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Encyclopedia > Markham, Ontario
Town of Markham

Coat of arms
Map showing Markham's location in York Region
Coordinates: 43°53′N 79°15′W / 43.883, -79.25
Country Flag of Canada Canada
Province Flag of Ontario Ontario
Regional Municipality York Region
Communities Buttonville, Thornhill, German Mills, Milliken, Unionville
Settled 1794
Incorporated 1972 (town)
Government
 - Mayor Frank Scarpitti
 - Deputy Mayor Jim Jones
 - Regional Councillors Jack Heath, Tony Wong, Gordon Landon
 - MPs Susan Kadis (LPC) - Thornhill, John McCallum (LPC) - Markham—Unionville, Lui Temelkovski (LPC) - Oak Ridges—Markham
 - MPPs Mario Racco (OLP) - Thornhill, Michael Chan (OLP) - Markham, Frank Klees (PC) - Oak Ridges
Area
 - Town 212.47 km²  (82 sq mi)
Population (2006)[1]
 - Town 261,573 (Ranked 16th)
 - Ethnicity 44.5% White
30% Chinese
12.7% South Asian
3.8% Black
9.1% Other
Area code(s) 905,289
ISO 3166-2 CA-ON
Civic Centre Highway 7 and Warden Ave
Website: http://www.markham.ca/

Markham (2006 Population 261,573[1]) is located in York Region, directly north of Toronto, and is part of Toronto's CMA. It is larger than many Canadian cities. Despite its qualifications regarding population, it has not had the title of city conferred upon it by the province, and retains its legal status as a town. Markham is part of the Greater Toronto Area, and is one of the fastest-growing communities in Canada. Image File history File links Markhamarms. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area [1] Ranked... A regional municipality (or region) is a type of Canadian municipal government which works much like a county; the method of government depends on how it is defined. ... Motto: Ontarios Rising Star Map of York Region and the municipalities it includes. ... Buttonville is a suburban community that is located 9 km west of Markham, 29 km NE of Toronto, south of Lake Simcoe and 9 km SE of Richmond Hill. ... Thornhill (2006 population 106,394) is a community in Ontario, Canada, directly north of Toronto. ... German Mills is a community within the Town of Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Milliken is a community shared by Scarborough, Ontario and Markham, Ontario. ... Unionville is a suburban community that is located 4 km west of Markham, 33 km NE of Toronto, south of Lake Simcoe and 13 km SE of Richmond Hill. ... Frank Scarpitti is Mayor-elect of Markham, Ontario. ... H. James (Jim) Jones (born February 4, 1943) is a Canadian politician. ... Tony Wong is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ... Susan R. Kadis (born January 11, 1953) is Liberal Member of Parliament for Thornhill in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Thornhill is a federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... The Honourable John McCallum, PC, MP, MA, PhD (born April 9, 1950) is a Canadian politician, economist and university professor. ... Markham—Unionville is a federal and provincial electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario and covers suburban areas north of Toronto. ... Lui Temelkovski (born November 4, 1954) is the Canadian Member of Parliament for the Ontario riding of Oak Ridges-Markham, representing the Liberal Party of Canada. ... Oak Ridges—Markham is the name of a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada. ... Map of Ontarios ridings and their popular vote for their party elected The Ontario Legislature after the 2003 election. ... Mario Racco (born in 1955) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The Ontario Liberal Party is a center-right provincial political party in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Thornhill is a federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... Michael Chan is a Canadian politician. ... The Ontario Liberal Party is a center-right provincial political party in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Markham was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... Frank Klees (born March 6, 1951) is a Canadian politician. ... The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party (PC Party of Ontario) is a right-of-centre political party in Ontario, Canada. ... Oak Ridges was a former federal electoral district represented in the Canadian House of Commons, and located in the province of Ontario. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... The table below lists the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population, using data from the Canada 2006 census for census subdivisions. ... ISO 3166-2 codes for Canada describe 10 Provinces and 3 Territories. ... Motto: Ontarios Rising Star Area: 1,761. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... A census metropolitan area, or CMA is a Canadian census subdivision comprising a large urban area (known as the urban core) and adjacent areas (known as urban and rural fringes) that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core. ... A map of Torontos Census Metropolitan Area, which contains a large portion of the Greater Toronto Area. ...

Contents

Introduction

Markham was first surveyed as a township in 1793 by William Berczy (Johann Albrecht Ulrich Moll 1744-1813), first settled in 1794 and incorporated as a town in 1972. Markham is the fourth-most populous municipality in the Greater Toronto Area, and home to many cultures. It claims to be Canada's Hi-Tech Capital with a number of key companies in the area, such as IBM, Motorola, Toshiba, Lucent, Apple, and home to the head office of graphics card producer ATI now part of AMD. The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town. ... William Berczy (December 10, 1744 Wallerstein near Noerdlingen - February 5, 1813, New York, N. Y., USA) was a Canadian pioneer and painter. ... IBM redirects here. ... Motorola Inc. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March, 31 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a multinational high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Alcatel Lucent (or Alcatel-Lucent according to some sources) is the name of the new company formed after the merge agreement signed by Alcatel and Lucent Technologies. ... Apple Inc. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... AMD headquarters in Sunnyvale Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...


Geography

Markham is bounded by 5 municipalities: To the west, the town is bounded by Vaughan (boundary is at Yonge Street between Steeles Avenue and Highway 7), and Richmond Hill (boundary is at Highway 7 from Yonge Street to Highway 404 and at Highway 404 from Highway 7 to somewhere between 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road). To the south, Markham is bounded by the City of Toronto (boundary is at Steeles Avenue). To the north, it is bounded by the Town of Whitchurch-Stouffville (boundary is from Highway 404 to York-Durham line somewhere between 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road). And to the east, Markham is bounded by the City of Pickering at York-Durham Line. Markham is at 43°53′N, 79°15′W. A sign for Yonge Street at the intersection with Maitland Street. ... Steeles Avenue, near its intersection with Warden Avenue. ... York Regional Road 7 is an east-west formerly provincial highway, now a major arterial road in York Region. ... Southbound on Highway 404, near the interchange with Steeles Avenue (Showing The New HOV lanes). ... Whitchurch-Stouffville, town in south-central Ontario, in the Regional Municipality of York in the Greater Toronto Area. ... Pickering is a city located immediately east of Toronto in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. ...


According to the Canada 2006 Census: The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ...

  • Population:
261,573 (+25.4% from 2001)
  • Land area:
212.58 km² (82.08 sq mi)
  • Population density:
1,230.5 people/km² (3,187/sq mi)
  • National population rank (Out of 5,008):
Ranked 16th
  • Median age:
37.2 (males: 36.2, females: 38.1)
  • Total private dwellings:
81,181
  • Dwellings occupied by permanent residents:
77,191
  • Mean household income:
$77,163

References: Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...

  • 2006 Community Profile

Footnotes: The data has not yet been released and is based on 2001 Census. The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ...


Demographics

Markham has experienced tremendous growth since the 1980s. York Region's planning department reports a mid-year 2005 population estimate of 268,200, which is a 29% increase from the 2001 census.[2] The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ...


According to the 2001 census, 56% of the population consists of visible minorities.[3] Visible minorities are persons who are not of the majority race in a given population. ...


Immigration characteristics (2001):

  • Canadian-born population: 46.4%
  • Foreign-born population: 52.9%
  • Non-permanent residents: 0.8%

Total population by religion (2001):

Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...

History

When Upper and Lower Canada were established in 1791, Colonel John Graves Simcoe was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. ...

Government

The Markham Town Council consists of the Mayor, four Regional Councillors and eight Ward Councillors each representing one of the town's eight wards (The Mayor-elect of Markham is Frank Scarpitti - replacing outgoing Donald Cousens, former PC MPP for Markham and Presbyterian church minister). The Mayor and four Regional Councillors are elected by the community to represent the Town of Markham at the regional level. Town Council as for 2003-2004 Mayor - Don Cousens Councillors Stan Daurio - Ward 1 Erin Shapero - Ward 2 Joseph Virgilio - Ward 3 George McKelvey - Ward 4 John Webster - Ward 5 Dan Horchik - Ward 6 Khalid Usman - Ward 7 Alex Chiu - Ward 8 (former Councillor for Ward 7) Regional Councillors Frank... Frank Scarpitti is Mayor-elect of Markham, Ontario. ... W. Donald Cousens (born July 20, 1938 in Vankleek Hill, Ontario) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. ... The Presbyterian Church in Canada is the name of a Christian church, of Protestant, of presbyterian, and reformed theology and polity, serving in Canada under this name since 1875. ...


The members of Council, called Councillors, are elected by the municipality's voters. Councillors are paid by the municipality for their services, but in many municipalities, members of Council usually serve part-time and work at other jobs as well.


The current members of council were elected by the residents to a four-year term of office, in accordance with standards set by the Province. The selection of members for the offices of Mayor and Regional Councillors are made town-wide, while Ward Councillors are elected by individual ward.


The town offices are located at the Markham Civic Centre at Highway 7 (Ontario) and Warden Avenue. The previous offices on Woodbine Avenue have disappeared (a funeral home is on the site), but the historic Town Hall on Markham Main Street is now a restored office building. The Kings Highway No. ... Warden Avenue is a north-south route in Scarborough, a community within Toronto. ... Woodbine Avenue is a north south route in Toronto and Markham. ... Markham Road is a north-south route in Markham and Toronto. ...

See also: List of mayors of Markham, Ontario

The Mayor's Youth Task Force was created to discuss issues facing young people in the town and to plan and publicize events. Its primary purpose is to encourage youth participation within the community. This is a list of mayors of Markham, Ontario. ...


Law and order

There are no courts in Markham, but the town is served by a court in Newmarket. Policing is provided by York Regional Police at a station near McCowan Road and Highway 7. Highway 404, Highway 407 and parts of Highway 48 are patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. Map showing Newmarkets location in York Region Newmarket is a town located approximately 45 km north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... York Regional Police is the police force responsible for public order in York Region north of Toronto. ... McCowan Road is a north-south street in Scarborough in the City of Toronto, and in York Region in Markham, Whitchurch-Stouffville, East Gwillimbury, and Georgina . ... Ontario provincial highway 7 is one of the Kings Highways in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... Southbound on Highway 404, near the interchange with Steeles Avenue (Showing The New HOV lanes). ... Highway 407, officially called the 407 Express Toll Route (ETR), is a tollway located in southern Ontario Canadas Greater Toronto Area. ... Highway 48 is a highway in Southern Ontario that extends from its junction with Highway 7 to Highway 12/Durham Regional Road 48 in Beaverton. ... The Ontario Provincial Police (O.P.P.) is the provincial police force for the province of Ontario, Canada. ...


Town issues

Like most cities and towns in the Greater Toronto Area, Markham has a few issues it must deal with:


Urban growth

There is a desire by the Town to control urban sprawl by requesting higher density for new development. The town plan calls for more growth along Highway 7 and less towards the farm land to the North. A similar development in Cornell promotes the need for services to be closer to residences.


Transit plan

Linked to the concern of urban growth, Markham through York Region Transit (YRT) has implemented a new transit system called Viva to ease the strain on the region's congested roads. Viva is similar to YRT but is used as an express bus service with the ability to alter immediate traffic signals so it will not be late. The YRT is also planning to build a transit terminal somewhere near Cornell soon. York Region Transit (YRT) is the public transit operator in York Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Viva is a bus rapid transit network in York Region, Ontario, Canada, with connections to northern Toronto and Toronto Transit Commission subway stations. ...


Markham's neighbourhoods and communities

Markham suburbs

Markham is made up of many communities (many of which, despite being technically suburban districts today, are still signed with official 'entering community' signs on major roads) each with a distinctive character: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1490, 938 KB) Summary An aerial view of housing developments near Markham, Ontario Photo by IDuke, November 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1490, 938 KB) Summary An aerial view of housing developments near Markham, Ontario Photo by IDuke, November 2005. ...

Thornhill and Unionville are popularly seen as being separate communities. Thornhill actually straddles the Markham-Vaughan town line (portions of it in both municipalities). Angus Glen is a community in Town of Markham. ... Armadale, Ontario is a former rural postal office that overlaps both Markham, Ontario and Scarborough, Ontario. ... Box Grove, Ontario is a community in Markham, Ontario and undergoing a transformation from agricultural to residential use. ... Buttonville is a suburban community that is located 9 km west of Markham, 29 km NE of Toronto, south of Lake Simcoe and 9 km SE of Richmond Hill. ... Markham is a town in York Region, directly north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Cashel, Ontario is a community under development in Markham, Ontario. ... Cornell is a new community being developed in northeast Markham, Ontario and bounded by Highway 407, 16th Avenue, Ninth Line and Markham Road. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Gormley is a community in Ontario, Canada that overlaps parts of Richmond Hill, Whitchurch-Stouffville, and Markham, three municipalities in York Region in the Greater Toronto Area. ... Legacy is one of the posh areas located in Markham, Ontario. ... Milliken is a community shared by Scarborough, Ontario and Markham, Ontario. ... Quantzwtown, Ontario is located in north part of Markham, Ontario near McCowan Road and 16th Avenue. ... Unionville is a suburban community that is located 4 km west of Markham, 33 km NE of Toronto, south of Lake Simcoe and 13 km SE of Richmond Hill. ... Thornhill (2006 population 106,394) is a community in Ontario, Canada, directly north of Toronto. ... Vinegar Hill is a small community in Markham, Ontario and located along Highway 48 and Highway 407 (Ontario). ...


Parks

Further information: List of parks in the Town of Markham

Parks in the Town of Markham, Ontario are maintained by the Parks Department. ...

Culture

Until the 1970s, Markham was mostly farmland and marsh, which is still reflected in events like the Markham Fair. Today Markham boasts as Canada's High Tech Capital with many new major technology and large corporations choosing to locate their offices within the town. Markham is in the process of building a new downtown, bordered by Kennedy Road, Highway 7, Warden Ave. and the new Enterprise Avenue. Markham is now very diverse, most notably with a large Chinese population, with Pacific Mall, First Markham Place, Peachtree Centre and other major Chinese stores and centres within the vicinity. Markham is known as one of the best places to live in Canada, and has a balance of both new and old (2 main streets), and very diverse.


Markham is also known for its love of performing arts, demonstrated most profoundly in the critically and audience acclaimed Markham Little Theatre [2]. Thriving for the past 40 years and presenting over 100 plays, Markham Little Theatre's performances draws audience members from residents and those of neighbouring communities.


Markham Youth Theatre [3] also demonstrates the love of arts in the youth of the town. A small theatre company completely run and organised by youth in the area.


Education

Markham is served by a number of high schools. St. Robert Catholic High School, Markville Secondary School, Pierre Elliott Trudeau High School, Unionville High School, Middlefield Collegiate Institute, St. Augustine CHS, Brother Andre CHS, Markham District High School, Milliken Mills High School, Thornlea Secondary School, Father Michael McGivney Catholic Academy, and Thornhill Secondary School all have consistent high scores on standardized exams and have some of the highest rate of graduates attending universities.[citation needed]} // St. ... Markville Secondary School is a public high school located in the town of Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Pierre Elliott Trudeau High School (commonly known as PETHS, PET, or simply Trudeau) is a public, bilingual English and French-immersion secondary school in Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... See UHS for other uses of the initialism, or see Unionville High School (Pennsylvania) for the school located in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. ... Middlefield Collegiate Institute is a public high school in the town of Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... St. ... Taken in February 2007, showing Brother Andre Catholic High Schools parking lot at the back. ... Markham District High School is a public high school in the town of Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Mililken Mills High School is a public high school in the town of Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Thornlea Secondary School is a public high school that opened in 1969 and is located in Thornhill, Ontario, Canada, on the north east corner Bayview Avenue and Willowbrook Road, north of the Steeles Avenue border dividing the city of Toronto and the municipality of York Region. ... Father Michael McGivney Catholic Academy is a high school in Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Thornhill Secondary School in Thornhill, Ontario, Canada was founded in 1955. ...


Markham currently does not have any universities itself, but Seneca College has satellite campuses at Highways 7 and 404 and at Buttonville Airport. Most high school graduates continue to post-secondary education in universities across Ontario. There are local transit services that connect to York University, Ryerson University, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, McMaster University and the University of Toronto, as well as to Toronto campuses of Seneca College, Centennial College, George Brown College, Humber College and The Michener Institute, along with Durham College and Sheridan College. Seneca College of Applied Arts and Technology has approximately 90,000 part-time and 17,000 full-time students. ... York University (French: Université York), located in Toronto, Ontario, is Canadas third-largest university and has produced several of the countrys top leaders in the fields of law, politics, business, space sciences, and fine arts. ... Ryerson University is a public university located in downtown Toronto, Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... McMaster University is a medium-sized research-intensive university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, with an enrollment of 18,238 full-time and 3,836 part-time students (as of 2006). ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a coeducational public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Centennial College of Applied Arts and Technology is the oldest College of Applied Arts and Technology in Ontario, founded in 1966. ... George Brown College (GBC) is a community college with two full campuses, plus a university associate campus, located in Toronto, Ontario. ... Humber College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning (generally referred to as Humber College) is a college in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Michener Institute, more formally The Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences, is a post-secondary institution in Toronto Ontario, that trains allied health professionals. ... Durham College of Applied Arts and Technology is located in Oshawa, Ontario, Canada with satellite campuses in Pickering, Uxbridge, Whitby, Port Hope, Port Perry and Beaverton. ... Sheridan College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning is a diploma and degree granting Canadian polytechnic institute with campuses in Oakville, Ontario and Brampton, Ontario, both western suburbs of Toronto. ...


Economy

In the 19th century, Markham was a vibrant, independent community with distilleries and breweries around the Highway 7 and 48 intersection. The Speight Wagon Works exported products around the world, and it was said that Markham was more active than York (former name for Toronto) was early on.


Today, it claims to be Canada's Hi-Tech Capital (2nd to Ottawa) with a number of key companies in the area, such as IBM, Motorola, Toshiba, Lucent, Apple Computer, Genesis Microchip, and is home to the head office of graphics card producer ATI (recently merged with AMD). This is a list of major technology companies in the city of Ottawa, Canada: 3M Adobe Systems Agere Agilent Alcatel Bell Canada Breconridge Calian Cisco Systems Corel Cognos Convergys CGI Group Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) Dell Entrust Espial Fidus General Dynamics Hewlett-Packard Hot Lava Software IBM JDS Uniphase Lockheed... IBM redirects here. ... Motorola Inc. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March, 31 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a multinational high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... In 1996, AT&T spun off its Systems and Technology units, along with the famous Bell Laboratories, to form a new company named Lucent Technologies (NYSE: LU). ... Apple Inc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...


Markham also maintains economic and cultural cooperation agreements with the city of Laval, Quebec (which is the second largest city of the Greater Montreal Area and has a very high financial profile). Motto: Unité, progrès, grandeur(French) Unity, Progress, Greatness City of Laval Coordinates: Country Canada Province Quebec Founded Established 1965 Government  - City Mayor Gilles Vaillancourt (since 1989) Area  - City 247. ... The Greater Montreal Area is a term used to describe either the Montreal, Quebec, Canada Census Metropolitan Area or the Montreal Metropolitan Community (French: Communauté métropolitaine de Montréal) The CMA is defined by Statistics Canada while the Montreal Metropolitan Community is a level of government in Quebec, and...


Athletics

Most sports in Markham, Ontario are amateur or recreational: Look up amateur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the 1914 Charlie Chaplin film, see Recreation (film). ...


Teams

  • Markham Junior Hockey Club
  • Markham Mariners - Markham District Rep. Baseball
  • Markham Raiders - Markham Minor Football Association
  • Markham-Stouffville Stars
  • Markham Pioneers - Markham Men's Baseball
  • Markham Thunder - Markham Minor Lacrosse
  • Markham Ironheads-Ontario Junior B Lacrosse Team
  • Markham Waxers - Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League
  • MUMBA Meteors - Markham-Unionville Minor Basketball Association Rep. Program
  • Markham Majors - Markham Men's Fastball (Oshawa City and District Fastball League)
  • Markham Islanders- Markham Minor Hockey (G.T.H.L. "AA" and "A")
  • Markham Majors- Markham Minor Hockey (G.T.H.L. "AAA")

Leagues The Markham Waxers are an Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League (OHA) Junior A ice hockey team and an Ontario Minor Hockey Association hockey club. ... The Ontario Provincial Junior A Hockey League is a Tier II Junior A ice hockey league under the supervision of the Ontario Hockey Association and the Canadian Junior A Hockey League. ...

  • FCCM Basketball Division
  • Markham District Baseball Association
  • Markham Men's Recreational Hockey
  • Markham Men's Slo-Pitch League ([4])
  • Markham Woman's Slo-Pitch League
  • Markham Unionville Minor Basketball Association (MUMBA)
  • Unionville Minor Hockey Association
  • Unionville Minor Softball Association
  • Unionville Men's Slo-Pitch League
  • Unionville Mixed Slo-Pitch League
  • Unionville Ladies Slo-Pitch Baseball
  • Thornhill Community Hockey League (TCHL)
  • Thornhill Baseball Club
  • Thornhill Slo-Pitch League

Clubs

  • Armadale Tennis Club
  • Markham Aquatic Club
  • Markham Cricket Club
  • Markham Lawn Bowling Club
  • Markham Rugby Club
  • Markham Lightning Soccer Club
  • Markham Tennis Club
  • Thornhill Thunder Soccer Club
  • Unionville Curling Club
  • Unionville-Milliken Strikers Soccer Club
  • Unionville Tennis Club

Due to the large areas of undeveloped land, Markham boasts a number of golf courses:

  • Angus Glen Golf Club
  • Bayview Country Club (private)
  • Cedar Brae Golf & Country Club (private)
  • Parkview Golf Club
  • Buttonville Fairway
  • Cresthaven Golf Club
  • Golf Dome At Markham
  • Mandarin Golf and Country Club
  • Markham Green Golf Club
  • Uplands Golf & Country Club
  • York Downs Golf & Country Club (Private)

Angus Glen is a golf course in Markham, Ontario north of Toronto. ... Cedar Brae Golf & Country Club is a private golf club north of Toronto, Ontario in the Town of Markham, Ontario. ...

Attractions

Markham has retained its historic past in part of the town. Here a just few places of interest:

Heritage streets preserve the old town feeling: Frederick Horsman Varley Art Gallery is an art gallery in Town of Markham, Ontario. ... Heintzman & Co. ... Markham Museums offices and archives in the Mount Joy Schoolhouse (1907) as it looked in June 2005 Markham Museum (in the past known as The Markham District Historical Museum and later Markham Museum & Historic Village) is a 25-acre site, located in Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Thornhill (2006 population 106,394) is a community in Ontario, Canada, directly north of Toronto. ...

There are still farms operating in the northern reaches of the town, but there are a few 'theme' farms in other parts of Markham: Markham Road is a north-south route in Markham and Toronto. ... Highway 48 is a highway in Southern Ontario that extends from its junction with Highway 7 to Highway 12/Durham Regional Road 48 in Beaverton. ... Kennedy Road is a north-south street in Scarborough, Ontario, which is part of Toronto. ...

  • Markham (GO Station) - built in 1871 by Toronto and Nipissing Railway and restored in 2000
  • Locust Hill Station - built in 1936 and re-located to the grounds of the Markham Museum
  • Unionville Station - built in 1871 by Toronto and Nipissing Railway and restored as a community centre

Markham (GO Station) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Performing arts

Markham is home to several locally-oriented performing arts groups:

A key arts venue is the 'Markham Theatre For Performing Arts', at the Markham Civic Centre located at highway 7 and Warden Avenue. The Kings Highway No. ... For the portion known as Warden Avenue in Toronto, see Warden Avenue. ...


Annual events

Events taking place annually include:

These junior exhibitors are being judged for their handling abilities Markham Fair is an annual event hosted by the Markham, Ontario and East York agricultural society. ...

Shopping

Markham is home to several large malls of 100+ stores. These include:

There are also a lot of higher-profile malls in nearby Toronto, and elsewhere in York Region. Also notable about malls in Markham is that many of them (including Pacific Mall and Market Village above, and most of those listed below) are Chinese-theme malls. These are to support the large Chinese population found in Markham, and carry a wide variety of traditional Chinese products and foods. Pacific Mall is an Asian themed shopping centre located in Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Market Village is a Chinese themed mall in Markham, Ontario at the corner of Steeles Avenue and Kennedy Road and is one of the largest Chinese malls in Toronto and in North America with 325,000 square feet of retail space and over 170 stores. ...


There are also some smaller shopping centres in Markham, such as:

Local media

The Markham Economist & Sun is published three times a week (Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday) serving the communities of Markham, Unionville and Milliken. ... Metroland Media Group (formally Metroland Printing, Publishing & Distributing) is the publisher of daily and community newspapers in Ontario; as well as digital properties under Torstar Digital; and various home shows. ... North of the City is a glossy lifestyle magazine distributed throughout York Region. ... Rogers Communications Inc. ...

Hospitals

The main healthcare facility in the town is Markham Stouffville Hospital, located in the far eastern end. Markham is also home to Shouldice Hospital, one of the world's premier facilities for people suffering from hernias. Markham-Stouffville Hospital is an acute care (215 beds) and community hospital serving south-east York Region. ... Shouldice Hernia Centre is a hospital in Thornhill, Ontario, Canada, that is known for its specialization in external abdominal hernia operations. ... A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or tissue out of the body cavity in which it normally lies. ...


Transportation

Roads

Major highways passing through Markham include Highway 404 (from Toronto to Newmarket) and Highway 407, a toll highway that passes north of Toronto and connects Markham with Vaughan, Brampton and Burlington. Southbound on Highway 404, near the interchange with Steeles Avenue (Showing The New HOV lanes). ... Map showing Newmarkets location in York Region Newmarket is a town located approximately 45 km north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Highway 407, officially called the 407 Express Toll Route (ETR), is a tollway located in southern Ontario Canadas Greater Toronto Area. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto: The City above Toronto Vaughans location in York Region. ... Nickname: Location in the Region of Peel, in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Peel Incorporation 1853 (village)   1873 (town)   1974 (city) Government  - Mayor Susan Fennell  - Governing Body Brampton City Council (click for members)  - MPs Navdeep Bains, Colleen Beaumier, Ruby Dhalla, Gurbax Malhi  - MPPs Vic Dhillon... Motto: Stand By Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Region Halton Regional Municipality Established 1874 Government  - Mayor Cam Jackson  - Governing Body Burlington City Council  - MPs Mike Wallace (CPC), Garth Turner (Liberal)  - MPPs Joyce Savoline (PC), Ted Chudleigh (PC) Area  - City 187 km²  (72 sq mi) Population (2006)  - City 164,415 (Ranked...


Highway 407 runs parallel to Highway 7, also known as York Road 7, which is a major east-west artery suffering from congestion due to development along its route. Other major east-west routes include 16th Avenue, Major MacKenzie Drive, and Steeles Avenue which forms Markham's southern boundary with Toronto. The Kings Highway No. ... York Regional Road 73 is an east-west formerly concession road, now a major urban throughfare, in York Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Major Mackenzie Drive, officially referred to as York Regional Road 25 is a major east-west arterial road in southern York Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Steeles Avenue, near its intersection with Warden Avenue. ...


Public transportation

York Region Transit (YRT) connects Markham with surrounding municipalities in York Region, and was created in 2001 from the merger of Markham Transit, Richmond Hill Transit, Newmarket Transit and Vaughan Transit. YRT to connects to the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) subway system by way of Viva Bus Rapid Transit from Finch station along Yonge Street, and Don Mills station through Unionville and on to Markville Mall. York Region Transit (YRT) is the public transit operator in York Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Markham Transit Logo before amalgamation into the YRT Markham Transit was created in 1973 and operated by Travelways and Miller Transit Limited on behalf of the Town of Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Richmond Hill Transit, created in 1960, was initially operated by Trailways of Canada Limited, then Travelways starting in 1976 and Laidlaw in the 1980s. ... Newmarket Transit was the most northerly transit system in York Region, Ontario, Canada, and one of the smallest. ... Vaughan Transit began in 1973 to provide service in the town of Vaughan, in southwest York Region, Ontario, Canada. ... The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is a public transport authority that operates buses, streetcars, subways, and rapid transit lines in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Viva is a bus rapid transit network in York Region, Ontario, Canada, with connections to northern Toronto and Toronto Transit Commission subway stations. ... There is a large number of public transport systems in European towns that fulfill several of the BRT criteria given above, but they are rarely designated as BRT. Bus lanes and exclusive use of key city-centre streets is commonplace, and bus priority on approach to traffic lights is quite...


The TTC also provides service in Markham on several north-south routes, such as Don Mills Road, Warden Avenue, Birchmount Road, McCowan Road and Markham Road. Unfortunately, these routes charge riders a double fare if they are travelling across the Steeles border and consequently many Markham residents choose to travel by car instead of public transportation. The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is a public transport authority that operates buses, streetcars, subways, and rapid transit lines in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Don Mills Road is a north-south route in Central Toronto. ... Birchmount Road is a north-south road in Scarborough in Toronto. ... McCowan Road is a north-south street in Scarborough in the City of Toronto, and in York Region in Markham, Whitchurch-Stouffville, East Gwillimbury, and Georgina . ... Markham Road is a north-south route in Markham and Toronto. ...


GO Transit provides train services which connect Markham with downtown Toronto through the Stouffville commuter rail service, with stops at Unionville (GO Station), Centennial (GO Station) Markham (GO Station), and Mount Joy (GO Station). GO Transit (AAR reporting marks GOT), officially known as the Greater Toronto Transit Authority (GTTA), is Canadas first, and Ontarios only, interregional public transit system, established to link Toronto with the surrounding regions of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). ... Stouffville is one of the seven train lines of the GO Transit system in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. ... The Unionville GO Station is a train and bus station in the GO Transit network located in Markham, Ontario in Canada. ... The Centennial GO Station is a train and bus station in the GO Transit network located in Markham, Ontario in Canada. ... Markham (GO Station) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Mount Joy GO Station is a train and bus station in the GO Transit network located in Markham, Ontario in Canada. ...


Air transportation

Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is one of Canada's top ten airports, which caters to general aviation and business commuter traffic to Ottawa and Montreal. Operators at Buttonville include: Buttonville Municipal Airport or Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport, (IATA: YKZ, ICAO: CYKZ), is a medium-sized airport in Buttonville Ontario, Canada, within Markham and 29 km north of downtown Toronto. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: , Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001 Government  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - MPs List... This article needs cleanup. ...

  • NexJet Aviation Inc
  • Million Air
  • Executive Edge Air Charter
  • Aviation Limited
  • Canadian Flyers International

Notable people from Markham

Athletes

William Frederick Crothers (born 24 December 1940 in Markham, Ontario) is a retired Canadian track and field athlete. ... Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ... Olympic can mean: Olympic Games, an international multi-sport event: Olympic Games, the modern games held since 1896 Ancient Olympic Games, the ancient games held in Olympia, Greece between 776 BC and 393 AD Olympic (band), a Czech rock band Olympic (MTR) A MTR station in Hong Kong Olympic Airlines... The York Region District School Board is a school board in the public school system of Ontario, Canada, in York Regional Municipality. ... Brad May (Born: November 29, 1971 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a hockey left winger currently playing for the NHLs Anaheim Ducks. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... The Anaheim Ducks are a professional ice hockey team based in Anaheim, California, USA. They are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... Sean Allen Morley (born on March 6, 1971 in Oakville, Ontario) is a Canadian professional wrestler better known by his ring name, Val Venis, currently signed to World Wrestling Entertainment wrestling on the RAW brand. ... World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. ... Kenneth (Ken) Pereira (born July 12, 1973 in Unionville, Ontario) is a field hockey midfielder from Canada, who only started playing the game at sixteen. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men and women in many countries around the world. ... The Pan American Games are a multi-sport event, held every four years between competitors from all nations of the Americas. ... Tammy Sutton-Brown (Born January 27, 1978) is a Basketball player in the WNBA She finished the 2004 season ranked second in the WNBA in blocks (2. ... WNBA may also refer to WNBA-AM, a radio station in Illinois. ... Steve Anthony Stumpy Thomas (born 15 July 1963 in Stockport, Cheshire, UK) is a retired British-born Canadian ice hockey Right Winger who played 20 seasons in the National Hockey League for the Toronto Maple Leafs, Chicago Blackhawks, New York Islanders, New Jersey Devils, Anaheim Mighty Ducks and Detroit Red... “NHL” redirects here. ... Raphael Raffi Torres (b. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... Stephen Weiss {b. ... “NHL” redirects here. ... The Florida Panthers are a professional ice hockey team based in the Ft. ...

Media

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Steve Byers of Falcon Beach Falcon Beach is a current Canadian television show, filmed at Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba, Canada, produced in Canada for U.S. and Canadian markets. ... Emmanuelle Sophie Anne Chriqui (born December 10, 1977) is a Jewish-Canadian actress with a moderate list of acting credits on both television and the big screen. ... Entourage is an Emmy Award winning HBO original series created by Doug Ellin that chronicles the rise of Vincent Chase—a young A-list movie star—and his childhood friends from Queens, New York City as they navigate the unfamiliar terrain of Hollywood, California. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Anakin Skywalker is the central character in the Star Wars universe. ... Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... The cast of the second season of Laguna Beach This is a list of characters and plot summary of the MTV television show Laguna Beach: The Real Orange County. ...

Musicians

Peroffs appearance in How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days Justin Peter Papadimitriou (born October 13, 1977 in Markham Ontario), stage name Justin Peroff, is best known as the drummer for the Toronto based indie rock collective Broken Social Scene. ... Broken Social Scene is a Canadian indie rock supergroup formed in 1999 in Toronto, Ontario. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Bavaria, Germany, with a population of almost 20,000. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Pearland is a city located along the Gulf Coast region in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston-Sugar Land-Baytown metropolitan area and is partially in Brazoria County, partially in Fort Bend County, and partially in Harris County. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...

References and footnotes

  1. ^ a b Community highlights for Markham. 2006 Community Profiles. Statistics Canada (2007-03-13). Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
  2. ^ Economic & Development Review Mid-Year 2005 (PDF). York Regional Municipality, Ontario. Retrieved on 2006-11-07.
  3. ^ McIsaac, Elizabeth. Immigrants in Canadian Cities: 2001 census − What do the data tell us? (PDF). Policy Options. Mayfield Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  4. ^ [1]

Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Ontarios Rising Star Area: 1,761. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

York Region, Ontario Portal
Whitchurch-Stouffville, Richmond Hill
Vaughan, Richmond Hill

North
West  Markham   East
South Image File history File links Portal. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... York Regional Municipality, also called York Municipality or York Region, is a municipality in south-central Ontario, between Lake Simcoe and Toronto. ... Motto: Youre in Good Company This map shows the location of Aurora, in relation to York Region. ... East Gwillimbury, is a town on the Holland River in the Regional Municipality of York. ... Georgina and other communities on Lake Simcoe, Ontario Georgina, town in south-central Ontario, in the Regional Municipality of York in the Greater Toronto Area on Lake Simcoe. ... King (2001 population 18,533)[1] is a township in York Region north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Map showing Newmarkets location in York Region Newmarket is a town located approximately 45 km north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Motto: En la rose, je fleuris (French for Like the rose, I flourish) Map showing Richmond Hills location in York Region Country Canada Province Ontario Region York Region Incorporated 1873 Government  - Mayor Dave Barrow  - Governing Body Richmond Hill Town Council  - MPs Bryon Wilfert (Richmond Hill) Population (2006)[1]  - City... Motto: The City above Toronto Vaughans location in York Region. ... Whitchurch-Stouffville, town in south-central Ontario, in the Regional Municipality of York in the Greater Toronto Area. ... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 65 KB)Description: Illustration for Armillary sphere Source: Scanned by me (looxix) from the Encyclopédie. ... Whitchurch-Stouffville, town in south-central Ontario, in the Regional Municipality of York in the Greater Toronto Area. ... Motto: En la rose, je fleuris (French for Like the rose, I flourish) Map showing Richmond Hills location in York Region Country Canada Province Ontario Region York Region Incorporated 1873 Government  - Mayor Dave Barrow  - Governing Body Richmond Hill Town Council  - MPs Bryon Wilfert (Richmond Hill) Population (2006)[1]  - City... Download high resolution version (900x1200, 65 KB)Description: Illustration for Armillary sphere Source: Scanned by me (looxix) from the Encyclopédie. ... Motto: The City above Toronto Vaughans location in York Region. ... Motto: En la rose, je fleuris (French for Like the rose, I flourish) Map showing Richmond Hills location in York Region Country Canada Province Ontario Region York Region Incorporated 1873 Government  - Mayor Dave Barrow  - Governing Body Richmond Hill Town Council  - MPs Bryon Wilfert (Richmond Hill) Population (2006)[1]  - City... Image File history File links North. ... Image File history File links West. ... Image File history File links East. ... Image File history File links South. ...

Pickering, Uxbridge
Toronto


Pickering is a city located immediately east of Toronto in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Uxbridge, township in south-central Ontario, in the Regional Municipality of Durham in the Greater Toronto Area. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ...

Communities of Markham         

Angus Glen | Armadale | Berczy Village | Box Grove | Brown's Corners | Buttonville | Cachet | Cashel | Cathedraltown | Cedar Grove | Cornell | Dickson Hill | German Mills | Greensborough | Hagerman's Corners | Langstaff | Legacy | Markham | Markham Village | Milliken | Mount Joy | Quantztown | Rouge Fairways | Sherwood - Amber Glen | Thornhill | Underwood | Unionville | Victoria Square | Vinegar Hill | Wismer Common
Angus Glen (2006 Population 2,596)[1] is a community in the north part of the Town of Markham and is part of Unionville, Ontario. ... Armadale, Ontario is a former rural postal office that overlaps both Markham, Ontario and Scarborough, Ontario. ... Box Grove, Ontario is a community in Markham, Ontario and undergoing a transformation from agricultural to residential use. ... Browns Corner the name of two communities in the Greater Toronto Area. ... Buttonville is a suburban community that is located 9 km west of Markham, 29 km NE of Toronto, south of Lake Simcoe and 9 km SE of Richmond Hill. ... Markham is a town in York Region, directly north of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Cashel, Ontario is a community under development in Markham, Ontario. ... Cedar Grove, Ontario is a community under development in Markham, Ontario. ... Cornell is a new community being developed in northeast Markham, Ontario and bounded by Highway 407, 16th Avenue, Ninth Line and Markham Road. ... Dickson Hill or Dicksons Hill is a small community in northeast Markham, Ontario and is locate near Highway 48 and 19th Avenue. ... German Mills is a community within the Town of Markham, Ontario, Canada. ... Hagermans Corners, Ontario is a community in Milliken, Ontario and likely part of Unionville, Ontario. ... Langstaff, Ontario is a residential community in Markham, Ontario. ... Milliken is a community shared by Scarborough, Ontario and Markham, Ontario. ... Mount Joy is a community located in north part of Markham, Ontario near Highway 48 and 16th Avenue and is likely part of the former Village of Markham. ... Quantzwtown, Ontario is located in north part of Markham, Ontario near McCowan Road and 16th Avenue. ... Thornhill (2006 population 106,394) is a community in Ontario, Canada, directly north of Toronto. ... Underwood, Ontario is a small community in Markham, Ontario and located at the corner of Birchmount Road and Steeles Avenue. ... Unionville is a suburban community that is located 4 km west of Markham, 33 km NE of Toronto, south of Lake Simcoe and 13 km SE of Richmond Hill. ... Victoria Square, Ontario is one of the newer residential communities in Markham, Ontario. ... Vinegar Hill is a small community in Markham, Ontario and located along Highway 48 and Highway 407 (Ontario). ...

Communities in other York Region municipalities: King • Markham • Richmond Hill • Vaughan • Whitchurch-Stouffville

  Results from FactBites:
 
Markham, Ontario - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1700 words)
Markham was first surveyed as a township in 1793 by William Berczy (Johann Albrecht Ulrich Moll 1744-1813), first settled in 1794 and incorporated as a town in 1972.
Markham is bounded by 5 other municipalities: To the west, the town is bounded by Vaughan (boundary is at Yonge Street between Steeles Avenue and Highway 7), Richmond Hill (boundary is at Highway 7 from Yonge Street to Highway 404 and at Highway 404 from Highway 7 to somewhere between 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road.
The Markham Town Council consists of the Mayor, four Regional Councillors and eight Ward Councillors each representing one of the town's eight wards (The current Mayor of Markham is Donald Cousens, former PC MPP for Markham and Presbyterian church minister).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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