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Encyclopedia > Maronite Church
Maronites
الموارنة
ܡܪܘܢܝܐ
Maronite villagers building a church in Mount Lebanon, 1920s.
Total population

9 million Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Brazil Brazil 5,500,000
Flag of the United States United States 3,000,000 [citation needed]
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 900,000
Flag of Argentina Argentina 700,000
Flag of Canada Canada 100,000
Flag of Australia Australia 72,000 [citation needed]
Flag of Liberia Liberia 33,000
Flag of Israel Israel 21,000
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus 16,000
Religions
Christianity
Scriptures
Bible
Languages
Vernacular:
Lebanese Arabic, Cypriot Maronite Arabic
Liturgical:
Syriac

  Part of a series of articles on
The Maronites Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Liberia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Lebanese or Lebanese Arabic is the colloquial form of Arabic spoken in Lebanon. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ...

Maronite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (991x748, 131 KB) The Schøyen Collection MS 577, Oslo and London. ...

Founder
Disciples of Saint Maroun

Current primacy
Patriarch Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeïr Maronite Patriarch Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (Arabic: الكاردينال مار نصر الله بطرس صفير) (born May 15, 1920 in Rayfoun, Lebanon) is the patriarch of Lebanons largest Christian body, the Maronites. ...

Population in world
Lebanon
Cyprus · Israel · Syria
France · Italy
Swiss · Germany · Holland
Spain · Portugal
Belgium · Denmark · Sweden
United States · Canada · Australia
Turkey · Greece · Egypt
Latin America · Brazil · Argentina
Mexico

Estimation
3 500 000 in world (2005)
which 1 250 000 in Lebanon Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Headquarters
originally from Antioch
moved to Bkerké (Mount-Lebanon)
It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Bkerké (also Bkerke or Bkerkeh) is the See of the Maronite Catholic Patriarchate, located 650 m above the bay of Jounieh in Lebanon. ...

Liturgical Languages
Syriac · Arabic
Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...

The Maronites Saints
St. Maroun
Saint Charbel · Saint Rafqa
St. Nimatulah Hardini
This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Saint Charbel (Arabic: مار شربل , May 8, 1828 – December 24, 1898), born as Youssef Antoun Makhlouf in Bekaa Kafra (North Lebanon), was a Lebanese Maronite Catholic monk and priest now venerated as a saint. ... Saint Rafqa, Second saint of the Lebanese Maronite Order. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

History · Political movements
History of Phoenicians
Byzantine Empire · Crusades
Lebanese Maronite Order
History of Lebanon · Lebanese Diaspora
Maronite League · Lebanese politics Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Lebanese Maronite Order (known also as Baladites or Valadites), is a monk order among the Levantine Catholic Maronite Church, which from the beginning has been specially a monastic Church. ... Map of Lebanon. ... Lebanon has a Republic government parliamentary democracy within the overall framework of confessionalism, in which the highest offices are proportionately reserved for representatives from certain religious communities. ...

v  d  e

Maronites (Arabic: الموارنة‎, transliteration: Mawārinah, Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maron in the early 5th century. The first Maronite patriarch, John Maron, was appointed in the late 7th century. Although reduced in numbers and estimated to have lost their status as a majority in Lebanon itself, today, Maronites remain one of the principal religious groups in the country. They nevertheless comprise an absolute majority among all people of Lebanese descent, that is, Lebanon plus diaspora. Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... John Maron (d. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


Before the conquest by Arabian Muslims reached Lebanon, which resulted in the Arabization of both those who would become Islamized and those that would remain non-Islamized, the Lebanese people, including Maronites, spoke a dialect of Aramaic,[1] but have been Arabic-speaking since at least the 9th century or earlier [2]. Syriac however, still remains the liturgical language of the Maronite Church.[3] The history of Lebanon under Arab traces the course of human events in the section of the Middle East now known as Lebanon. ... Arabization is the gradual transformation of an area into one that speaks Arabic and is part of the Arab culture. ... Islamization (also spelt Islamisation, see spelling differences) or Islamification means the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or a neologism meaning an increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... Of lesser importance than religious belonging, ethnic background is still a factor in Lebanon. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Arabic redirects here. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ...

Contents

History

St Maron (died sometime between 406 and 423), founder of the Maronite spiritual movement. Since the seventeenth century his feast day has been celebrated on 9 February.
St Maron (died sometime between 406 and 423), founder of the Maronite spiritual movement. Since the seventeenth century his feast day has been celebrated on 9 February.

It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26). Antioch, especially after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70, became a center for Christianity. According to Catholic tradition, the first Bishop was Saint Peter before his travels to Rome. The third Bishop was the Apostolic Father Ignatius of Antioch. Antioch became one of the five original Patriarchates after Constantine recognized Christianity. Image File history File links Maroun04. ... Image File history File links Maroun04. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Judea Commanders Titus Flavius Vespasianus Simon Bar-Giora Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala) Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000 men 13,000 men, split among three factions Casualties Unknown 60,000–1,100,000 (mass civilian casualties) The Siege of Jerusalem in the... This article is about the year 70. ... St Peter redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st and early 2nd centuries who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Chirstian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on...


Maroun, a contemporary and friend of St. John Chrysostom, was a monk in the fourth century who left Antioch for the Orontes River to lead an ascetic life, following the traditions of Anthony the Great of the Desert and Pachomius. He soon had many followers that adopted his monastic life. Following the death of Maron in 410, his disciples built a monastery in his memory and formed the nucleus of the Maronite Church. John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... The Orontes and the norias of Hama The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Saint Anthony the Great (c. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... For the genus of jumping spider, see Pachomius (spider). ...


The Maronites held fast to the beliefs of the Council of Chalcedon in 451. When 350 monks were slain by the Monophysites of Antioch, the Maronites sought refuge in the mountains of Lebanon. Correspondence concerning the event brought papal and orthodox recognition of the Maronites which was solidified by Pope Hormisdas on February 10, 518. The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Pope Hormisdas was Pope from July 20, 514 to 523. ...


The martyrdom of the Patriarch of Antioch in 602 left the Maronites without a leader, a situation which continued because of the final and most devastating war between the Byzantine and Persian Empires of the early 7th century. The chaos and utter depression which followed led the Maronites to elect their first Maronite Patriarch, John Maroun, in 685. This however was seen as a usurpation by both the Orthodox and Catholic rites. Thus, at a time when Islam was rising on the borders of the Byzantine and a united front was necessary to keep out the Islamic infiltration, the Maronites were focused on a struggle to retain their independence against Roman imperial power. This situation was mirrored in other Christian communities in the Byzantine Empire and helped facilitate the Muslim conquest of the most of Eastern Christendom by the end of the century. John Maron (d. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Now under Arabic rule after the Muslim conquest of Syria, the Maronites' relationship with the Byzantine Empire improved. The imperial court, seeing its earlier mistake, saw an advantage in the current situation. Thus, Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV provided direct ecclesiastical, political and military support to the Maronites. The new alliance soon coordinated devastating raids on Muslim forces, providing a welcome relief to the besieged Christians throughout the East. Some of the Maronites relocated to Mount Lebanon at this time and formed several communities that became known as the Marada. Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685); sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatus, meaning the Bearded, like his father; was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... A group of autonomous communities living on Mount Lebanon and the surrounding highlands following the conquest of Syria and Phoenicia by the Arab Muslims in the 630s CE. The Marada states were dominated by a Maronite Christian, Aramaic-speaking warrior elite known as the Mardaites. ...

Maronite monk and pilgrims, Mount Lebanon.
Maronite monk and pilgrims, Mount Lebanon.

Therefore, since 685 the Maronites have found themselves isolated from Christians of the Byzantine Empire and European powers. In turn, they have appointed their own Patriarch, starting with John Maron, who had been a bishop of Batroun, Mount Lebanon. Through him, the Maronites of today claim full apostolic succession through the See of Antioch. Nonetheless, a source of controversy surrounds the Maronites, as they have been accused of having fully adopted and embraced the Monothelite heresy. However, this charge has been adequately explained away, as noted in the 2003 new Catholic Encyclopedia (see reference below). Maronites themselves insist that they have "never been out of communion with the Roman Catholic Church." Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... This article is about a particular group of seventeenth-century European colonists of North America. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... Byzantine redirects here. ... This is a list of the Maronite Patriarchs of Antioch, who have led the Maronite Catholic Church, one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... The coastal city of Batroun (Arabic: البترون) located in northern Lebanon is one of the oldest cities of the world. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Monothelitism (a Greek loanword meaning one will) is a particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological doctrine. ...


Following the conquest of Eastern Christendom outside of Anatolia and Europe by the Muslims, and the establishment of secured lines of control between Islamic Caliphs and Byzantine Emperors, little was heard from the Maronites for 400 years. Secure in their mountain fastnesses, It was not until the Crusader Raymond of Toulouse on his way to conquer Jerusalem in the Great Crusade that the Maronites were re-discovered in the mountains near Tripoli, Lebanon. Raymond later returned to besiege Tripoli after his conquest of Jerusalem and relations between the Maronites and European Christianity were re-established. Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... This article is about an event in the fictional Warhammer 40,000 universe. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... The Siege of Tripoli lasted from 1102 until July 12, 1109. ...


During the Crusades in the 12th century, Maronites assisted the Crusaders and reaffirmed their affiliation with the Holy See in Rome in 1182. Consequently, at least from this point onwards, the Maronites have upheld an unbroken ecclesiastical orthodoxy and unity with the Catholic Church. To commemorate their communion, in 1100 Maronite Patriarch Youseff Al Jirjisi received the crown and staff marking his patriarchal authority, from Pope Paschal II. In 1131 Maronite Patriarch Gregorious Al Halati received letters from Pope Innocent II in which the Papacy recognized the independence of the Patriarchate. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Paschal II, né Ranierius (born in Bleda, near Forlì, Romagna - d. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Innocent II, né Gregory Papareschi (d. ...

Maronite nun from Mount Lebanon, painting from 1779.
Maronite nun from Mount Lebanon, painting from 1779.

However, this Roman affiliation was to cost the Maronites dearly after Muslim rule returned following the ethnic cleansing of the Crusader States in 1291. The Mamelukes led a jihad which exterminated the last of the European Christians at Siege of Acre in 1291 was continued in the anti-Eastern Christian pogroms in following decades. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Near East in 1135, with the Crusader states in green hues. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ...


However, connection to Rome was arduously maintained and through diplomatic threats and maneuvering, European Christian powers helped keep the Maronite community from destruction. Eventually, a Maronite College was established at Rome on July 5, 1584. From this college, the Maronite community obtained some valuable assistance in maintaining and buttressing their Christian identity. In 1610, the Maronite monks of the Monastery of Saint Anthony of Qozhaya imported one of the first printing presses in the Arabic-speaking world. The monasteries of Lebanon would later become key players in the Arabic Renaissance of the late 19th century as a result of developing Arabic, as well as Syriac, printable script. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Saint Anthony the Great (c. ... The Monastery of Qozhaya (Arabic: دير مار أنطونيوس قزحيا ) is located in the Zgharta District in the North Governorate of Lebanon. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Several Arab political parties and movements have been named al-Nahda: For the Tunisian political party, see Renaissance Party; for the Algerian political party, see Islamic Renaissance Movement. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


Following the defeat of the Mamelukes by the Ottoman Empire, at first the Sultans left the Maronites to their own devices in their mountain strongholds. However, the chaos that resulted from the neglect of early Ottoman rule was exploited by rival Muslim warlords and their Druze allies leading to a constant state of turmoil which continued to limit the survivability of the Christian Maronites. Finally, following a rapid campaign, the Druze warlord Fahkr-al-Din II conquered and ruled the Greater Lebanon from 1585 to 1635 and implemented a more or less stable situation. However, unwilling to tolerate an Islamic heretic warlord in control of the area, the Ottomans led a military campaign and Fahkr-al-Din II was defeated by Ottoman forces and executed at Constantinople on April 13, 1635. Ottoman redirects here. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... Fakhr-al-Din II also the Great was a Lebanese prince, son of prince Qurqumaz from the Maan Druze dinasty and princess Nassab. ... The State of Greater Lebanon is the name of a territory that was created by France and is the precursor of modern Lebanon. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ...


In 1638, France declared that it would protect the Catholics within the Ottoman Empire, including the Maronites, with the threat of war should Muslim jihads again be launched against Catholics under the Sultan's rule. Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ...


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Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Theoria is contemplation or perception of beauty, esp. ... Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. ... The Philokalia (Gk. ... Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills, distinct from theoretical knowledge. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Energies of God are a central principle of theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers of the Church, and most famously formulated by Gregory Palamas, against charges of heresy brought by Barlaam of Calabria. ... Metousiosis is a Greek mystical term that literally means a great change of essence. ...

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The Peshitta is the standard Syriac Bible, used by the Maronite Church, amongst others. The illustration is of the Peshitta text of Exodus 13:14-16 produced in Amida in the year 464.
The Peshitta is the standard Syriac Bible, used by the Maronite Church, amongst others. The illustration is of the Peshitta text of Exodus 13:14-16 produced in Amida in the year 464.

The head of the Maronite Church is the Maronite Patriarch of Antioch, who is elected by the bishops of the Maronite church and now resides in Bkirki, north of Beirut (the Maronite Patriarch resides in the northern town of Dimane during the summer months). The current Patriarch (since 1986) is His Beatitude Mar Nasrallah Cardinal Boutros Sfeir. When a new patriarch is elected and enthroned, he requests ecclesiastic communion from the Pope, thus maintaining their communion with the Catholic Church. As an Eastern-Rite patriarch, if invited to join the College of Cardinals, the Maronite Patriarch joins the order of Cardinal Bishops. Download high resolution version (462x768, 79 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (462x768, 79 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible in the Syriac language. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Persian; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... For other uses, see number 464. ... This is a list of the Maronite Patriarchs of Antioch, who have led the Maronite Catholic Church, one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Location in the Republic of Lebanon Coordinates: , Governorate Government  - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1] Area  - City 100 km² (31 sq mi) Population (2005)  - City 1,574,397  - Metro 1,792,111 Time zone +2 (UTC)  - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Website: City of Beirut This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The Maronite Patriarch summer residence, located in Dimane. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Maronite Patriarch Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (Arabic: الكاردينال مار نصر الله بطرس صفير) (born May 15, 1920 in Rayfoun, Lebanon) is the patriarch of Lebanons largest Christian body, the Maronites. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ... Cardinal Bishops, or Cardinals of the Episcopal Order, are among the most important persons in the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Maronites share with other Catholics the same doctrine, but they retain their own liturgy and hierarchy. Strictly speaking, the Maronite church belongs to the Antiochene Tradition and is a West Syro-Antiochene Rite. Syriac is the liturgical language, instead of Latin which is a tradition of the Roman Rite. Nevertheless, they are considered, with the Syro-Malabar Church, to be among the most latinised of the Eastern Catholic Churches. A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... This is about one of the cities called Antioch in Asia Minor, now Turkey. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... Liturgical Latinisation is the process by which the liturgical practices of the Churches of Eastern Christianity (particularly the Eastern Catholic Churches, but also those of the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches) are changed to resemble more closely the practices of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


Cardinal Sfeir's personal commitment accelerated liturgical reforms in the 1980s and 1990s, bearing fruit in 1992 with the publication of a new Maronite Missal. This represents an attempt to return to the original form of the Antiochene Liturgy, removing the liturgical latinisation of past centuries. The Service of the Word has been described as far more enriched than previous Missals, and it features six Anaphoras (Eucharistic Prayers). Maronite Patriarch Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir Cardinal Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir (Arabic: الكاردينال مار نصر الله بطرس صفير) (born May 15, 1920 in Rayfoun, Lebanon) is the patriarch of Lebanons largest Christian body, the Maronites. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Missal, by John William Waterhouse Missal, in the Catholic Church, is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Masses throughout the year. ... This is about one of the cities called Antioch in Asia Minor, now Turkey. ... Liturgical Latinisation is the process by which the liturgical practices of the Churches of Eastern Christianity (particularly the Eastern Catholic Churches, but also those of the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches) are changed to resemble more closely the practices of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic... In the Eastern Christian liturgy, the anaphora is that part of the Liturgy having to do specifically with the consecration and offering of the Eucharist, as opposed to scripture readings, etc. ...


Celibacy is not required for deacons and priests with parishes, but monks must remain celibate, as well as bishops who are normally selected from the monasteries. The clergy in America, with exception to the deacons, must remain celibate. The bishops who serve as eparchs and archeparchs of the eparchies and archeparchies (the equivalent of diocese and archdiocese in the Roman Catholic Church) are answerable to the patriarch. Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


Population

The exact worldwide Maronite population is not known, although it is at least 8 million according to CNEWA (Catholic Near East Welfare Association).[4] It is estimated that 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 remain in Lebanon where they constitute up to 25% of the population. According to a Lebanese agreement celebrated among the various religious leaders, the president must be a Maronite. Syrian Maronites total 40,000 and they follow the archdioceses of Aleppo and Damascus and the Diocese of Latakia. There is also a Maronite community in Cyprus which speaks Cypriot Maronite Arabic,[5] They are a recognized religious minority on the island and the community elects a representative to sit in the house of representatives (parliament) to voice their interests. They are probably descended from those Maronites who accompanied the crusaders there. A noticeable maronite community also exists in northern Israel. Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Maronite Patriarch and bishops in Rome, 1906.
Maronite Patriarch and bishops in Rome, 1906.

The two residing eparchies in the United States have issued their own "Maronite Census". The Census is designed to estimate approximately how many Maronites reside in the United States due to their emigrations to that country. Many Maronites have been assimilated into American culture, often taking on Roman Catholicism as there were no Maronite parishes or priests available. The Census was designed to locate those people. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Diocesan College, or Bishops as it is commonly known, is a private school situated in the leafy suburb of Rondebosch in Cape Town, South Africa, at the foot of Table Mountain. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Modern Maronites, like other Christians in the Levant, often adopt French or other Western European given names (with biblical origins) for their children like "Michel", "Marc", "Marie", "Georges", "Carole", "Charles", "Chris", "Antoine", and "Pierre". Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Michel can refer to: Michel, the name, meaning Michael in French Deutscher Michel, personification of the German nation. ... Marc (or Mark) is a western European forename, a variation on the Roman name Marcus (see ‎List of names derived from Marcus ). This version, originally the French form, is spelled in the Latin manner, using a c. This variation is becoming increasingly common in the UK and US. Marc is... Marie is the French form of Maria and may refer to: Queen Marie, Queen of Romania (formerly Princess Marie of Edinburgh) Marie de France, 12th-century French poet Marie, the daughter of Duchess in the 1970 Disney animated feature The Aristocats Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), a spacecraft instrument Marie... Georges - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Carole may refer to a number of things. ... Look up Charles in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Chris in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antoine is French given name (from Latin Antonius) Antoine (automobile), a Belgian automobile Antoine Arbogast, French mathematician Antoine Arnauld, French theologian, philosopher and mathematician Antoine, bastard of Burgundy Antoine Béchamp, French biologist Antoine Bibesco, Romanian prince, lawyer and writer Antoine Alexandre Barbier, French librarian Antoine Baumé, French chemist Antoine... Look up Pierre, pierre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Given names of Arabic origins identical with those of their Muslim neighbors are also common, such as "Khalil," "Samir," "Salim," "Jameel," or "Tawfik". Other common names are strictly Christian and are Aramaic, or Arabic, forms of biblical, Hebrew, or Greek Christian names, such as "Antun," (Anthony, also "Tanios", "Antonios", or "Tannous"), "Butros" (Peter), "Boulos (Paul)," "Semaan" or "Shamaoun" (Simon), "Jergyes" (George), "Elie" (Ilyas, or Elias), "Iskander" (Alexander), or "Beshara" (literally, "Good News" in reference to the Gospel), other common names are Sarkis (Sergius) and Bakhos (Bacchus), while others are common both among Christians and Muslims, such as "Yousseff" (Joseph) or "Ibrahim" (Abraham). Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ...


Some Maronite Christians are named in honour of Maronite saints, including the Aramaic names "Maroun" (after their patron saint, Maron), "Sharbel" or "Charbel", or "Rafqa"


See also

Syro-Malabar Church
Chaldean Catholic Church
Coptic Catholic Church
Ethiopian Catholic Church
Maronite Church
Syriac Catholic Church
Syro-Malankara Catholic Church
Armenian Catholic Church
Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church
Belarusian Greek Catholic Church
Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church
Croatian Greek Catholic Church
Greek Byzantine Catholic Church
Hungarian Greek Catholic Church
Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
Macedonian Greek Catholic Church
Melkite Greek Catholic Church
Romanian-Greek-Catholic
Russian Byzantine Catholic Church
Ruthenian Catholic Church
Slovak Greek Catholic Church
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
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Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Eastern Rite Church sui iuris with historical ties to the Chaldean Catholic Church in communion with the Church of Rome. ... These are the only peoples in this region that were fully and originally Semitic. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a sui iuris particular Catholic and Orthodox Church in full communion with the Holy See and of the Alexandrian, or Coptic, Rite. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy, formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church (Rome). ... The Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church is an autonomous Byzantine Rite particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church, whose members lives in Albania, and is not to be confused with the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church. ... The Belarusian Greek Catholic Church (Belaruskaya Hreka-Katalickaya Carkva, BHKC), sometimes called, in reference to its Byzantine Rite, the Belarusian Byzantine Catholic Church, is the heir within Belarus of the Union of Brest. ... The Bulgarian Greek Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church. ... The Eparchy of Križevci is the eparchy comprising the Croatian Byzantine Catholic Church, a Catholic Church sui iuris [1] of the Byzantine Eastern Rite. ... The Greek Byzantine Catholic Church is a particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Greek language. ... The Hungarian Greek Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church that uses Hungarian in the liturgy. ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Macedonian Greek Catholic Church, called the Macedonian Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite sui juris particular church within Roman Catholic Church and uses Macedonian in the liturgy. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: , ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. ... The Russian Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite church sui juris of the Catholic Church. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Slovak Greek Catholic Church, or Slovak Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite church of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...

References

  1. ^ Review of Phares Book
  2. ^ EUROPA - Education and Training - Regional and minority languages - Euromosaïc study
  3. ^ St. George Maronite Church
  4. ^ The Maronite Catholic Church CNEWA (Catholic Near East Welfare Association)
  5. ^ [1] A descriptive analysis of Cypriot Maronite Arabic by Maria Tsiapera

Books

  • Kamal Salibi - A House of Many Mansions - The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (University of California Press, 1990).
  • Father AJ Salim - Captivated by Your Teachings - A Resource Book for Adult Maronite Catholics (ET Nedder Publishing, Tucson, Arizona, 2002)
  • Maronite Church. New Catholic Encyclopedia, Second Edition, 2003.
  • Riley-Smith, Johnathan - The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995)
  • Soffee, Anne Thomas - Snake Hips: Belly Dancing and How I Found True Love (Chicago Review Press, Chicago, 2002)

External links

Media

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In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... A bishop in the Catholic Church is a member of the College of Bishops, is an ordained minister, and holds the fullness of the priesthood. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... In Christian theology, One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase describing the nature of the Christian community and/or Christian Church, in the various meanings it has. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is one of the Byzantine Rite sui juris churches of the Catholic Communion. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: , ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... The Russian Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite church sui juris of the Catholic Church. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... These are the only peoples in this region that were fully and originally Semitic. ... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese Rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic liturgical rite practised among Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan (excluding, notably, the city of Monza, and a few other towns), and neighbouring area... The Anglican Use is an adaptation or usage of the liturgy of the Catholic Roman Rite that is used by some formerly Anglican ecclesial communities that submitted to the authority of the Roman Pontiff. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... The Sarum Rite, more properly called the Sarum Use, was a variant of the Latin Rite practiced in Great Britain & Ireland from the late 11th Century until the Reformation. ... The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Confirmation, known also as Chrismation (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1289), is one of the seven sacraments instituted by Christ for the conferral of sanctifying grace and the strengthening of the union between individual souls and God. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Roman Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance (commonly called Confession, Reconciliation or Penance) is the method given by Christ to the Church by which individual men and women may be freed from sins committed after receiving Baptism. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... (Gospel of Matthew 19:6) Matrimony, The Seven Sacraments, Rogier van der Weyden, ca. ...

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North Cyprus: Maronite-Cypriot Community in Kormacit (Kormatiki) (644 words)
Maronite Church is one of the largest Eastern-rite communities of the Roman Catholic Church, prominent especially in modern Lebabon; it is the only Eastern-rite church that has no non- Catholic or Orthodox counterpart.
According to the medieval bishop William of Tyre, the Maronite patriarch sought union with the Latin patriarch of Antioch in 1182.
Maronites are also found in Southern Europe [notably in France and Cyprus], and North and South America, having emigrated in the 19th century.
Media- The Maronite Church and the Media (762 words)
Since the Church is both a “community of communication” with Christ as “Word” and “Mediator”, media and communication had always been part and parcel of its apostolic mission and its work mechanism.
The mission of the Church, since the time of the apostles, was based on direct and personal communication through the spread of the Word and through live testimony of knowledge, freedom and justice.
That is why, in view of all of these responsibilities, the Church pastors and leaders of the society and of public opinion lay great importance on the means of mass media and communication and consider them as constants in their activities and projects.
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