval wedding ceremony from Germany

Among Western cultures, the nuclear family emerged during the late medieval period.[8] Marriage is the sole mechanism for the creation of affinal ties (in-laws).[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1129x1350, 137 KB) Wye reymont vnd melusina zuamen wurdent geleit / Vnd vom bischoff gesesenet wurdent in dem bett (Holzschnitt aus der Schönen Melusine / XV. Jahrhundert) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1129x1350, 137 KB) Wye reymont vnd melusina zuamen wurdent geleit / Vnd vom bischoff gesesenet wurdent in dem bett (Holzschnitt aus der Schönen Melusine / XV. Jahrhundert) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity, is kinship by marriage. ...


Although the institution of marriage pre-dates reliable recorded history, many cultures have legends or religious beliefs concerning the origins of marriage.[9] Ancient history is from the period of time when writing and historical records first appear, roughly 5,500 years before the Common Era. ...


In Catholicism, the Council of Trent made the validity of marriage dependent upon its being performed before an ordained member of the clergy and two witnesses. The Council also authorized a Catechism, issued in 1566, which defined marriage as, "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life."[10] Marriage has changed throughout the history of Europe, in the 1200s in England it was unlawful for a woman younger than 24 years to marry, but this changed, beginning in the 1500s, to 20 years of age.[11] The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ...


In the Middle Ages the Church only allowed annulment for consanguinity and adultery but during the reformation, Luther and others made marriage a civil institution instead of a sacramental one. This made way for the rights of women to divorce their husbands for faults such as impotency.[12] Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ...


In the United Kingdom, the Deceased Wife's Sister's Marriage Act 1907 was a statute passed by Parliament that removed the prohibition forbidding a man to marry the sister of his deceased wife. The Deceased Wifes Sisters Marriage Act 1907 was a statute passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...


European monogamy

European culture and the cultures of the Americas, so far as they descend from it, have for the most part defined themselves as monogamous cultures. This partially stemmed from Christianity, Germanic cultural traditions[verification needed] and the mandate of Roman Law. However, Roman Law permitted prostitution, concubinage, and sexual access to slaves. The Christian West formally banned these practices with laws against adultery, fornication, and other relationships outside a monogamous, lifelong covenant. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ... Fornication, or simple fornication, is a term which refers to consensual sexual intercourse between two persons not married to each other[1]. In contrast adultery is consensual sex where one or both of the partners are married to someone else. ...


Recognition

The participants in a marriage usually seek social recognition for their relationship, and many societies require official approval of a religious or civil body.


In the early modern era, John Calvin (1509 – 1564) and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian marriage through enactment of The Marriage Ordinance of Geneva, which imposes "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage."[13] John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


In England and Wales, it was Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act 1753 that first required formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marriage. For other marriage-related legislation, see Marriage Act In England and Wales, the Marriage Act 1753, also called Lord Hardwickes Marriage Act, required a formal ceremony of marriage, therefore abolishing common-law marriage. ... Caricature of a Fleet Street Marriage A Fleet Marriage is the best-known example of an irregular or a clandestine marriage taking place in England before the Marriage Act 1753 came into force on March 25th, 1754. ...


In many jurisdictions, the civil marriage ceremony may take place during the religious marriage ceremony, although they are theoretically distinct. In most American states, the marriage may be officiated by a priest, minister, rabbi or other religious authority, and in such a case the religious authority acts simultaneously as an agent of the state. In some countries, such as France, Spain, Germany, Turkey, Argentina, Japan and Russia, it is necessary to be married by the state separate from (usually before) any religious ceremony, with the state ceremony being the legally binding one. Some states allow civil marriages in circumstances which are not allowed by many religions, such as same-sex marriages or civil unions. This article is about religious workers. ... In most Protestant churches, a minister is a member of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry; such a person may also be called a Pastor, Preacher, Bishop, Chaplain or Elder. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R, VCP) Australia (TAS, VIC eff. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law...


Marriage may also be created by the operation of the law alone, as in common-law marriage, sometimes called "marriage by habit and repute." This is a judicial recognition that two people who have been living as domestic partners are entitled to the effects of marriage. However, in the UK at least, common-law marriage has been abolished and there are no rights available unless a couple marries or enters into a civil partnership. Conversely, there are examples of people who have a religious ceremony that is not recognized by the civil authorities. Examples include widows who stand to lose a pension if they remarry legally, same-sex couples (where same-sex marriage is not legally recognized), some sects which recognize polygamy, retired couples who would lose pension benefits if legally married, Muslim men who wish to engage in polygamy that is condoned in some situations under Islam, and immigrants who do not wish to alert the immigration authorities that they are married either to a spouse they are leaving behind or because the complexity of immigration laws may make it difficult for spouses to visit on a tourist visa. Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live... Effects of marriage is a legal term of art used to describe all of the rights and obligations that individuals may be subject and entitled to if they are in a common-law marriage, an annulled marriage, domestic partnership or a civil union. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


In Europe, it has traditionally been the churches' office to make marriages official by registering them. Hence, it was a significant step towards a clear separation of church and state and also an intended and sufficient weakening of the Christian churches' role in Germany, when Chancellor Otto von Bismarck introduced the Zivilehe (civil marriage) in 1875. This law made the declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration (both spouses affirming their will to marry) the procedure to make a marriage legally valid and effective, and reduced the clerical marriage to an optional private ceremony. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Bismarck redirects here. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Rights and obligations

A Ketubah in Aramaic, a Jewish marriage-contract outlining the duties of each partner.
A Ketubah in Aramaic, a Jewish marriage-contract outlining the duties of each partner.
See also: Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States

A marriage, be definition, creates rights and obligations on the parties directly involved and sometimes on others as a consequence. Some of these consequences are: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (881x1167, 236 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marriage Ketubah User:Zuejay/sandbox ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (881x1167, 236 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marriage Ketubah User:Zuejay/sandbox ... An illustrated ketubah A ketubah is a Jewish marriage contract. ... According to the United States Government Accountability Office, there are slightly over one thousand federal laws that treat married people differently from single people. ...

  • it may give a husband or his family control over a wife's sexual services, labor, and/or property;
  • it may give a wife or her family control over a husband's sexual services, labor, and/or property;
  • it may establish the second legal guardian of a parent's child;
  • it may establish a joint fund of property for the benefit of children;
  • it may establish a relationship between the families of the spouses.

These rights and obligations vary considerably between societies, and between groups within society.[14]. Several newspapers go by the name of Guardian: The Guardian, a British newspaper founded in 1821 as the Manchester Guardian, which took its current title in 1959. ...


Sex and procreation

Marriage is not a prerequisite for having children. In the U.S., the National Center for Health Statistics reported that in 1992, 30.1 percent of births were to unmarried women.[15][16] In 2006, that number had risen to 38.5 percent. [17] Until recent times, children born outside of marriage were termed illegitimate and suffered legal disadvantages and social stigma. In recent years the legal relevance of illegitimacy has declined and social acceptance increased, especially in western countries. Illegitimacy was a term in common usage for the condition of being born of parents who are not validly married to one another; the legal term is bastardy. ...


There are some married couples who remain childless either by choice or due to infertility by either partner or other factors preventing conception or ability to bear children. In some cultures, marriage imposes an obligation on women to bear children. In northern Ghana, for example, payment of bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.[18] Childfree is a term used to describe people who neither have, nor desire children. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... The term conception can refer to more than one meaning: Concept Fertilisation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ...


Most of the world's major religions look with disfavor on sexual relations prior to marriage.[19] Some teach that sexual relations without marriage is fornication. Fornication is sometimes socially discouraged or even criminal.[citation needed] Sex with a married person other than one's spouse is called adultery, and is universally condemned by all major world religions, and has often been and in some jurisdictions continues to be a crime.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Fornication, or simple fornication, is a term which refers to consensual sexual intercourse between two persons not married to each other[1]. In contrast adultery is consensual sex where one or both of the partners are married to someone else. ... This article is about the act of adultery. ...


Conversely, a marriage is commonly held to require a sexual relationship, and non-consummation (that is, failure to engage in sex) may be held grounds for an annulment (e.g., John Ruskin's abortive marriage).[citation needed] As a verb, consummate means to bring something to its completion, such as a transaction, concept, plan or action. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ...


Polygamy

Main article: Polygamy
See also: Forms of nonmonogamy

Polygamous marriage, in which a person takes more than one spouse, is accepted in a majority of global social traditions, though it is far less common than monogamy.[1] Africa has the highest rate of polygamy in the world.[20] In Senegal, for example, nearly 47 percent of marriages are multiple.[21] Polygyny is the typical form of polygamy, while polyandry is rare.[22] Anthropologists distinguish between these forms of multiple marriage, where one person separately marries more than one spouse, and group marriage, in which multiple spouses all become married to one another. The group marriage form of polygamy is rare.[1] In the U.S., the historic Oneida Colony provides a prominent 19th-century example of a polygamous group marriage. The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Nonmonogamy is a blanket term covering several different types of interpersonal relationship in which some or all participants have multiple marital, sexual, and/or romantic partners. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Polygyny, a form of polygamy, is the practice of having more than one female sexual partner or wife simultaneously. ... In social anthropology and sociobiology, polyandry (Greek: poly- many, andros- man) means a female forming a sexual union with more than one male. ... Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all... The Oneida Community was a utopian commune founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York. ... During the 19th century, the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, and Ottoman empires began to crumble and the Holy Roman and Mughal empires ceased. ...


Marriage restrictions

Marriageable age

Main article: Marriageable age

The minimum age at which a person is able to lawfully marry, and if parental or other consents are required, vary from country to country. . ...


As early as 1798, Thomas Malthus proposed delaying the age of marriage to alleviate overpopulation. Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834),[1] was a political economist and British demographer. ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ...


Kinship restrictions

Societies have often placed restrictions on marriage to relatives, though the degree of prohibited relationship varies widely. In most societies, marriage between brothers and sisters has been forbidden, with Ancient Egyptian, Hawaiian, and Inca royalty being prominent exceptions. In many societies, marriage between some first cousins is preferred, while at the other extreme, the medieval Catholic church prohibited marriage even between distant cousins. The present day Catholic Church still maintains a standard of required distance (in both consanguinity and affinity) for marriage. Cross Cousin is an anthropological term describing kin who are in the same descent group as the subject (ego) and are from the parents opposite-sexed sibling. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... Consanguinity, literally meaning common blood, describes how close a person is related to another in the sense of a family. ... In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity, is kinship by marriage. ...


Social restrictions

In 2004, the American Anthropological Association released this statement:[23] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... American Anthropological Association (AAA) was founded in 1902 and claims to be, the worlds largest professional organization of individuals interested in anthropology. Although there were several other American anthropological societies in existence at the turn of the 20th century, this new, national organization was formed to promote the science...

The results of more than a century of anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution. Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies. Anthropology (from the Greek word άνθρωπος = human) consists of the study of humankind (see genus Homo). ... The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Central New York City. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ...

Many societies, even some with a cultural tradition of polygamy, recognize monogamy as the only valid form of marriage. For example, People's Republic of China shifted from allowing polygamy to supporting only monogamy in the Marriage Act of 1953 after the Communist revolution.[citation needed] Polygamy is practiced illegally by some groups in the United States and Canada, primarily by Mormon fundamentalist sects that separated from the mainstream Latter Day Saints movement after the practice was renounced in 1890.[24] Many African and Islamic societies still allow polygamy.[citation needed] Faithfulness redirects here. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Caption It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mormon fundamentalism. ... A sect is a small religious group that has branched off of a larger established religion. ... A Latter Day Saint (LDS) is a person who identifies with the Latter Day Saint movement and is a follower of Mormonism. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


Since the later decades of the 20th century, many ideas about the nature and purpose of marriage and family have been challenged in some countries, in particular by LGBT social movements, which argue that marriage should not be exclusively heterosexual. Some people also argue that marriage may be an unnecessary legal fiction.[citation needed] This follows from an overall shift in ideas and practices of family; since World War II, the West has seen a dramatic increase in divorce (6% to over 40% of first marriages),[25] cohabitation without marriage, a growing unmarried population, children born outside of marriage (5% to over 33% of births), and an increase in adultery (8% to over 40%)[citation needed]. Consequently, a de facto system of serial monogamy has emerged. On the other hand, demands for same-sex marriage have led to its legalization in some Western countries.[citation needed] Six countries, and one state in the United States, have done so. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... For the LGBT rights article for a particular country, see LGBT rights by country. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Serial polygamy is a form of marriage in which participants have more than one sexual partner in their lifetime (hence polygamy), but not at the same time (hence serial). ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R, VCP) Australia (TAS, VIC eff. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


Today, the term marriage is generally reserved for a union that is formally recognized by the state (although some people disagree). The phrase legally married can be used to emphasize this point. In the United States, there are two methods of receiving state recognition of a marriage: common law marriage and obtaining a marriage license. The majority of US states do not recognize common law marriage.[citation needed] Other localities may support various types of domestic partnerships. In many jurisdictions, common-law marriage is a legal provision whereby two people who are eligible to marry, but who do not obtain a legal marriage, are nevertheless considered married under certain conditions. ... Napa, California: USA A new bride humorously observes the legal signing of her marriage license by her maid of honor. ... In many jurisdictions, common-law marriage is a legal provision whereby two people who are eligible to marry, but who do not obtain a legal marriage, are nevertheless considered married under certain conditions. ... Domestic partner or domestic partnership identifies the personal relationship between individuals who are living together and sharing a common domestic life together but are not joined in any type of legal partnership, marriage or civil union. ...


In the Indian Hindu community, especially in the Brahmin caste, marrying a person of the same gotra was prohibited, since persons belonging to the same gotra are said to have identical patrilineal descent. In ancient India, when gurukuls existed, the shishyas (pupils) were advised against marrying any of guru's children, as shishyas were also considered the guru's children and it would be considered marriage among siblings. However, there were exceptions, including Arjuna's son Abhimanyu's marriage to Uttra, the dance student of Arjuna in Mahabharata. The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 brought reforms in the area of same-gotra marriages, which were banned prior to the act's passage. Now the Indian constitution allows any consenting adult heterosexual couple (women 18 or older and men 21 or older) from any race, religion, caste, or creed to marry. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Sanskrit word denotes the scholar/teacher, priest, caste, class (), or tribe, that has been traditionally enjoined to live a life of learning, teaching and non-possessivenes . ... A gotra is the lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. ... A gotra is the lineage or clan assigned to a Hindu at birth. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... A Gurukul (Guru refers to teacher or master; Kul refers to his domain, from the Sanskrit word kula, meaning extended family. ... For other uses, see Guru (disambiguation). ... This article is about the domestic group. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अिभमन्यु, abhimanyu)(litt. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ...


Many societies have also adopted other restrictions on whom one can marry, such as prohibitions of marrying persons with the same surname, or persons with the same sacred animal. Anthropologists refer to these sorts of restrictions as exogamy. One example is South Korea's general taboo against a man marrying a woman with the same family name. The most common surname in South Korea is Kim (almost 20%); however, there are several branches (or clans) in the Kim surname. (Korean family names are divided into one or more clans.) Only intra-clan marriages are prohibited, as they are considered one type of exogamy. Thus, many "Kim-Kim" couples can be found.[citation needed] This article is about the social science. ... Exogamy has two related definitions, both biological and cultural. ... Kim is the most common family name in Korea. ... Exogamy has two related definitions, both biological and cultural. ...


Societies have also at times required marriage from within a certain group. Anthropologists refer to these restrictions as endogamy. An example of such restrictions would be a requirement to marry someone from the same tribe. Racist laws adopted by some societies in the past—such as Nazi-era Germany, apartheid-era South Africa and most of the United States in the nineteenth and the first half of the 20th century—which prohibited marriage between persons of different races could also be considered examples of endogamy. In the U.S., laws banning interracial marriage, which were state laws, were gradually repealed between 1948 and 1967. The U.S. Supreme Court declared all such laws unconstitutional in the case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967.[26] Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... Othello and Desdemona from William Shakespeares Othello, a play often depicted as concerning a biracial couple. ... Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a social group. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... State law, in the United States, is the law of each separate U.S. state, as passed by the state legislature and signed into law by the state governor. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Holding The Court declared Virginias anti-miscegenation statute, the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, unconstitutional, thereby ending all race-based legal restriction on marriage in the United States. ...


Weddings

Main article: Wedding
Couple married in a Shinto ceremony in Takayama, Gifu prefecture.
Couple married in a Shinto ceremony in Takayama, Gifu prefecture.

A marriage may be celebrated with a wedding ceremony,[27] which can be performed by a religious officiator or through a similar government-sanctioned secular process. Despite the ceremony being led by someone else, most religious traditions maintain that the marriage itself is mediated between the two individuals through vows, with the gathered audience witnessing, affirming, and legitimizing the marriage. For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1360x2048, 1388 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marriage User:Zuejay/sandbox Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1360x2048, 1388 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marriage User:Zuejay/sandbox Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... A bride in the South of France Nuptial is the adjective of wedding. It is used for example in zoology to denote plumage, coloration, behavior, etc related to or occurring in the mating season. ... A vow (Lat. ...


The ceremony in which a marriage is enacted and announced to the community is called a wedding. A wedding in which the participants marry in the "eyes of the law" is called a civil marriage. Religions also facilitate weddings, in the "eyes of God". In many European and some Latin American countries, a religious ceremony must be held separate from the civil ceremony. Certain countries, like Belgium, Bulgaria, the Netherlands and Turkey,[28] demand that the civil marriage take place before any religious marriage. In some countries — notably the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Norway and Spain — both ceremonies can be held together; the officiant at the religious and community ceremony also serves as an agent of the state to enact the civil marriage. That does not mean that the state is "recognizing" religious marriages — the "civil" ceremony just takes place at the same time as the religious ceremony. Often this involves simply signing a register during the religious ceremony. If the civil element of the religious ceremony is omitted, no marriage took place in the eyes of the law. For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


While some countries, such as Australia, permit marriages to be held in private and at any location, others, including England, require that the civil ceremony be conducted in a place specially sanctioned by law (i.e., a church or registry office), and be open to the public. An exception can be made in the case of marriage by special emergency license, which is normally granted only when one of the parties is terminally ill. Rules about where and when persons can marry vary from place to place. Some regulations require that one of the parties reside in the locality of the registry office. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The way in which a marriage is enacted has changed over time, as has the institution of marriage itself. In Europe during the Middle Ages, marriage was enacted by the couple promising verbally to each other that they would be married to each other; the presence of a priest or other witnesses was not required. This promise was known as the "verbum". If made in the present tense (e.g. "I marry you"), it was unquestionably binding; if made in the future tense ("I will marry you"), it would constitute a betrothal, but if the couple proceeded to have sexual relations, the union was a marriage. As part of the Reformation, the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state; by the 1600s many of the Protestant European countries had heavy state involvement in marriage. As part of the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church added a requirement of witnesses to the promise, which under normal circumstances had to include the priest. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Many inventions and institutions are created, including Hans Lippershey with the telescope (1608, used by Galileo the next year), the newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung in Augsburg, and Cornelius Drebbel with the thermostat (1609). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Clandestinity is a diriment impediment in the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Marriage and religion

A couple being wed alongside the Tungabhadra River at Hampi, India.
A couple being wed alongside the Tungabhadra River at Hampi, India.

Many religions have broad teachings regarding marriage. Most Christian churches blessing the couple being married; the wedding ceremony sometimes involves a pledge by the community to support the couple's relationship. In virtually all religions, marriage is a long-term union between two people and is established with ceremonies and rituals. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Muslim_wedding_in_India. ... The Tungabhadra is a river of southern India. ... Hampi (Kannada: ಹಂಪೆ, Hampe in Kannada) is a village in northern Karnataka state, India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... A blessing (from to bless, Old English bleodsian or bletsian) originally meant sprinkling with blood during the pagan sacrifices, the Blóts (reference: AHD). ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ...


Liturgical Christian communions—notably Anglicanism, Catholicism, and Orthodoxy—consider marriage (sometimes termed holy matrimony) to be an expression of grace, termed a sacrament or mystery. In Western ritual, the sacrament is bestowed upon a husband and wife by the spouses themselves, with a bishop, priest, or deacon normally witnessing the union on behalf of the church. In Eastern ritual churches, the clergyman functions as the minister. Western Christians commonly term marriage a vocation, while Eastern Christians term it an ordination and a martyrdom, though the theological emphases indicated by the various names are not excluded by the teachings of either tradition. Marriage is commonly celebrated in the context of a Eucharistic service (a nuptial Mass or Divine Liturgy). The sacrament of marriage is indicative of the relationship between Christ and the Church, yet most Reformed Christians would deny the elevation of marriage to the status of a sacrament. Nevertheless it is considered a covenant between spouses before God.[citation needed]


In Judaism, marriage is viewed as a contractual bond commanded by God in which a man and a woman come together to create a relationship in which God is directly involved.[29] Though procreation is not the sole purpose, a Jewish marriage is also expected to fulfill the commandment to have children.[30] The main focus centers around the relationship between the husband and wife. Kabbalistically, marriage is understood to mean that the husband and wife are merging together into a single soul. This is why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified.[31] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ...


Islam also recommends marriage highly; among other things, it helps in the pursuit of spiritual perfection. Age of marriage is whenever the individuals feel ready, financially and emotionally, for marriage. It should also be noted that in Islam, marriage is not a religious concept as it is in many religions, but a civil contract between a man and a woman.[citation needed] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


According to Shia Islam marriage doesn't need any witness or official statement or presence in a definite place [32] and its sufficient that man and woman intend to marry with each other and say specific words to each other which led to a religious contract between them[33][34] and a couple can live with each other as a family without official contract. Of course there are some criteria which should be observed for example woman should be single. [35][36] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ...


Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, recommended that people marry as an assistance to themselves in their well-being, but did not make it obligatory; he explained that it is both a physical and spiritual bond that endures into the afterlife.[37] Shoghi Effendi, the Guardian of the religion, stated that marriage is a foundation for the structure of human society.[37] A Bahá'í marriage requires the consent of the couple, and then of all living parents, as to strengthen the ties between the families and avoid enmity.[37] Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... The last photograph of Shoghi Effendi, taken a few months before he died. ... Baháí marriage is union of a man and a women. ...


Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations. Old Hindu literature in Sanskrit gives many different types of marriages and their categorization ranging from "Gandharva Vivaha" (instant marriage by mutual consent of participants only, without any need for even a single third person as witness) to normal (present day) marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha" (marriage performed by abduction of one participant by the other participant, usually, but not always, with the help of other persons). There are elaborate laws in Manusmriti directing which castes and which varnas can marry which castes, and the penalties for breaking these nuptial laws.[citation needed] Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Manu Smriti or Laws of Manu, is one of the eighteen Smritis of the Dharma Sastra (or laws of righteous conduct), written c. ...


For the most part, religious traditions in the world reserve marriage to heterosexual unions, but there are exceptions including Unitarian Universalist, Metropolitan Community Church and some Anglican dioceses and Quaker, United Church of Canada and Reform Jewish congregations.[38][39] The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Logo of the Metropolitan Community Churches The Metropolitan Community Church (in full, The Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches or UFMCC, or more commonly MCC) is an international fellowship of Christian congregations. ... The issue of homosexuality is controversial in the Anglican Communion. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ...


Marriage and cohabitation

Marriage is an institution which can join together people's lives in emotional and economic ways. Marriage can also lead to the formation of a new household, but among some people (e.g. the Minangkabau of West Sumatra), residency after marriage is matrilocal, with the husband moving into the pre-existing household of his wife's mother.[40] Residency after marriage can also be patrilocal or avunculocal. For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Languages Minangkabau, Indonesian and Malay. ... Motto: Tuah Sakato. ... Matrilocality is a term used in social anthropology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Patrilocality. ... An avunculocal society is one in which a married couple traditionally lives with the mans mothers eldest brother. ...


In many Western cultures, married people usually live together in the same home, often sharing the same bed, but in some other regions this is not the tradition.[41] In southwestern China, for example, walking marriages, in which the husband and wife do not live together, have been a traditional part of the Mosuo culture.[42] Walking marriages have also been increasingly common in modern Beijing. Guo Jianmei, director of the center for women's studies at Beijing University, told a Newsday correspondent, "Walking marriages reflect sweeping changes in Chinese society."[43] A similar arrangement in Saudi Arabia, called misyar marriage, also involves the husband and wife living separately but meeting regularly.[44] Walking marriage is a widely-used misnomer for the sort of romantic and sexual relationships embedded in the culture of, especially, the Mosuo ethnic minority of China. ... Newsday is a daily tabloid-size newspaper that primarily serves Long Island and the New York City borough of Queens, although it is sold throughout the New York City metropolitan area. ... Nikah Misyar (Arabic: literally translated travelling marriage) is the Sunni Muslim Nikah (marriage) contract carried out via the normal contractual procedure, but without the couple living together. ...


Conversely, marriage is not a prerequisite for cohabitation. In one study, Jay Teachman, a researcher at Western Washington University, studied premarital cohabitation of women who are in a monogamous relationship.[45] Teachman’s study showed "women who are committed to one relationship, who have both premarital sex and cohabit only with the man they eventually marry, have no higher incidence of divorce than women who abstain from premarital sex and cohabitation. For women in this category, premarital sex and cohabitation with their eventual husband are just two more steps in developing a committed, long-term relationship."[46] This article is about a living arrangement. ... Western Washington University (WWU or Western) is one of six state-funded, four-year universities of higher education in the U.S. state of Washington. ...


Conversely, many studies have found that those who live together before marriage have less satisfying marriages and a considerably higher chance of eventually breaking up. One reason is that people who cohabit may be more skittish of commitment and more likely to call it quits when problems arise. But in addition, the very act of living together may lead to attitudes that make happy marriages more difficult. The findings of one recent study, for example, suggest "there may be less motivation for cohabiting partners to develop their conflict resolution and support skills." (One important exception: cohabiting couples who are already planning to marry each other in the near future have just as good a chance at staying together as couples who don’t live together before marriage).[47]


Marriage and economics

Historical traditions

The economics of marriage have changed over time. Historically, in many cultures the family of the bride had to provide a dowry to pay a man for marrying their daughter. In Early Modern Britain, the social status of the couple was supposed to be equal. After the marriage, the entire property (called "fortune") and expected inheritances of the wife belonged only to her husband (a frequent subject in Early Modern British literature); she was often called "his property", which did then include the protection a single woman did not have. In other cultures, the family of the groom had to pay a bride price to the bride's family for the right to marry the daughter. In some cultures, dowries and bride prices are still demanded today. In both cases, the financial transaction takes place between the groom (or his family) and the bride's family; the bride has no part in the transaction and often no choice in whether to participate in the marriage. A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Early Modern Britain is a term used to define the period in the history of Great Britain roughly corresponding to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ...


In some cultures, dowries were not unconditional gifts. If the groom had other children, they could not inherit the dowry, which had to go to the bride's children. In the event of her childlessness, the dowry had to return to her family, and sometimes not until the groom's death or remarriage. Often the bride was entitled to inherit at least as much as her dowry from her husband's estate.[citation needed]


Morning gifts, which might also be arranged by the bride's father rather than the bride, are given to the bride herself; the name derives from the Germanic tribal custom of giving them the morning after the wedding night. She might have control of this morning gift during the lifetime of her husband, but is entitled to it when widowed. If the amount of her inheritance is settled by law rather than agreement, it may be called dower. Depending on legal systems and the exact arrangement, she may not be entitled to dispose of it after her death, and may lose the property if she remarries. Morning gifts were preserved for many centuries in morganatic marriage, a union where the wife's inferior social status was held to prohibit her children from inheriting a noble's titles or estates. In this case, the morning gift would support the wife and children. Another legal provision for widowhood was jointure, in which property, often land, would be held in joint tenancy, so that it would automatically go to the widow on her husband's death. Dower or morning gift (Latin: doarium or morganaticum; Fr. ... Dower (Lat. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... Jointure is, in law, a provision for a wife after the death of her husband. ...


Modern conventions

In many modern legal systems, two people who marry have the choice between keeping their property separate or combining their property. In the latter case, called community property, when the marriage ends by divorce each owns half; if one partner dies the surviving partner owns half and inheritance rules apply to the other half.[citation needed] In many legal jurisdictions, laws related to property and inheritance provide by default for property to pass upon the death of one party in a marriage to the spouse first and secondarily to the children. Wills and trusts can make alternative provisions for property succession. Community property is a marital property regime that originated in civil law jurisdictions, and is now also found in some common law jurisdictions. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... This law-related article does not cite its references or sources. ...


In some legal systems, the partners in a marriage are "jointly liable" for the debts of the marriage. This has a basis in a traditional legal notion called the "Doctrine of Necessities" whereby a husband was responsible to provide necessary things for his wife. Where this is the case, one partner may be sued to collect a debt for which they did not expressly contract. Critics of this practice note that debt collection agencies can abuse this by claiming an unreasonably wide range of debts to be expenses of the marriage. The cost of defence and the burden of proof is then placed on the non-contracting party to prove that the expense is not a debt of the family. The respective maintenance obligations, both during and eventually after a marriage, are regulated in most jurisdictions; alimony is one such method. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ...


Some have attempted to analyse the institution of marriage using economic theory; for example, anarcho-capitalist economist David Friedman has written a lengthy and controversial study of marriage as a market transaction (the market for husbands and wives).[48] Anarcho-capitalism is a view that regards all forms of the state as unnecessary and harmful, particularly in matters of justice and self-defense, while being highly supportive of private property. ... David D. Friedman (b. ...


Taxation

Most countries use progressive taxes, in which the tax rate is higher for a taxpayer with a higher income.[citation needed] In some of these countries, spouses are allowed to average their incomes; this is advantageous to a married couple with disparate incomes. To compensate for this somewhat, many countries provide a higher tax bracket for the averaged income of a married couple. While income averaging might still benefit a married couple with a stay-at-home spouse, such averaging would cause a married couple with roughly equal personal incomes to pay more total tax than they would as two single persons. This is commonly called the marriage penalty. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        A progressive tax is a tax imposed so that the effective... Tax brackets are the divisions at which tax rates change in a progressive tax system (or an explicitly regressive tax system, although this is much rarer). ... The marriage penalty in the United States refers to the higher taxes required from some married couples, where spouses are making approximately the same taxable income, filing one tax return (married filing jointly) than for the same two people filing two separate tax returns (as single, not married filing separately...


Moreover, when the rates applied by the tax code are not based on averaging the incomes, but rather on the sum of individuals' incomes, higher rates will definitely apply to each individual in a two-earner households in progressive tax systems. This is most often the case with high-income taxpayers and is another situation where some consider there to be a marriage penalty.


Conversely, when progressive tax is levied on the individual with no consideration for the partnership, dual-income couples fare much better than single-income couples with similar household incomes. The effect can be increased when the welfare system treats the same income as a shared income thereby denying welfare access to the non-earning spouse. Such systems apply in Australia and Canada, for example.


Hypergyny and isogamy

In social science, hypergyny refers to the phenomenon in which women tend to marry men that are of slightly higher social status.[49] The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...


In some cultures, women are expected to marry a spouse who is more economically, socially, or politically powerful. Known as hypergyny, this practice is common in India.[citation needed] Though an expected social norm in America, hypergyny is slowly being replaced by isogamy, marriage between equals, and the marrying 'down' of woman.[citation needed] Many anthropologists ascribe this to increased gender equality between women and men.[citation needed] A gamete is a specialized germ cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. ...


Same-sex marriage

Main articles: Same-sex marriage and Same-sex union

Since 2001, five nations have made same-sex marriage legal, namely the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Canada, and South Africa. Israel, Aruba, and the Netherlands Antilles recognize same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions. In the United States, Massachusetts is the only state to recognize same-sex marriage under the name marriage. (In Iowa, a district court that struck down the state's Defense of Marriage Act issued a stay on the ruling the next day, only one same sex couple has been married under Iowa law [50]) The California state supreme court's decision to overturn a gay marriage ban in May 2008 was expected to make California the second state to permit gay marriage.[51] Civil unions are a separate form of legal union open to couples of the same sex, and in some jusrisdictions also to those of opposite sexes who do not want to marry, often carrying the same entailments as marriage, under a different name. Denmark was the first country in the world (in 1989) to extend the rights and responsibilities of marriage to same-sex couples under the name of registered partnership. Civil unions (and registered partnerships) are currently recognized in 24 out of 193 countries worldwide and in some U.S. states. Many U.S. states have adopted referendums or laws that generally restrict marriage recognition to opposite-sex couples. Federally, the U.S. Senate has considered, and failed to pass, a Federal Marriage Amendment. In Australia, de facto relationships are legally recognized in many, but not all, ways,[52] [53] with some states having registers of de facto relationships, although the federal government has amended existing legislation to specify that only marriages between a man and a woman will be recognized as 'marriages'. [54]. As a result, the Australian Capital Territory's 2006 Bill to give civil unions identical status and processes as registered marriages, was repealed by the federal government before it came into effect. Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R, VCP) Australia (TAS, VIC eff. ... Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R, VCP) Australia (TAS, VIC eff. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R) Australia (TAS, VIC 1 July... The United States Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would define marriage in the United States as a union of one man and one woman. ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ...


Civil unions are recognized and accepted in approximately 30 countries. Same-sex marriages have also been recorded in the history of pre-modern Europe.[55] However, in countries where it has been adopted, applications for marriage licenses have far exceeded governmental estimates of demand.[56] As homosexuality has become more accepted in Western cultures, more governments are allowing and/or sanctioning unions of same-sex couples. As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


These developments have created a political and religious reaction in some countries, including in England, where the Church of England, after long debate, officially banned blessings of gay couples by Church of England clergy,[57] and in the United States, where several states have specifically defined marriage as between a man and a woman, often after popular referendums, including the state of Mississippi which passed a constitutional amendment defining marriage as between a man and a woman and refusing to recognize same-sex marriages from other states with 86% of the vote supporting that proposition. [3]PDF (29.9 KiB) Conversely, two states, California and Massachusetts, have sanctioned some form of same-sex unions. In addition, Lutheran churches in Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden and some Lutheran churches of the Evangelical Church in Germany allow blessing ceremonies for same-sex couples. In other countries, (such as Finland) such ceremonies are discouraged and rarely performed by the church.[citation needed] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Amend redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Evangelical Church in Germany (German Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland, abbreviated as EKD) is a federation of 23 regional Lutheran, Reformed and United Protestant churches[1]. In fact only one member church (the Protestant Reformed Church) is not restricted to a certain territory. ...


Civil unions are a separate form of legal union open to couples of the same sex. Many more countries have legalized civil unions than those which have legalized same-sex marriage. Some religious denominations ceremonially perform civil unions, and recognize them as essentially equivalent to marriage.[citation needed] As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law...


Termination

In most societies, the death of one of the partners terminates the marriage, and in monogamous societies this allows the other partner to remarry, though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period. In English speaking countries, the spouse who outlives the other is referred to as a widow (female) or widower (male). Many societies also provide for the termination of marriage through divorce. Marriages can also be annulled in some societies, where an authority declares that a marriage never happened. For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ...


Several cultures have practiced temporary and conditional marriages. Examples include the Celtic practice of handfasting and fixed-term marriages in the Muslim community. Pre-Islamic Arabs practiced a form of temporary marriage that carries on today in the practice of Nikah Mut'ah, a fixed-term marriage contract. Muslim controversies related to Nikah Mut'ah have resulted in the practice being confined mostly to Shi'ite communities. This article is about the European people. ... Handfasting is an ancient Celtic wedding ritual in which the brides and grooms hands are tied together —hence the phrase tying the knot. It was a part of the normal marriage ceremony in the time of the Roman Empire. ... It has been suggested that Mutta marriage be merged into this article or section. ... This article tries to represent both views regarding Muslim controversies related to Nikah Mutah. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ...


Criticisms of the institution of marriage

Criticisms of marriage appear as ancient as the institution itself. (Plato's Republic, which recommends group marriage, is a famous early critique.) Commentators have often been critical of individual local practices and traditions, often leading to evolution in the institution. (For instance, the early Catholic Church's efforts to eliminate concubinage and temporary marriage, the Protestant authorization of divorce, the abolition in the 18th, 19th and 20th century of laws against inter-faith and inter-race marriages in Western countries, etc.) Some commentators have been critical of marriage, sometimes condemning individual local practices and sometimes even the entire institution. ... The Republic is an influential dialogue by Plato, written in the first half of the 4th century BC. This Socratic dialogue mainly is about political philosophy and ethics. ...


Many contemporary critiques have developed from a feminist viewpoint and suggest that modern marriage can be particularly disadvantageous to women economically and socially. In a contrasting vein, father's rights advocates claim that a continuing societal bias towards women as custodial parents in the face of "no-fault" divorce laws is unjust to men when marriages fail. Criticisms of marriage by same-sex rights movements focus on the widespread exclusion of homosexual relationships from the legal and social sanction it provides. Feminists redirects here. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

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Types

Main article: Types of marriages

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with marriage. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... In the 19th century, Boston marriage was a term used for households where two women lived together, independent of any male support. ... Celestial marriage (also called the New and Everlasting Covenant) is a doctrine peculiar to Mormonism, particularly The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and branches of Mormon fundamentalism. ... A Qing Dynasty wedding. ... Common-law marriage (or common law marriage), sometimes called informal marriage or marriage by habit and repute is, historically, a form of interpersonal status in which a man and a woman are not legally married. ... The confarreatio was the ancient patrician form of marriage among the Romans, especially necessary at the nuptials of those whose children were intended to be vestal virgins or flamens of Jupiter. ... Manus is a word for a type of marriage during Roman times. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... A covenant marriage is a modern concept of marriage considered to be a cultural and political response to no-fault divorce. ... A digital marriage occurs when two people who have no connection outside their gaming lives come together within a video game to do, within this virtual community, what they feel that they cannot accomplish within real life. ... Caricature of a Fleet Street Marriage A Fleet Marriage is the best-known example of an irregular or a clandestine marriage taking place in England before the Marriage Act 1753 came into force on March 25th, 1754. ... Group marriage or circle marriage is a form of polygamous marriage in which more than one man and more than one woman form a family unit, with all the members of the group marriage being considered to be married to all the other members of the group marriage, and all... Not to be confused with Levite. ... A marriage of convenience (plural marriages of convenience) is a marriage contracted for reasons other than the traditional reasons of love or family. ... Mutah is a Arabic term meaning joy. Mutah in itself is also an Islamic Term that denotes two other Islamic terms: Nikah Mutah — The second Quranic Marriage form. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... Open marriage typically refers to a marriage in which the partners agree that each may engage in extramarital sexual relationships, without this being regarded as infidelity. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... A proxy marriage is a marriage in which either the bride or the groom is not physically present for the wedding. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA) Foreign marriages recognized Civil unions and registered partnerships Recognized in some regions Argentina (C, R, VCP) Australia (TAS, VIC eff. ... A sexless marriage is a marriage in which little or no sex occurs between the two partners. ... Sororate marriage is the sociological custom of a man marrying (or engaging in sexual activity) with his wifes sister (rarely with her brother), usually after the wife is dead or has proved infertile. ...

Lists and statistics

Marital Status in the U.S.
Marital Status in the U.S.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x846, 210 KB) Author - Noel Fallstrom I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x846, 210 KB) Author - Noel Fallstrom I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This is an incomplete list of the average ages of people when they first marry in various countries. ... Longest marriages Liu Yung-yang (1903- ) and Yang Wan (1904- ). Married in April 1917 for 85 years as of 2006. ... Significant age disparity in sexual relationships has been and remains a feature of couples in many cultures and societies. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Look up freedom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... This article is about virtue. ... Look up brotherhood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Cruel And Unusual redirects here. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arbitrary arrest and detention, or (AAD), is the arrest and detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that he or she committed a crime against legal statute, or where there has been no proper due process of law. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... An ex post facto law (from the Latin for from something done afterward) or retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of acts committed or the legal status of facts and relationships that existed prior to the enactment of the law. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... ... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Mothers Rights concern the rights of mothers including both Womens Rights and Parental Rights. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... This article is about institutional education. ... Human rights education is the teaching of the history, theory, and law of human rights in schools as well as outreach to the general public. ... Freedom of education incorporates the right of any person to manage their own education, start a school, or to have access to education of their choice without any constraints. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... UN redirects here. ...

Related concepts

This article is about the act of adultery. ... Alimony, maintenance or spousal support is an obligation established by law in many countries that is based on the premise that both spouses have an absolute obligation to support each other during the marriage (or civil union) unless they are legally separated. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. ... Brideservice has traditionally been portrayed in the anthropological literature as the service rendered to the bride’s family by the bridegroom as a brideprice or part of one. ... Ancient Christian Marriage symbol: two gold rings and Greek letters chi (X) and rho (P) for Jesus Christ // The Christian views of marriage historically have regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many people who (usually) are in a sexual relationship. ... This article is about a living arrangement. ... A covenant marriage is a modern concept of marriage considered to be a cultural and political response to no-fault divorce. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... “Engaged” redirects here. ... Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy and family systems therapy, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development. ... Relationship counseling is the process of counseling the parties of a relationship in an effort to recognize and to better manage or reconcile troublesome differences. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... Head and Master laws were a set of American laws that permitted a husband to have final say regarding all household decisions and jointly owned property without his wifes knowledge or consent, until 1979 when Louisiana became the final state to repeal them. ... For other uses, see Husband (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wife (disambiguation). ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Legal separation is a possible step towards divorce under United States law. ... In Conflict of Laws, the issue of marriage has assumed increasing public policy significance in a world of increasing multi-ethnic, multi-cultural community existence. ... The marriage gap describes observed disparities between those who are married and those who are single. ... A marriage is a committed relationship between or among individuals, recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ... A marriage strike is the social phenomenon of men seeking to avoid marriage. ... . ... Mail-order bride is a label applied to a woman who publishes her intent to marry someone from another - usually more developed - country. ... Faithfulness redirects here. ... The term polygamy (a Greek word meaning the practice of multiple marriage) is used in related ways in social anthropology, sociobiology, and sociology. ... Nikah urfi is a kind of marriage. ... The Surrendered Wives movement is inspired by a book, The Surrendered Wife by Laura Doyle. ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... A wedding ring or wedding band consists of a precious metal ring. ... Living Apart Together (abbreviation: LAT) is a term for couples who, whilst committed to each other, decide to have separate homes rather than one shared residence. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Murdock, George Peter (1949). Social Structure. New York: The MacMillan Company. ISBN 0-02-922290-7.  See also: Kaingang.
  2. ^ Arce, Rose. Massachusetts court upholds same-sex marriage. Feb. 6, 2004. CNN. Retrieved Feb. 17, 2007.
  3. ^ Krier, James E.; Gregory S. Alexander, Michael H. Schill, Jesse Dukeminier (2006). Property. Aspen Publishers. ISBN 0735557926.  Excerpt - page 335: '... at the wedding; hence the importance of including in the marriage ceremony the words, "With all my worldly goods I thee endow." ...'
  4. ^ GALLAGHER, MAGGIE (2002). What is Marriage For? The Public Purposes of Marriage Law. LOUISIANA LAW REVIEW. Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  5. ^ Eleanor, Schick (1999). Navajo Wedding Day: A Dine Marriage Ceremony. Cavendish Children's Books. ISBN 0761450319. 
  6. ^ Green Card Marriage|Immigration
  7. ^ Immigration to the United States: Fiscal years 1820-2003PDF (2.03 MiB)
  8. ^ Greif, Avner (2003). "Family Structure, Institutions, and Growth: The Origin and Implications of Western Corporatism"PDF (30.6 KiB)
  9. ^ Westermarck, Edward Alexander (1903). The History of Human Marriage. Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London. ISBN 1402185480 (reprint). 
  10. ^ Witte Jr., John (1997). From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition. Westminster John Knox Press, pp 39-40. ISBN 0664255434. 
  11. ^ Spitz, Lewis (1987). (The Rise of modern Europe) The protestant Reformation 1517-1559.. Harper Torchbooks, pp 9. ISBN 0061320692. 
  12. ^ Spitz, Lewis (1987). (The Rise of modern Europe) The protestant Reformation 1517-1559.. Harper Torchbooks, pp 354. ISBN 0061320692. 
  13. ^ Witte Jr., John (1997). From Sacrament to Contract: Marriage, Religion, and Law in the Western Tradition. Westminster John Knox Press, page 91. ISBN 0664255434. 
  14. ^ Leach, Edmund (1968). in Paul Bonannan and John Middleton: Marriage, Family, and Residence. The Natural History Press. ISBN 1121644708. 
  15. ^ Jones, Richard E.; Kristin H. Lopez (2006). Human Reproductive Biology, Third Edition. Academic Press. ISBN 0120884658. 
  16. ^ Ventura, SJ. (1995). Births to unmarried mothers: United States, 1980–92.. National Center for Health Statistics. ISBN 0-8406-0507-2. 
  17. ^ Teenage Birth Rate Rises for First Time Since ’91". New York Times (2007-12-06).
  18. ^ Bawah, AA.; Akweongo P, Simmons R, Phillips JF. (1999). "Women's fears and men's anxieties: the impact of family planning on gender relations in northern Ghana.". Studies in Family Planning 30 (1): 54–66. Population Council. ISSN: 0039-3665. 
  19. ^ Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (2006-12-31). HUMAN SEXUALITY AND GENDER TOPICS: Subjects of major concern to many faith groups. Religioustolerance.org. Retrieved on 2007-02-04.
  20. ^ Social and Cultural IssuesPDF (116 KiB)
  21. ^ Diouf, Nafi. "Polygamy hangs on in Africa", The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, May 2, 2004. 
  22. ^ Schwimmer, Brian (2003). Polygamy. Kinship and Social Organization.
  23. ^ Statement on Marriage and the Family from the American Anthropological Association
  24. ^ LDS Gospel Library: Polygamy (Plural Marriage)
  25. ^ Italian national statistical institute found a 74% increase in divorce between 1995 and 2005 [1]
  26. ^ Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967).
  27. ^ Eleanor, Schick (1999). Navajo Wedding Day: A Dine Marriage Ceremony. Cavendish Children's Books. ISBN 0761450319. 
  28. ^ Turkish Civil and Penal Code Reforms from a Gender Perspective: The Success of two Nationwide CampaignsPDF (6.21 MiB) (p. 18)
  29. ^ (Deuteronomy 24:1)
  30. ^ (Genesis 1:28)
  31. ^ Why Marry?. Chabad.org. Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  32. ^ Witnesses for Marriage
  33. ^ The method of pronouncing the marriage formula
  34. ^ Marriage formula
  35. ^ http://www.sistani.org/local.php?modules=nav&nid=2&bid=59&pid=3080
  36. ^ Women with whom matrimony is Haraam
  37. ^ a b c Smith, Peter (2000). "Marriage". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. p. 232-233. ISBN 1-85168-184-1. 
  38. ^ "World Religions and Same Sex Marriage", Marriage Law Project, Columbus School of Law at The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, July 2002 revision [2]PDF (84.1 KiB)
  39. ^ Affirming Congregations and Ministries of the United Church of Canada
  40. ^ Sanday, Peggy Reeves (2002). Women at the center : life in a modern matriarchy. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8906-7. 
  41. ^ Rosenblatt, Paul C. (2006). Two in a Bed: The Social System of Couple Bed Sharing. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-6829-1. 
  42. ^ Lu, Yuan; Sam Mitchell (Nov, 2000). "Land Of The Walking Marriage - Mosuo people of China". Natural History. American Museum of Natural History. 
  43. ^ Gargan, Edward A.. "China's New Brides Put Freedom First / All perks, no work in 'walking marriages'", Newsday, 2001-03-19, pp. A.04. 
  44. ^ Karam, Souhail. "Misyar offers marriage-lite in strict Saudi society", Reuters, July 21, 2006. 
  45. ^ Jay Teachman (2003), Premarital Sex, Premarital Cohabitation, and the Risk of Subsequent Marital Dissolution Among Women, Journal of Marriage and Family 65 (2), 444–455.
  46. ^ National Council on Family Relations (2003). "Premarital Sex, Cohabitation, and Divorce: the Broken Link". Press release.
  47. ^ National Marriage Project (2002). "The Top Ten Myths of Marriage". Press release.
  48. ^ The Economics of Love and Marriage
  49. ^ Hypergamy refers to the tendency of either sex to mate with individuals of superior status. Hypergyny is when women date or marry up, and hyperandry is when men date or marry up. Anthropologist Mildred Dickemann found that polygyny and hypergyny cause higher-status women to suffer drastically reduced fertility rates. In the U.S., women’s hypergynous tendencies allow higher status men to be functionally polygynous. If a higher-status man wants more children, the high divorce rate allows him to divorce his wife and remarry a younger woman with whom he can have more children. This type of serial polygyny enables some successful men to enjoy higher fertility rates than women who are their peers and share their status. review of Townsend's book
  50. ^ ABC News: Iowa Gay Marriage Ruling Stirs '08 Race
  51. ^ SCalifornia Supreme Court overturns gay marriage ban.
  52. ^ Law Society of New South Wales - De facto relationships?
  53. ^ Same sex couples.
  54. ^ MARRIAGE AMENDMENT ACT 2004 NO. 126, 2004 - SCHEDULE 1 - Amendment of the Marriage Act 1961
  55. ^ Boswell, John (1994). Same-Sex Unions in Premodern Europe. Villard. ISBN 0679432280. 
  56. ^ "Gay men are in much more of a hurry to 'wed' their partners", Times Online, 2006-12-05. Retrieved on 2006-12-11. 
  57. ^ House of Bishops issues pastoral statement on Civil Partnerships. Church of England press release (2005-07-25). Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  • Remarriage
  • RADICAL PRINCIPLES AND THE LEGAL INSTITUTION OF MARRIAGE: DOMESTIC RELATIONS LAW AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY IN SWEDEN -- BRADLEY 4 (2): 154 -- International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.
  • Legal Regulation of Marital Relations: An Historical and Comparative Approach -- Gautier 19 (1): 47 -- International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family. Retrieved on 2007-06-13.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts (2326 words)
In its 'ibadah aspect, marriage is an act pleasing to Allah because it is in accordance with his commandments that husband and wife love each other and help each other to make efforts to continue the human race and rear and nurse their children to become true servants of Allah.
Marriage is forbidden (haram) to a man, according to the Hanafi school, if he does not possess the means to maintain his wife and children or if he suffers from an illness, serious enough to affect his wife and progeny.
In order that problems should not arise after marriage the Prophet (peace be upon him) recommended that, in the selection of his bride, a man should see her before betrothal lest blindness of choice or an error of judgment should defeat the very purpose of marriage.
Marriage (773 words)
Marriage is the legal creation of the status of husband and wife between two parties who consent to enter into the relationship.
Finally, a marriage must be solemnized by a judge of a court of record; a public official whose powers include solemnization of marriages; or a religious society, religious institution, or religious organization of the state, according to the rules and customs of the society, institution, or organization.
One reason that common law marriage is recognized is to protect the widow and children of the relationship, so that when one partner dies, the surviving partner is entitled to inherit the assets of the deceased partner, just the same as if the parties had been married under the more traditional ceremonial manner.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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