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Encyclopedia > Markka
Markka
Image:1markka1994front.jpg Image:1markka1994back.jpg
1 Markka 1994

The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999 (in practice on January 1, 2002), when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. It was divided into 100 penni. The conversion for one euro was 5.94573 markkaa. 1 markka 1994 front File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1 markka 1994 back File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. ...


(The Finnish plural forms (strictly speaking, partitive singular forms) of the words "markka" and "penni" are "markkaa" and "penniä".) The basic meaning of the Partitive case is partialness, without result or without specifying identity. In the Finnish language, its used to express unknown identities and irresultative actions. ...


The markka was introduced in 1861 as a quarter of the Russian ruble. After Finland gained independence in 1917, the Bank of Finland was founded and the markka was reintroduced as an independent currency backed by gold. The gold standard was abolished in 1940, and the markka suffered heavy inflation during the war years. In 1963 the markka was replaced by the new markka, equivalent to 100 old units. 1997 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Bank of Finland, Helsinki, with the statue of Johan Vilhelm Snellman in front. ... 1922 U.S. gold certificate The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Winter War (also known as the Soviet-Finnish War or the Russo-Finnish War) broke out when the Soviet Union attacked Finland on November 30, 1939, three months after the start of World War II. As a consequence, the Soviet Union was expelled from the League of Nations on... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The name "markka" was based on a medieval unit of weight. Both "markka" and "penni" are loanwords based on the same roots as the German Mark and pfennig. The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... The pfennig was a small German coin valued at 1/100 of a Deutsche Mark and other German currencies with the name Mark. ...


Although the word "markka" predates the currency by several centuries, the currency was established before being named "markka". A competition was held for its name, and some of the other entries included "sataikko" (meaning "having a hundred parts"), "omena" (apple) and "suomo" (from "Suomi", the Finnish name for Finland).


During the history of the Finnish markka, spanning over 140 years, 28 coins denominated in markka have been minted. The pictorial subjects have changed over the years, but they have all been distinctly Finnish. The Finnish markka is now history, when Finland changed its currency to the euro in 1999 (markka coins and notes were not withdrawn from circulation until 2002). 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Portraits in banknotes

This section covers the last design series of the Finnish markka, designed in the 1980s by Finnish designer Erik Bruun and issued in 1986. A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... Erik Bruun (born 1926 in Viipuri) is a Finnish graphic designer. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • 10 markkaa (blue) - Paavo Nurmi (1897–1973), athlete and Olympic winner (note discontinued upon introduction of the 20 markkaa note)
  • 20 markkaa (blue/green) - Väinö Linna (1920–1992), author and novelist (note introduced in 1993)
  • 50 markkaa (brown) - Alvar Aalto (1898–1976), architect
  • 100 markkaa (green) - Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), composer
  • 500 markkaa (red) - Elias Lönnrot (1802-1884), historian
  • 1000 markkaa (blue/purple) - Anders Chydenius (1729-1803), priest and statesman

The series also included a preliminary design for a 5000 markkaa (red/purple) note, depicting priest and linguist Mikael Agricola, but the note was never officially introduced into use. Born in Turku, Paavo Nurmi (June 13, 1897 - October 2, 1973) was a Finnish runner. ... Väinö Linna (December 20, 1920 - April 21, 1992) was one of the most influential Finnish authors of the 20th century. ... Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto (February 3, 1898 _ May 11, 1976) was a Finnish architect. ... A bust of Jean Sibelius at the Sibelius-monumentti in Helsinki. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Anders Chydenius (1729–1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Mikael Agricola Mikael Agricola (c. ...


Earlier banknotes

The second-to-last banknote design series, designed by Tapio Wirkkala, was introduced in 1955 and revised in the reform of 1963. It was the first series to depict actual specific persons. These included Juho Kusti Paasikivi on the 10 markkaa note, Elias Lönnrot on the 100 markkaa note and Urho Kekkonen on the 500 markkaa note (introduced later). Tapio Wirkkala was a Finnish designer. ... Juho Kusti Paasikivi (a. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Urho Kekkonen Urho Kaleva Kekkonen (September 3, 1900–August 31, 1986) was a Finnish politician who served as Prime Minister of Finland (1950-1953, 1954-1956) and later as President of Finland (1956–1981). ...


Unlike Erik Bruun's series, this series did not depict any other real-life subjects, but only abstract ornaments in addition to the person depictions. A popular joke at the time was to cover all but the right-hand side of Paasikivi's face on the 10 markkaa note, ending up with something resembling a mouse, said to be the only animal illustration in the entire series.


The still older notes, designed by Eliel Saarinen, were introduced in 1922. They also depicted humans, but these were generic men and women, and did not represent any specific persons. The fact that these men and women were depicted nude caused a minor controversy at the time. Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen (August 20, 1873, Rantasalmi, Finland – July 1, 1950, Cranbrook, Michigan, United States) was a Finnish architect who became famous for his art nouveau buildings in the early years of the 20th century. ...


Coins

The last series of Finnish markka coins included five coins:

  • 10 penniä (silver-coloured) - a honeycomb on the reverse and a lily of the valley flower on the obverse
  • 50 penniä (silver-coloured) - snowflakes on the reverse and a bear on the obverse
  • 1 markka (copper-coloured) - the Finnish coat of arms on the obverse
  • 5 markkaa (copper-coloured) - a Saimaa seal on the obverse
  • 10 markkaa (two-metal coin, copper-coloured centre and silver-coloured edge) - a wood grouse on the obverse

Binomial name Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley is a flowering plant of the Convallaria genus. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ...

See also

The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. ...

External link

  • Overview of markka from the BBC


Pre-euro currencies and non-euro currencies EU Flag
Eurozone Austrian schilling | Belgian franc | Dutch guilder | Finnish markka | French franc | German mark | Greek drachma | Irish pound | Italian lira | Luxembourg franc | Portuguese escudo | San Marinese lira | Spanish peseta | Vatican lira
ERM Cypriot pound | Danish krone | Estonian kroon | Latvian lat | Lithuanian litas | Maltese lira | Slovenian tolar
Other EU British pound | Czech koruna | Hungarian forint | Polish zloty | Slovak koruna | Swedish krona

  Results from FactBites:
 
Markka (145 words)
Markka was the Finnish Name of the currency in Finland, now replaced by the Euro.
The conversion for 1 euro was 5.94573 Markka.
Markka was introduced in 1861 as a quarter of the Russian ruble.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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