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Encyclopedia > Maronite

Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. Their heritage reaches back to St. Maron in the early 5th century. The first Maronite patriarch, St. John Maron, was appointed in the late 7th century. Today they are one of the main religious groups in Lebanon. They are Arabic-speaking Christians with their ethnicity, like most Lebanese, being a mix of Phoenician, Aramaean, and Greek, with some European roots stemming from the Crusades. The Arab identity of the Maronites is accepted by some and rejected by others. It is a fact, however, that many Maronites played a role in the Arab nationalist renaissance of the early 20th Century. Presently, though, many reject the Arab identity and prefer to be identified simply as Lebanese. Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... St. ... John Maron (d. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what are now Lebanon and Syria. ... The Arameans or Aramaeans (also called Syriacs) were a Semitic, nomadic people who dwelt in Aram-Naharaim or Aram of the two rivers, also known as Mesopotamia a region including modern Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Iran that is mentioned six times in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the continent. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ...

Contents


History

In the early 5th century, a community gathered around the Christian hermit St. Maron. After his death in 435 (or 410, according to some sources), this community continued to grow, and adopted the name of Maronites. // Overview Events Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome 439: Vandals conquer Carthage At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ... A hermit (from the Greek erēmos, signifying desert, uninhabited, hence desert-dweller) is a person who lives to some greater or lesser degree in seclusion and/or isolation from society. ... St. ... Events August 3 - Nestorius is exiled by Imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ...


It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus Christ converted by Paul and Barnabas were first called Christians [Acts 11:26]. Antioch, especially after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD, became a center for Christianity. The first Bishop was St. Peter before his travels to Rome. The third Bishop was the Apostolic Father St. Ignatius of Antioch. Antioch became one of the five original Patriarchates after Constantine recognized Christianity. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An early portrait of the Apostle Paul. ... Barnabas was an early Christian mentioned in the New Testament. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds; (alternative Arabic found in Bible translations: أُورْشَلِيم Urshalim)) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ... For other uses, see number 70. ... Saint Peter, also known as Peter, Simon ben Jonah/BarJonah, Simon Peter, Cephas and Kepha—original name Simon or Simeon (Acts 15:14)—was one of the twelve original disciples or apostles of Jesus. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... The Apostolic Fathers were a small collection of Christian authors who lived and wrote in the late 1st and early 2nd centuries who are acknowledged as leaders in the early church, but whose writings were not included in the collection of Christian scripture, the New Testament Biblical canon. ... Icon of Ignatius being eaten by lions St. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... Contemporary bronze head of Constantine. ...


Maron, a contemporary and friend of St. John Chrysostom, was a monk in the fourth century who left Antioch for the Orontes River to lead an ascetic life, following the traditions of St. Anthony of the Desert and St. Pachomius of Egypt. He soon had many followers that adopted his monastic life. Following the death of St. Maron in 410, his disciples built a monastery in his memory and formed the nucleus of the Maronite Church. John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... The Orontes and the norias of Hama The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Saint Anthony the Great, Father of all Monks Saint Anthony the Great (251 - 356), also known as Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks, was a Christian saint and the outstanding leader among the Desert Fathers, who were... A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation - less than 250 mm (10 in) per year. ... Pachomius, who died around AD 345 in Tabennisi, Egypt, was one of the founders of Christian monasticism. ...


The Maronites held fast to the beliefs of the Council of Chalcedon in 451. When 350 monks were slain by the Monophysites of Antioch, the Maronites sought refuge in the mountains of Lebanon. Correspondence concerning the event brought papal recognition of the Maronites by Pope Hormisdas on February 10, 518.


The martyrdom of the Patriarch of Antioch in 602 left the Maronites without a leader, and led them to elect their first Maronite Patriarch, St. John Maron, in 685. The Maronites constantly struggled to retain their independence from the Byzantine and the Muslim empires. After the Muslim conquest of Syria, the Maronites gained some military help from Constantine IV and harassed the forces of Umayyad Dynasty so that in 677 the caliph decided to pay tribute to them in return for peace. Some of the Maronites relocated to Mount Lebanon at this time and formed several communities that became known as the Marada. In 685 the Maronites found themselves isolated from the Byzantine Empire and decided to appoint their own Patriarch, St. John Maron, who had been a bishop of Batroun, Mount Lebanon. Through him, they claim full apostolic succession through the See of Antioch. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685) was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... // Events Battle of Syllaeum: Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines Tang China declares the deposed King Bojang of Goguryeo King of Joseon, placing him in charge of the Liaodong area under the Protectorate General to Pacify the East. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... A tribute (from Latin tribulum, contribution) is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often case in historical contests, of submission or allegiance. ... Mount Lebanon is the mountain range that extends across the whole country of Lebanon about 160 km (100 mi) parallel to the Mediterranean coast and rising to 3,090 m (10,131 ft). ... A group of autonomous communities living on Mount Lebanon and the surrounding highlands following the conquest of Syria and Phoenicia by the Arab Muslims in the 630s CE. The Marada states were dominated by a Maronite Christian, Aramaic-speaking warrior elite known as the Mardaites. ... Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This is a list of the Maronite Patriarchs of Antioch, who have lead the Maronite Catholic Church, one of the Eastern-rite churches united with the Roman Catholic Church. ... John Maron (d. ... The coastal city of Batroûn is located in North of Lebanon. ... Mount Lebanon is the mountain range that extends across the whole country of Lebanon about 160 km (100 mi) parallel to the Mediterranean coast and rising to 3,090 m (10,131 ft). ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor of the Church of the Apostles. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A source of controversy surrounds the Maronites, as they have been accused of having fully adopted and embraced the Monothelite heresy. However, this charge has been adequately explained away, as noted in the 2003 new Catholic Encyclopedia (see reference below).


Little was heard from the Maronites for 400 years, as they quietly escaped the Muslim invasions in the mountains of Lebanon, until the Crusader Raymond of Toulouse discovered the Maronites in the mountains near Tripoli, Lebanon on his way to conquer Jerusalem. The Maronites again confirmed their loyalty to the Pope in 1181. The Maronites have always remained true to Rome.


During the Crusades in the 12th century, Maronites assisted the Crusaders and reaffirmed their affiliation with Catholicism in 1182. From this point the Maronites can prove an unbroken orthodoxy and unity with Rome. For example, in 1100 Maronite Patriarch Youseff Al Jirjisi received the crown and staff from Pope Paschal II. In 1131 Maronite Patriarch Gregorious Al Halati received letters from Pope Innocent II.The Roman affiliation was to cost the Maronites dearly after Muslim rule returned. Anti-Christian Mamelukes destroyed their fields, houses and churches alongside with those of Druze and Shiites. Connection to Rome was arduously maintained and a Maronite College established at Rome on July 5, 1584. This article is about historical Crusades . ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark Serbia allies itself with Hungary to gain independence First Sejm, or Polish Parliment, convenes at Łęczyca Jews expelled from Paris by Philip Augustus Maronites reestablish their affiliation with Catholicism Venetians massacred during a riot in Constantinople Raynald of Chatillon instigates another war between... Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ... Paschal II, né Ranierius (d. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... Innocent II, né Gregory Papareschi (d. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... The Druze (Arabic: duruzÄ« درزي, pl. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... 1584 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


At first, the Ottoman Empire left Maronites to their own devices in their mountain strongholds. However, from 1585 to 1635 the Druze warlord Fahkr-al-Din II conquered and ruled the Greater Lebanon until he was defeated by Ottoman forces and executed at Istanbul on April 13, 1635. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... Fakhr-al-Din II also the Great was a Lebanese prince, son of prince Qurqumaz from the Maan Druze dinasty and princess Nassab. ... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... 13 April is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ...


In 1610, the Maronite monks of the Monastery of Saint Anthony of Quzhayya imported one of the first printing presses in the Arabic-speaking world. The monasteries of Lebanon would later become key players in the Arabic Renaissance of the late 19th century as a result of developing Arabic, as well as Syriac, printable script. // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Saint Anthony the Great, Father of all Monks Saint Anthony the Great (251 - 356), also known as Saint Anthony of Egypt, Saint Anthony of the Desert, Saint Anthony the Anchorite, and The Father of All Monks, was a Christian saint and the outstanding leader among the Desert Fathers, who were... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


In 1638, France declared that it would protect the Catholics within the Ottoman Empire, including the Maronites. In 1860 Maronites clashed with Druze until French intervention and Ottoman diplomacy stopped that. In 1866 Youssef Karam led a Maronite uprising in Mount Lebanon against governor Dawood Pasha. European intervention led to his exile to Algeria. Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


The Maronites, because of their monastic origin, were able to withstand intense pressure and even persecution to preserve their Church, not just by the Muslims, but also by separated brethren such as the Orthodox and Churches of the East, as well as efforts at Latinization from Rome. Even today, the words at the Consecration of the Mass are said in Aramaic, the language of Jesus.


Maronites gained self-rule under the French Mandate of Lebanon in 1920 and secured their position in the independent Lebanon in 1943. They were one of the three main factions in the Lebanese Civil War. The French Mandate of Lebanon was a League of Nations Mandate created at the end of World War I. When the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles, four mandate territories were created, with the rest of the territory, aside from Turkey, being placed under monarchies. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... For the civil conflict of 1958, see Lebanon crisis of 1958. ...


The Maronites in Lebanon allow clerical marriage. They accept the gift of human sexuality given by God, who said, “It is not good for man to be alone” [Genesis 2:18].


Organisation

The head of the Maronite Church is the Maronite Patriarch of Antioch, who is elected by the bishops of the Maronite church and now resides in Bkirki, north of Beirut. When a new patriarch is elected and enthroned, he requests ecclesiastic communion from the Pope, thus maintaining the Catholic Church communion. Although their doctrine is Catholic, they retain their own liturgy and hierarchy. Strictly speaking, the Maronite church belongs to the Antiochene Tradition and is a West Syro-Antiochene Rite. Syriac is the liturgical language, instead of Latin. Celibacy is not a requirement for deacons or priests with parishes, but monks are required to remain celibate, as are bishops who are normally selected from the monasteries. This is a list of the Maronite Patriarchs of Antioch, who have lead the Maronite Catholic Church, one of the Eastern-rite churches united with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Central Beirut (2004) Beirut (Arabic: , Bayrūt) is the capital, largest city, and chief seaport of Lebanon. ... The Pope (from Greek: pappas, father; from Latin: papa, Papa, father) is the successor of St. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may refer to, or include, an elaborate formal ritual (such as the Catholic Mass), a daily activity such... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage, sexual relationships including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


Population

Some numerical estimates have ranged from 1.5 million to 7.5 million, but the exact population is unknown. It is estimated that 640,000 to 850,000 remain in Lebanon where they constitute up to 23% of the population. According to the Lebanese constitution, the president must be a Maronite. Syrian Maronites total 40,000 and they follow the archdioceses of Aleppo and Damascus and the Diocese of Latakia. There is also a Maronite community in Cyprus which speaks Cypriot Maronite Arabic. They are a recognized religious minority on the island and the community elects a representative to sit in the house of representatives (parliament) to voice their interests. They are probably descended from those Maronites who accompanied the crusaders there. Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ...


In the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Ottoman persecution led many Maronites to emigrate to Latin America, as well as North America, Europe and Australia, where they founded Maronite parishes. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiogeographic one. ...


The two residing eparchies in the United States have issued their own "Maronite Census". The Census is designed to estimate approximately how many Maronites reside in the United States due to their emigrations to that country. Many Maronites have been assimilated into American culture, often taking on Roman Catholicism as there were no Maronite parishes or priests available. The Census was designed to locate those people.


Modern Maronites, like other Christians in the Levant, often adopt French or other Western European given names for their children like "Michel", "Georges", "Carole", "Charles", "Antoine", and "Pierre". Given names of Arabic origins identical with those of their Muslim neighbors are also common, such as "Khalil," "Samir," "Salim," "Jameel," or "Tawfik." Other common names are strictly Christian and are Aramaic, or Lebanese Arabic, forms of biblical, Hebrew, or Greek Christian names, such as "Antun," (Anthony, also "Tanios" or "Tannous"), "Butros" (Peter), "Semaan" (Simon), "Jeryes" (George), "Elie" (Ilyas, or Elias), or "Beshara" (literally, "Good News" in reference to the Gospel). Many are also named after Maronite saints, including the Aramaic names "Maroun" (after their patron saint, Maron), and "Sharbel", or "Charbel". As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... A given name specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name. ... Michel can refer to: Michel, the name, meaning Michael in French Deutscher Michel, personification of the German nation. ... Georges - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Carole may refer to a number of things. ... List of nobility having Charles as first name Austria Archduke Charles Charles I of Austria Belgium Charles, Prince of Belgium Bohemia Karel I, King of Bohemia Karel II, King of Bohemia Karel III, King of Bohemia Burgundy Charles the Bold France Charles I of France (Charlemagne) Charles I, Holy Roman... The Antoine was a Belgian automobile manufactured by one V. Antoine of Liège from 1900 to 1905; built by an engine manufacturer, at least two models were offered. ... Pierre is a French form of the name Peter. ... A given name specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... Lebanese or Lebanese Arabic is the spoken language of modern-day Lebanon, also used around the world by a large Lebanese diaspora. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ...

This article is part of the Eastern Christianity Portal — Learn more about Eastern Christianity  

Image File history File links Template:Public File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions which developed in Greece, the Balkans, the rest of Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, and the Middle East over several centuries of religious antiquity. ...

Books

  • Kamal Salibi - A House of Many Mansions - The History of Lebanon Reconsidered (University of California Press, 1990).
  • Father AJ Salim - Captivated by Your Teachings - A Resource Book for Adult Maronite Catholics (ET Nedder Publishing, Tucson, Arizona, 2002)
  • Maronite Church. New Catholic Encyclopedia, Second Edition, 2003.
  • Riley-Smith, Johnathan - The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995)


Syriac Christians
Self-identifications : Arameans · Assyrians · Chaldeans · Maronite
Languages : Aramaic : Classical Syriac · Assyrian Neo-Aramaic · Bohtan Neo-Aramaic · Chaldean Neo-Aramaic · Hértevin · Koy Sanjaq Surat · Mlahsö · Senaya · Turoyo Non-Aramaic : Cypriot Maronite Arabic · Lebanese Arabic · Garshuni
Churches : Assyrian Church of the East · Chaldean Catholic Church · Maronite Catholic Church · Melkite Greek Catholic Church · Syriac Catholic Church · Syriac Orthodox Church · Antiochian Orthodox Church

The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, seminomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... For other uses of the name Assyrian, see Assyrian Assyrians are an ethnic group found in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon, who are speakers of various neo-Aramaic languages. ... Map showing the location of Tel Kaif, Iraq and the neighboring areas. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a 3,000-year history. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Bohtan Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Koy Sanjaq Surat is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Mlahsö is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... Probably the most divergent of all Arabic dialects is Cypriot Maronite Arabic, still spoken by most of the 130 elderly Maronite Catholics in Kormakiti (Korucam) in Northern Cyprus, overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. ... Lebanese or Lebanese Arabic is the spoken language of modern-day Lebanon, also used around the world by a large Lebanese diaspora. ... Garshuni, also known as Karshuni, is the Arabic language written in the Syriac alphabet. ... Note that this kind of denomination is not that of a coin or banknote. ... The Holy Apostolic and Catholic Assyrian Church of the East is a Christian church that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... The Chaldean Catholic Church is an Eastern Rite sui juris (autonomous ritual church) particular church of the Catholic Church, maintaining full communion with the Pope in Rome. ... Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. ... The coat of arms of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church The Melkite Greek Catholic Church is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope of Rome. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant in full communion with the pope having practices and rites in common with the Jacobites. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Antiochian Orthodox Church is one of the five churches that composed the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church before the Great Schism, and today is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Maronite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1404 words)
Maronites (Marunoye ܐܶܝܢܘܪܡ in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of the Latin-Rite Catholic Church.
The Maronites, because of their monastic origin, were able to withstand intense pressure and even persecution to preserve their Church, not just by the Muslims, but also by separated brethren such as the Orthodox and Churches of the East, as well as efforts at Latinization from Rome.
The head of the Maronite Church is the Maronite Patriarch of Antioch, who is elected by the bishops of the Maronite church and now resides in Bkirki, north of Beirut.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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