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Encyclopedia > Marmalade
Marmalade spread on a slice of bread
Marmalade spread on a slice of bread

Marmalade is a sweet preserve with a bitter tang made from fruit, sugar, water, and (in some commercial brands) a gelling agent. In English-speaking usage "marmalade" almost always refers to a preserve derived from a citrus fruit, most commonly oranges. The recipe includes sliced or chopped fruit peel, which is simmered in fruit juice and water until soft; indeed marmalade is sometimes described as jam with fruit peel. Such marmalade is most often consumed on toasted bread as part of a full English breakfast. The favoured citrus fruit for marmalade production in the UK is the "Seville orange", Citrus aurantium var. aurantium, thus called because it was originally imported from Seville in Spain; it is higher in pectin than sweet oranges, and therefore gives a good set. Marmalade can also be made from lemons, limes, grapefruits, strawberries or a combination of citrus fruits. Marmalade may refer to: Marmalade, a sweet conserve made with (usually citrus) fruit Marmalade, a pop music group. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2094 KB) (Lemon?) marmalade spread onto a slice of bread. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2094 KB) (Lemon?) marmalade spread onto a slice of bread. ... For other meanings of the word jam, see Jam (disambiguation) Jam from berries Jam is a type of fruit preserve. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Gelling agents are food additives used to thicken and stabilize various foods, like jellies, desserts and candies. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus x aurantifolia - Lime Citrus x aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus x bergamia - Bergamot Citrus x hystrix - Kaffir Lime Citrus x ichangensis - Ichang Lemon Citrus x limon - Lemon Citrus x limonia - Rangpur Citrus x paradisi... Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... This article is about the food. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A popular bitter orange grown in the Mediterranean. ... For other uses, see Seville (disambiguation). ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Macfad. ...

Contents

Origins

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "marmalade" appeared in English in 1480, borrowed from French marmelade which, in turn, came from the Portuguese marmelada. Originally, according to the root of the word, which is marmelo or quince, a preserve made from quinces was intended. Marmelada is a compound of the word marmelo (quince), that derives from Latin melimelum, “honey apple” (Klein’s Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language).[1] According to José Pedro Machado’s “Dicionário Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa” (Etymological Dictionary of the Portuguese Language), the oldest known document where this word is to be found is Gil Vicente’s play Comédia de Rubena, written in 1521: The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Binomial name Mill. ... Gil Vicente (c. ...

Temos tanta marmelada
Que minha mãy maa de dar[2]

The Romans learned from the Greeks that quinces slowly cooked with honey would "set" when cool (though they did not know about fruit pectin). Greek melimēlon or "honey fruit"—for most quinces are too astringent to be used without honey, and in Greek "mēlon" or "apple" stands for all globular fruits—was transformed into "marmelo." The Roman cookbook attributed to Apicius gives a recipe for preserving whole quinces with their stems and leaves attached in a bath of honey diluted with defrutum: Roman marmalade. Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... Apicius was a name applied to three celebrated Roman epicures, the first of whom lived during the Republic; the second of whom, Marcus Gavius (or Gabius) Apicius—the most famous in his own time—lived under the early Empire; a third lived in the late 4th or early 5th century. ... Defrutum is a reduction of must used by cooks and others in ancient Rome. ...


The extension of "marmalade" in the English language to refer to citrus fruits was made in the 17th century, when citrus first began to be plentiful enough in England for the usage to become common. In some languages of continental Europe a word sharing a root with "marmalade" refers to all gelled fruit conserves, and those derived from citrus fruits merit no special word of their own. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Dundee Marmalade

The Scottish city of Dundee has a long association with marmalade. The oft-related story of how this came about begins sometime in the 1700s when a Spanish ship with a cargo of Seville oranges docked in Dundee harbor to shelter from storms. A grocer by the name of James Keiller bought a vast amount of the cargo at a knockdown price, but found it impossible to sell the bitter oranges to his customers. He passed the oranges on to his wife Janet who used them instead of the normal quinces to make a fruit preserve. The marmalade proved extremely popular and the Keiller family went in to business producing marmalade. However this is almost complete fiction. The truth is that in 1797, James Keiller, who was unmarried at the time, and his mother Janet opened a factory to produce "Dundee Marmalade", that is marmalade containing thick chunks of orange rind, this recipe (probably invented by his mother) being a new twist on the already well-known fruit preserve of orange marmalade.[citation needed] This article is about the country. ... For other uses see Dundee (disambiguation) Dundee is Scotlands fourth largest city, population 154 674 (2001), situated on the North bank of the Firth of Tay. ... Events and trends The Bonneville Slide blocks the Columbia River near the site of present-day Cascade Locks, Oregon with a land bridge 200 feet (60 m) high. ... Binomial name Mill. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Notes

  1. ^ There is no truth whatsoever to the folk etymology which states that the word derives from "Marie malade" (French for "ill Mary"), referring to Mary, Queen of Scots, because she used it as a medicine for a headache or upset stomach.
  2. ^ Translation: We have so much quince jelly/ That my mother will give me some. Maria João Amaral, ed. Gil Vicente, Rubena (Lisbon:Quimera) 1961 (e-book)

Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ...

External links

Further reading

  • Allen, Brigid Cooper's Oxford: A history of Frank Cooper Limited (1989)
  • Mathew, W. M. Keiller's Of Dundee: The Rise of the Marmalade Dynasty 1800-1879
  • --- The Secret History of Guernsey Marmalade
  • Wilson, C. Anne The Book of Marmalade

  Results from FactBites:
 
Marmalade - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (517 words)
Marmalade is a sweet conserve made from fruit, sugar, and (usually) a gelling agent.
The extension of "marmalade" in the English language to refer to citrus fruits was made in the 17th century, when citrus first began to be plentiful enough in England for the usage to become common.
The truth is that in 1797, James Keiller, who was unmarried at the time, and his mother Janet opened a factory to produce "Dundee Marmalade", that is marmalade containing thick chunks of orange rind, this recipe (probably invented by his mother) being a new twist on the already well-known fruit preserve of orange marmalade.
marmalade - definition of marmalade in Encyclopedia (470 words)
The extension of "marmalade" in the English language to refer to citrus fruits was made in the 17th century, when citrus first began to be plentiful enough in England to use this way.
Marmalade is also a pop music group best known for their 1970 hit song "Reflections Of My Life".
Marmalade Atkins is a fictional schoolgirl from a television series written by Andrew Davies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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