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Encyclopedia > Marquis de Condorcet
Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet

Marquis de Condorcet
Born September 17, 1743
Ribemont, Aisne
Died March 28, 1794
Bourg-la-Reine
Occupation philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist
Spouse Sophie de Condorcet

Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. Unlike many of his contemporaries, he advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races. His ideas and writings were said to embody the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment and rationalism, and remain influential to this day. He died a mysterious death in prison after a period of being a fugitive from French Revolutionary authorities. Condorcet may refer to: Marquis de Condorcet, French philosopher and mathematician, inventor of the Condorcet Criterion Condorcet method, a voting system that always, if it exists, chooses the Condorcet winner, the candidate that would defeat every other candidate in a two-way contest Condorcet criterion, the corresponding voting system criterion... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... Leonhard Euler, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ... See also: Political Science Notable political scientists Kenneth Arrow - Nobel Memorial Prize winning economist who published influential paper on his widely cited Arrows Impossibility Theorem Robert Axelrod Duncan Black - Responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson Jean-Charles de Borda - 18th century mathematician... A Condorcet method is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... // Public education is education mandated for the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Constitutionalism is the limitation of government by law. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...

Contents

Early life

Condorcet was born in Ribemont, Aisne, and descended from the ancient family of Caritat, who took their title from the town of Condorcet in Dauphiné, of which they were long-time residents. Fatherless at a young age, he was raised by his devoutly religious mother. He was educated at the Jesuit College in Reims and at the Collège de Navarre in Paris, where he quickly showed his intellectual ability, and gained his first public distinctions in mathematics. When he was sixteen, his analytical abilities gained the praise of Jean le Rond d'Alembert and Alexis Clairault; soon, Condorcet would study under D'Alembert. Aisne is a department in the northern part of France named after the Aisne River. ... Flag of the Dauphiné Dauphiné (Occitan : Daufinat, Arpitan : Dôfenâ, archaic English: ), usually referred to as the Dauphiné, is a former province in southeastern France, roughly corresponding to the present departments of the Isère (Isera), Drôme (Drôma), and Hautes-Alpes (Hiôtas-Arpes). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Reims (alternative English spelling Rheims; pronounced in French) is a city of the Champagne-Ardenne région of northern France, standing 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ... The College of Navarre (French: Collège de Navarre) was one of the colleges of the historic University of Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Alexis Claude de Clairault (or Clairaut) (May 3, 1713 – May 17, 1765) was a French mathematician and thinker. ...


From 1765 to 1774, he focused on science. In 1765, he published his first work on mathematics entitled Essai sur le calcul intégral, which was very well received, launching his career as a respected mathematician. He would go on to publish many more papers, and on February 25, 1769, he was elected to the Académie royale des Sciences (French Royal Academy of Sciences). is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ...

Jacques Turgot was Condorcet's mentor and longtime friend

In 1772, he published another paper on integral calculus which was widely hailed as a groundbreaking paper in several domains. Soon after, he met Jacques Turgot, a French economist, and the two became friends. Turgot was to be an administrator under King Louis XV in 1772, and later became Controller-General of Finance under Louis XVI (in 1774). From [1], in the public domain This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... From [1], in the public domain This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This article deals with the concept of an integral in calculus. ... Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de Laune, often referred to as Turgot (May 10, 1727 ? March 18, 1781), was a French statesman and economist. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... This page is a list of French finance ministers. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


Condorcet was recognized worldwide and worked with such famous scientists as Leonhard Euler and Benjamin Franklin. He soon became an honorary member of many foreign academies and philosophic societies notably in Germany, Imperial Russia, and the United States. Leonhard Paul Euler (pronounced Oiler; IPA ) (April 15, 1707 – September 18 [O.S. September 7] 1783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist, who spent most of his life in Russia and Germany. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


Early political career

In 1774, Condorcet was appointed Inspector General of the Monnaie de Paris by Turgot. From this point on, Condorcet shifted his focus from the purely mathematical to philosophy and political matters. In the following years, he took up the defense of human rights in general, and of women's and Blacks' rights in particular (an abolitionist, he became active in the Society of the Friends of the Blacks in the 1780s). He supported the ideals embodied by the newly formed United States, and proposed projects of political, administrative and economic reforms intended to transform France Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ... The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) or, more administratively speaking, the Direction of Coins and Medals, is an administration of the French government charged with issuing coins, as well as producing medals and other similar items. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... The Society of the Friends of the Blacks (French: Société des amis des Noirs or Amis des noirs) was a group of French men, mostly white, which were abolitionists (opponents of Black slavery and the African slave trade). ...


In 1776, Turgot was dismissed as Controller General. Consequently, Condorcet submitted his resignation as Inspector General of the Monnaie, but the request was refused, and he continued serving in this post until 1791. Condorcet later wrote Vie de M. Turgot (1786), a biography which spoke fondly of Turgot and advocated Turgot's economic theories. Condorcet continued to receive prestigious appointments: in 1777, he became Permanent Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, holding the post until the abolition of the Académie in 1793, and in 1782 secretary of the Académie Française. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... The Académie française In the French educational system an académie LAcadémie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. ...


Condorcet's paradox

In 1785, Condorcet wrote the Essay on the Application of Analysis to the Probability of Majority Decisions, one of his most important works. In this, he explores the "Condorcet's paradox", which describes the intransitivity of majority preference. The paradox states that it is possible for a majority to prefer A over B, another majority to prefer B over C, and another majority to prefer C over A, all from the same electorate and same set of ballots. The voting paradox (also known as Condorcets paradox or the paradox of voting) is a situation noted by the Marquis de Condorcet in the late 18th century, in which collective preferences can be cyclic (i. ... Intransitivity is a scenario in which weighing several options produces a loop of preference. ... A majority is a subset of a group that is more than half of the entire group. ... Look up paradox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the town in France, see Ballots, Mayenne. ...


The paper also outlines a generic Condorcet method, designed to simulate pair-wise elections between all candidates in an election. He disagreed strongly with the alternative method of aggregating preferences put forth by Jean-Charles de Borda (based on summed rankings of alternatives). Condorcet may have been the first to systematically apply mathematics in the social sciences. A Condorcet method is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ... This article is about the political process. ... Jean-Charles de Borda (May 4, 1733 - February 19, 1799) was a French mathematician, physicist, political scientist, and sailor. ... For evaluation of sums in closed form see evaluating sums. ... Non-Parametric statistics are statistics where it is not assumed that the population fits any parametrized distributions. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ...


Other works

In 1786, Condorcet worked on ideas for the differential and integral calculus, giving a new treatment of infinitesimals - a work which was never printed. In 1789, he published Vie de Voltaire (1789), which agreed with Voltaire in his opposition to the Church. In 1798, Thomas Malthus wrote an Essay on the Principle of Population partly in response to Condorcet's views on the "perfectibility of society". In 1781, Condorcet wrote a pamphlet, Reflections on Negro Slavery, in which he denounced slavery.[1] For a non-technical overview of the subject, see Calculus. ... This article deals with the concept of an integral in calculus. ... Infinitesimals have been used to express the idea of objects so small that there is no way to see them or to measure them. ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Thomas Robert Malthus, FRS (13th February, 1766 – 29th December, 1834), was an English demographer and political economist. ... For other uses, see Perfection (disambiguation). ... Slave redirects here. ...


Condorcet is also credited for first expressing the Condorcet's jury theorem. It states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases as the number of members of the group increases. The theorem was first expressed by the Marquis de Condorcet. ...


French Revolution

Deputy

Condorcet took a leading role when the French Revolution swept France in 1789, hoping for a rationalist reconstruction of society, and championed many liberal causes. As a result, in 1791 he was elected as a Paris representative in the Assemblée, and then became the secretary of the Assembly. The institution adopted Condorcet's design for state education system, and he drafted a proposed Bourbon Constitution for the new France. He advocated women's suffrage for the new government, writing an article for Journal de la Société de 1789, and by publishing De l'admission des femmes au droit de cité ("For the Admission to the Rights of Citizenship For Women")in 1790. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... During the French Revolution, the Legislative Assembly was the legislature of France from October 1, 1791 to September 1792. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not bound by a... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ...


There were two competing views on which direction France should go, embodied by two political parties: the moderate Girondists, and the more radical Montagnards, led by Maximilien Robespierre, who favored purging France of its royal past (Ancien Régime). Condorcet was quite independent, but still counted many friends in the Girondist party. He presided over the Assembly as the Girondist held the majority, until it was replaced by the National Convention, elected in order to design a new constitution (the French Constitution of 1793), and which abolished the monarchy in favor of the French Republic as a consequence of the Flight to Varennes. The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins or Baguettes), were a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group, whose members, called Montagnards, sat on the highest benches in the Assembly. ... Maximilien François Marie Odenthalius Isidore de Robespierre [1] (IPA: ; 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) is one of the best-known leaders of the French Revolution. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... The Constitution of 1793, Constitution of 24 June 1793 (French: Acte constitutionnel du 24 juin 1793), or Montagnard Constitution (French: Constitution montagnarde) was a national constitution of France ratified by the National Convention on June 24, 1793 during the French Revolution, but never applied, due to the suspension of all... The Flight to Varennes (June 20-21, 1791) was a significant episode in the French Revolution during which the French royal family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from the radical agitation of the Jacobins in Paris disguised as a Russian aristocratic family. ...


At the time of King Louis XVI's trial, the Girondists had, however, lost their majority in the Convention. Condorcet, who opposed the death penalty but still supported the trial itself, spoke out against the execution of the King during the public vote at the Convention. From that moment on, he was usually considered a Girondist. The Montagnards were becoming more and more influential in the Convention as the King's "betrayal" was confirming their theories. One of them, Marie-Jean Hérault de Seychelles, a member, like Condorcet, of the Constitution's Commission, misrepresented many ideas from Condorcet's draft and presented what was called a Montagnard Constitution. Condorcet criticized the new work, and as a result, he was branded a traitor. On October 3, 1793, a warrant was issued for Condorcet's arrest. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Marie Jean Hérault de Séchelles Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles (September 20, 1759 – April 5, 1794), was a French politician during the time of the French Revolution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction. ...


Arrest and death

Condorcet was symbolically interred in the Panthéon (pictured) in 1989.
Condorcet was symbolically interred in the Panthéon (pictured) in 1989.

The warrant forced Condorcet into hiding. He hid for five (or eight) months in the house of Mme. Vernet, on Rue Servandoni, in Paris. It was there that he wrote Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progrès de l'esprit humain (English translation: Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind), which was published posthumously in 1795 and is considered one of the major texts of the Enlightenment and of historical thought. It narrates the history of civilization as one of progress in the sciences, shows the intimate connection between scientific progress and the development of human rights and justice, and outlines the features of a future rational society entirely shaped by scientific knowledge. The Panthéon, Paris Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Panthéon, Paris Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Scientific progress is the idea that scientific knowledge accumulates and refines through either the application of a scientific method, or some more haphazard heuristic. ...


On March 25, 1794 Condorcet, convinced he was no longer safe, left his hideout and attempted to flee Paris. Two days later he was arrested in Clamart and imprisoned in the Bourg-la-Reine (or, as it was known during the Revolution, Bourg-l'Égalité, "Equality Borough" rather than "Queen's Borough"). Two days after that, he was found dead in his cell. The most widely accepted theory is that his friend, Pierre Jean George Cabanis, gave him a poison which he eventually used. However, some historians believe that he may have been murdered (perhaps because he was too loved and respected to be executed). is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Clamart is a city and commune in France, in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, on the left bank of the Seine. ... Bourg-la-Reine is a commune in the suburbs of Paris. ... Pierre Jean George Cabanis (June 5, 1757 - May 5, 1808), was a French physiologist. ...


Condorcet was interred in the Panthéon in 1989, in honor of the bicentennial of the French Revolution and Condorcet's role as a central figure in the Enlightenment. However his coffin was empty : interred in the common cemetery of Bourg-la-Reine, his remains were lost during the 19th century. The Panthéon Interior Dome of the Panthéon Entrance of the Panthéon Voltaires statue and tomb in the crypt of the Panthéon The Panthéon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Pantheon, meaning All the Gods) is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ...


Family

Condorcet married in 1786 Sophie de Grouchy, who was more than twenty years his junior. His wife, reckoned one of the most beautiful women of the day, became an accomplished salon hostess as Madame de Condorcet, and also an accomplished translator of Thomas Paine and Adam Smith. Unusually for French noblewomen, she was erudite, intelligent, and well-educated, fluent in both English and Italian. The marriage was a strong one, and Sophie visited her husband regularly while he remained in hiding. Although she began proceedings for divorce in January 1794, it was at the instance of Condorcet and Cabanis to protect their property from expropriation and to provide financially for herself and their young child, a daughter Louise Alexandrine, known as Eliza, who had been born in 1790. 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Sophie de Condorcet (1764 Meulan - 8 September 1822, Paris) (or Madame de Condorcet) was born Marie-Louise-Sophie de Grouchy, daughter of Francoise Jacques Marquis de Grouchy (a former page of Louis XV) by his intellectual wife Marie Gilberte Henriette Freteau (d. ... A Salon of Ladies by Abraham Bosse A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings, often consciously following Horaces definition of the... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Condorcet was survived by his widow, and their four-year-old daughter Eliza. Sophie died in 1822, never having remarried, and having published all her husband's works between 1801 and 1804. Her work was carried on by their daughter Eliza Condorcet-O'Connor, wife of former United Irishman Arthur O'Connor. The Condorcet-O'Connors brought out a revised edition between 1847 and 1849. 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


See also

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Marquis de Condorcet

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... ... The theorem was first expressed by the Marquis de Condorcet. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...

References

  1. ^ Bottomore, Tom, Robert Nisbet (1978). A History of Sociological Analysis. Basic Books, p.19. 

Other references

McMaster University is a medium-sized research-intensive university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, with an enrollment of 18,238 full-time and 3,836 part-time students (as of 2006). ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ...

External links

Preceded by
Bernard-Joseph Saurin
Seat 39
Académie française

1782–1794
Succeeded by
Gabriel Villar
Persondata
NAME Caritat, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas, Marquis de Condorcet
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist
DATE OF BIRTH September 17, 1743
PLACE OF BIRTH Ribemont, Aisne
DATE OF DEATH March 28, 1794
PLACE OF DEATH Bourg-la-Reine

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Condorcets Method (674 words)
Condorcet is partly an electoral system, and partly a way of thinking about preference electoral systems that elect one candidate.
The easiest way to visualize how a Condorcet election would work is to imagine an election for the capital of Tennessee, a state in the United States that is over 500 miles east-to-west, and only 110 miles north-to-south.
Marquis de Condorcet described his preferred method, which is to choose the candidate who has the smallest defeat to any other candidate.
Marquis de Condorcet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1470 words)
Condorcet continued to receive prestigious appointments: in 1777, he was appointed Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, and, in 1782, secretary of the Académie Française.
Condorcet criticized the new work, and as a result, he was branded a traitor.
Condorcet was interred in The Pantheon in 1989, in honor of the bicentennial of the French Revolution and Condorcet's role as a central figure in the Enlightenment.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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