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Encyclopedia > Marketing ethics
Marketing
Key concepts

Product / Price / Promotion
Placement / Service / Retail
Market research
Marketing strategy
Marketing management
Market dominance
Next big thing redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Scale model of a Wheaties cereal box at a pep rally Promotion is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Distribution is one of the 4 aspects of marketing. ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... Drawing of a self-service store. ... Market research is the process of systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about customers, competitors and the market. ... A marketing strategy[1] [2] is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Marketing management is a business discipline focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firms marketing resources and activities. ... Market dominance is a measure of the strength of a brand, product, service, or firm, relative to competitive offerings. ...

Promotional content

Advertising / Branding
Direct marketing / Personal Sales
Product placement / Public relations
Publicity / Sales promotion
Underwriting // Advert redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... Sales are the activities involved in providing products or services in return for money or other compensation. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Product placement advertisements are promotional ads placed by marketers using real commercial products and services in media, where the presence of a particular brand is the result of an economic exchange. ... // Dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix. ... An underwriting spot is an announcement made on public broadcasting outlets, especially in the United States, in exchange for funding. ...

Promotional media

Printing / Publication / Broadcasting
Out-of-home / Internet marketing
Point of sale / Novelty items
Digital marketing / In-game
Word of mouth
For other uses, see Print. ... Look up publication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... Out-of-home advertising (also referred to as OOH) is essentially all type of advertising that reaches the consumer while he or she is outside the home. ... Wikibooks [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject: Marketing Internet marketing, also referred to as online marketing or Emarketing, is the marketing of products or services over the Internet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Promotional items or promotional products refers to articles of merchandise that are used in marketing and communication programs. ... Digital Marketing refers to the practice of marketing services, products and other items using digital tools and techniques that have appeared relatively recently since the rise of the Internet as a mainstream communications platform. ... In-game advertising (IGA) refers to the use of computer and video games as a medium in which to deliver advertising. ... Word-of-mouth marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities that companies undertake to generate personal recommendations as well as referrals for brand names, products and services. ...

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Ethics
Theoretical

Meta-ethics
Normative · Descriptive
Consequentialism
Deontology
Virtue ethics
Ethics of care
Good and evil · Morality Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... In philosophy, meta-ethics or analytic ethics [1] is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, and ethical statements, attitudes, and judgments. ... Normative ethics is the branch of the philosophical study of ethics concerned with classifying actions as right and wrong, as opposed to descriptive ethics. ... Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of peoples beliefs about morality. ... Consequentialism refers to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of a particular action form the basis for any valid moral judgment about that action. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ethics of care movement is a movement in twentieth century normative ethical theory that is largely inspired by the work of psychologist Carol Gilligan. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ...

Applied

Bioethics · Medical
Engineering · Environmental
Human rights · Animal rights
Legal · Media
Business · Marketing
Religion · War
Applied ethics takes a theory of ethics, such as utilitarianism, social contract theory, or deontology, and applies its major principles to a particular set of circumstances and practices. ... Bioethics is the ethics of biological science and medicine. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... Engineering ethics is the field of ethics describing the obligations of those who are professional engineers to their clients or employers, and their obligations to society as a whole. ... Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers the ethical relationship between human beings and the natural environment. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Animal liberation redirects here. ... Legal ethics refers to an ethical code governing those in the practice of law. ... Business ethics is a form of the art of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ... Just War theory is a doctrine of military ethics studied by moral theologians, ethicists and international policy makers which holds that a conflict can and ought to meet the criteria of philosophical, religious or political justice, provided it follows certain conditions. ...

Core issues

Justice · Value
Right · Duty · Virtue
Equality · Freedom · Trust
Free will · Consent
Moral responsibility This article is about the concept of justice. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Universalism (disambiguation). ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... For other uses, see Trust. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... Almanac · Categories · Glossaries · Lists · Overviews · Portals · Questions · Site news · Index Art | Culture | Geography | Health | History | Mathematics | People | Philosophy | Science | Society | Technology Wikipedia is an encyclopedia written by its users in over 200 languages worldwide. ...

Key thinkers

Confucius · Mencius
Aristotle · Aquinas
Hume · Kant
Bentham · Mill
Kierkegaard · Nietzsche
Hare · Rawls  · Nozick Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Mencius (Romanization; 孟子, pinyin: Mèng Zǐ; Wade-Giles: Meng Tzu; most accepted dates: 372 – 289 BCE; other possible dates: 385 – 303/302 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher who was arguably the most famous Confucian after Confucius himself. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aquinas redirects here. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... R.M. Hare Richard Mervyn Hare (March 21, 1919 – January 29, 2002) was an English moral philosopher, who held the post of Whites Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford from 1966 until 1983. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ...

Lists

List of ethics topics
List of ethicists To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... List of ethicists including religious or political figures recognized by those outside their tradition as having made major contributions to ideas about ethics, or raised major controversies by taking strong positions on previously unexplored problems. ...

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Marketing ethics is the area of applied ethics which deals with the moral principles behind the operation and regulation of marketing. Some areas of marketing ethics (ethics of advertising and promotion) overlap with media ethics. Applied ethics takes a theory of ethics, such as utilitarianism, social contract theory, or deontology, and applies its major principles to a particular set of circumstances and practices. ... Next big thing redirects here. ... // Advert redirects here. ... Promotion may mean: Promotion (chess), a term used in the game of chess Promotion (marketing), a marketing term Promotion (rank), an increase in position in a hierarchy Promotion (academic), German academic degree that is roughly equivalent to the Ph. ... Media ethics is that universe of ethics dealing with the particular ethical principles and standards of media, worldwide. ...

Contents

Fundamental issues in marketing ethics

Frameworks of analysis for marketing ethics

Possible frameworks:

  • Value-orientated framework, analyzing ethical problems on the basis of the values which they infringe (e.g. honesty, autonomy, privacy, transparency). An example of such an approach is the AMA Statement of Ethics.[1]
  • Stakeholder-orientated framework, analysing ethical problems on the basis of whom they affect (e.g. consumers, competitors, society as a whole).
  • Process-orientated framework, analysing ethical problems in terms of the categories used by marketing specialists (e.g. research, price, promotion, placement).

None of these frameworks allow, by themselves, a convenient and complete categorization of the great variety of issues in marketing ethics. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Honest redirects here, For other uses, see Honesty (disambiguation) Look up honesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... In economics, a market is transparent if much is known by many about: what products and/or services are available at what price and where. ...


Power-based analysis

Contrary to popular impressions, not all marketing is adversarial, and not all marketing is stacked in favour of the marketer. In marketing, the relationship between producer/consumer or buyer/seller can be adversarial or cooperative. For an example of cooperative marketing, see relationship marketing. If the marketing situation is adversarial, another dimension of difference emerges, describing the power balance between producer/consumer or buyer/seller. Power may be concentrated with the producer (caveat emptor), but factors such as over-supply or legislation can shift the power towards the consumer (caveat vendor). Identifying where the power in the relationship lies and whether the power balance is relevant at all are important to understanding the background to an ethical dilemma in marketing ethics.[2] Relationship marketing is a form of marketing that evolved from direct response marketing in the 1960s and emerged in the 1980s, in which emphasis is placed on building longer term relationships with customers rather than on individual transactions. ...


Is marketing inherently evil?

A popularist anti-marketing stance commonly discussed on the blogosphere[3] and popular literature[4] is that any kind of marketing is inherently evil. The position is based on the argument that marketing necessarily commits at least one of three wrongs:

  • Damaging personal autonomy. The victim of marketing in this case is the intended buyer whose right to self-determination is infringed.
  • Causing harm to competitors. Excessively fierce competition and unethical marketing tactics are especially associated with saturated markets.[5]
  • Manipulating social values. The victim in this case is society as a whole, or the environment as well. The argument is that marketing promotes consumerism and waste. See also: affluenza, ethical consumerism, anti-consumerism.

Look up autonomy, autonomous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In economics, market saturation is a term used to describe a situation in which a product has become diffused (distributed) within a market; the actual level of saturation can depend on consumer purchasing power; as well as competition, prices, and technology. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... Affluenza is a term used by critics of consumerism. ... Ethical consumerism is buying things that are made ethically. ... It has been suggested that Affluenza be merged into this article or section. ...

Specific issues in marketing ethics

Market research

Ethical danger points in market research include:

Stereotyping occurs because any analysis of real populations needs to make approximations and place individuals into groups. However if conducted irresponsibly, stereotyping can lead to a variety of ethical undesirable results. In the AMA Statement of Ethics, stereotyping is countered by the obligation to show respect ("acknowledge the basic human dignity of all stakeholders").[6] Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... For the term used in Computing, see Stereotype (computing). ... The American Marketing Association is a professional association for marketers. ...


Market audience

Ethical danger points include:

  • Targeting the vulnerable (e.g. children, the elderly).
  • Excluding potential customers from the market: selective marketing is used to discourage demand from undesirable market sectors or disenfranchise them altogether.

Examples of unethical market exclusion[7] or selective marketing are past industry attitudes to the gay, ethnic minority and obese ("plus-size") markets. Contrary to the popular myth that ethics and profits do not mix, the tapping of these markets has proved highly profitable. For example, 20% of US clothing sales are now plus-size.[8] Another example is the selective marketing of health care, so that unprofitable sectors (i.e. the elderly) will not attempt to take benefits to which they are entitled.[9] A further example of market exclusion is the pharmaceutical industry's exclusion of developing countries from AIDS drugs.[10] Plus-size clothing is womens clothing, sizes 14W and up. ...


Examples of marketing which unethically targets the elderly include: living trusts, time share fraud, mass marketing fraud[11] and others.[12] The elderly hold a disproportionate amount of the world's wealth and are therefore the target of financial exploitation.[13] A living trust (inter vivos trust) is a trust created during a persons lifetime. ... A vacation timeshare is a form of vacation property. ...


In the case of children, the main products are unhealthy food, fashionware and entertainment goods. Children are a lucrative market: "...children 12 and under spend more than $11 billion of their own money and influence family spending decisions worth another $165 billion"[14], but are not capable of resisting or understanding marketing tactics at younger ages ("children don't understand persuasive intent until they are eight or nine years old"[15]). At older ages competitive feelings towards other children are stronger than financial sense. The practice of extending children's marketing from television to the schoolground is also controversial (see marketing in schools). The following is a select list of online articles: An example of a schools corporate identity. ...

  • Sharon Beder, Marketing to Children (University of Wollongong, 1998).
  • Miriam H. Zoll, Psychologists Challenge Ethics Of Marketing To Children (American News Service, 2000)
  • Donnell Alexander and Aliza Dichter, Ads And Kids: How Young Is Too Young?
  • Rebecca Clay, Advertising to children: Is it ethical? (Monitor on Psychology, Volume 31, No. 8 Sept. 2000)
  • Media Awareness Network, How marketers target kids

Other vulnerable audiences include emerging markets in developing countries, where the public may not be sufficiently aware of skilled marketing ploys transferred from developed countries, and where, conversely, marketers may not be aware how excessively powerful their tactics may be. See Nestle infant milk formula scandal. Another vulnerable group are mentally unstable consumers.[16] The definition of vulnerability is also problematic: for example, when should endebtedness be seen as a vulnerability and when should "cheap" loan providers be seen as loan sharks, unethically exploiting the economically disadvantaged? Image used since the 1990s for the boycott The Nestlé boycott is a boycott launched on July 4, 1977 in the United States against the Swiss based Nestlé corporation. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A loan shark is a person or body that offers illegal unsecured loans at high interest rates to individuals, often backed by blackmail or threats of violence. ...


Pricing ethics

List of unethical pricing practices.

Price fixing is an agreement between business competitors to sell the same product or service at the same price. ... Price Skimming Price skimming is a pricing strategy in which a marketer sets a relatively high price for a product or service at first, then lowers the price over time. ... Price discrimination exists when sales of identical goods or services are transacted at different prices from the same provider. ... Most firms use a fixed price policy. ... Predatory pricing is the practice of a dominant firm selling a product at a loss in order to drive some or all competitors out of the market, or create a barrier to entry into the market for potential new competitors. ... Supra competitive pricing is pricing above what can be sustained in a competitive market. ... Price war is a term used in business to indicate a state of intense competitive rivalry accompanied by a multi-lateral series of price reductions. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... In economics, dumping can refer to any kind of predatory pricing. ...

Ethics in advertising and promotion

Content

Ethical pitfalls in advertising and promotional content include:

  • Issues over truth and honesty. In the 1940's and 1950's, tobacco used to be advertised as promoting health.[17] Today an advertiser who fails to tell the truth not only offends against morality but also against the law. However the law permits "puffery" (a legal term).[18] The difference between mere puffery and fraud is a slippery slope: "The problem... is the slippery slope by which variations on puffery can descend fairly quickly to lies."[19] See main article: false advertising.
  • Issues with violence, sex and profanity. Sexual innuendo is a mainstay of advertising content (see sex in advertising), and yet is also regarded as a form of sexual harassment.[20] Violence is an issue especially for children's advertising and advertising likely to be seen by children.
  • Taste and controversy. The advertising of certain products may strongly offend some people while being in the interests of others. Examples include: feminine hygiene products, hemorrhoid and constipation medication.[21] The advertising of condoms has become acceptable in the interests of AIDS-prevention, but are nevertheless seen by some as promoting promiscuity. Some companies have actually marketed themselves on the basis of controversial advertising - see Benetton. Sony has also frequently attracted criticism for unethical content (portrayals of Jesus which enfuriated religious groups; racial innuendo in marketing black and white versions of its PSP product; graffiti adverts in major US cities).[22]
  • Negative advertising techniques, such as attack ads. In negative advertising, the advertiser highlights the disadvantages of competitor products rather than the advantages of their own. The methods are most familiar from the political sphere: see negative campaigning.

Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Look up Puffery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Puffery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In debate or rhetoric, the slippery slope is an argument for the likelihood of one event or trend given another. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Innuendo can refer to: For Innuendo as a figure of speech please see Double entendre. ... Sex in advertising is the use of sexual attraction as a tool of persuasion to draw interest to a particular product, for purpose of sale, generally using attractive models. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ... Feminine hygiene is a general term used to describe products used by women during menstruation, vaginal discharge, and other bodily functions related to the vulva. ... Hemorrhoids (AmE), haemorrhoids (BrE), emerods, or piles are varicosities or swelling and inflammation of veins in the rectum and anus. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Promiscuous redirects here. ... Benetton Group S.p. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... An attack ad in election terms is an advertisement whose message is meant as an attack against another candidate or political party. ... Political campaign Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Negative campaigning is having too much doodoo in your underpants. ...

Delivery channels

  • Direct marketing is the most controversial of advertising channels, particularly when approaches are unsolicited. TV commercials and direct mail are common examples. Electronic spam and telemarketing push the borders of ethics and legality more strongly.
  • Shills and astroturfers are examples of ways for delivering a marketing message under the guise of independent product reviews and endorsements, or creating supposedly independent watchdog or review organisations. For example, fake reviews can be published on Amazon.[23] Shills are primarily for message-delivery, but they can also be used to drive up prices in auctions, such as Ebay auctions.[24]

Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Direct marketing is a discipline within marketing that involves contacting individual customers (business-to-business or consumer) directly and obtaining their responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships. ... This article is about electronic spam. ... Telemarketing office Telemarketing is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson uses the telephone to solicit prospective customers to buy products or services. ... A shill is an associate of a person selling goods or services who pretends no association to the seller and assumes the air of an enthusiastic customer. ... For the artificial grass, see AstroTurf. ... This article is about the online auction center. ...

The use of ethics as a marketing tactic

Business ethics has been an increasing concern among larger companies, at least since the 1990's. Major corporations increasingly fear the damage to their image associated with press revelations of unethical practices. Marketers have been among the fastest to perceive the market's preference for ethical companies, often moving faster to take advantage of this shift in consumer taste. This results in the expropriation of ethics itself as a selling point or a component of a corporate image.

  • The Body Shop is an example of a company which marketed itself and its entire product range solely on an ethical message. "The Body Shop’s only real product is honesty..." (Jon Entine in a 1996 ethics audit of the company).[25] However the story of the Body Shop ended with increasing criticism of a gap between its morals and its practices.[26]
  • Greenwash is an example of a strategy used to make a company appear ethical when its unethical practices continue.
  • Liberation marketing is another strategy whereby a product can masquerade behind an image that appeals to a range of values, including ethical values related to lifestyle and anti-consumerism.[27]

"Liberation marketing takes the old mass culture critique — consumerism as conformity — fully into account, acknowledges it, addresses it, and solves it. Liberation marketing imagines consumers breaking free from the old enforcers of order, tearing loose from the shackles with which capitalism has bound us, escaping the routine of bureaucracy and hierarchy, getting in touch with our true selves, and finally, finding authenticity, that holiest of consumer grails." (Thomas Frank)[28] The Body Shop International, a British based international retailer of body, bath, skin care and make-up products aimed primarily at women, was founded from a single storefront in 1976 by Anita Roddick and grew rapidly in the 1980s and 1990s. ... Greenwash (a portmanteau of green and whitewash) is a term that is used to describe the actions of a company, government, or other organization which advertises positive environmental practices while acting in the opposite way. ... Thomas Frank Thomas Frank (born 1965) is an American author who writes about what he calls cultural politics. He is the founder and editor of The Baffler and the author of several books, most recently Whats the Matter with Kansas?. Other writings include essays for Harpers Magazine, Le...

Marketing strategy

The main theoretical issue here is the debate between free markets and regulated markets. In a truly free market, any participant can make or change the rules. However when new rules are invented which shift power too suddenly or too far, other participants may respond with accusations of unethical behaviour, rather than modifying their own behaviour to suit (which they might not be able to anyway). Most markets are not fully free: the real debate is as to the appropriate extent of regulation. A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... This box:  • • A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ...


Case: California electricity crisis, which demonstrates how constant innovation of new marketing strategies by companies such as Enron outwitted the regulatory bodies and caused substantial harm to consumers and competitors. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western Energy Crisis) of 2000 and 2001 resulted from the gaming of a partially deregulated California energy system by energy companies such as Enron and Reliant Energy. ... Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation) (former NYSE ticker symbol: ENE) was an American energy company based in Houston, Texas. ...


A list of known unethical or controversial marketing strategies:

Controversial marketing strategies associated with the internet: A bait and switch is a form of fraud in which the fraudster lures in customers by advertising a good at an unprofitably low price, then reveals to potential customers that the advertised good is not available but that a substitute good is. ... The unsustainable geometric progression of a classic pyramid scheme A pyramid scheme is a non-sustainable business model that involves the exchange of money primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, usually without any product or service being delivered. ... Planned obsolescence (also built-in obsolescence (UK)) is the decision on the part of a manufacturer to produce a consumer product that will become obsolete and/or non-functional in a defined time frame. ... In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in, customer lock-in, lock-in is where a customer is dependent on a vendor for products and services and cannot move to another vendor without substantial switching costs, real and/or perceived. ... Vendor lock-out occurs when a software vendor uses proprietary formats, lack of configurability or other means to prevent a user from using the vendors product in conjunction with products from other vendors. ... Viral marketing and viral advertising refer to marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to produce increases in brand awareness, through self-replicating viral processes, analogous to the spread of pathological and computer viruses. ... Guerrilla marketing, as described by J. Levinson in his popular 1984 book Guerrilla Marketing, is an unconventional way of performing marketing activities (primarily promotion) on a very low budget. ... Anti-competitive practices are business or government practices that prevent and/or reduce competition in a market. ...

Search engine optimization (SEO) is a set of methodologies aimed at improving the visibility of a website in search engine listings. ... Spamdexing or search engine spamming is the practice of deliberately creating web pages which will be indexed by search engines in order to increase the chance of a website or page being placed close to the beginning of search engine results, or to influence the category to which the page... Microsoft, like many other companies in their heyday, has publicly stated that it aims to embrace and extend popular standards and existing work. ... A large number of toolbars, some added by spyware, overwhelm an Internet Explorer session. ... This article is about advertising-supported software. ...

Further issues in marketing ethics

Marketing ethics overlaps with environmental ethics in respect of waste problems associated with the packaging of products.[29]


Some, such as members of the advocacy group No Free Lunch, have argued that marketing by pharmaceutical companies is negatively impacting physicians' prescribing practices, influencing them to prescribe the marketed drugs rather than others which may be cheaper or better for the patient.[30] This article is about the group. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ...


Regulation and enforcement

Marketing ethics and marketing law are related subjects. Relevant areas of law include consumer law which protects consumers and antitrust law which protects competitors - in both cases, against unethical marketing practices. Regulation extends beyond the law to lobbies, watchdog bodies and self-regulatory industry bodies. Consumer protection is government regulation to protect the interests of consumers, for example by requiring businesses to disclose detailed information about products, particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. ... Consumer protection is government regulation to protect the interests of consumers, for example by requiring businesses to disclose detailed information about products, particularly in areas where safety or public health is an issue, such as food. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ...

Bold text Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. ... Consumer protection is a form of government regulation which protects the interests of consumers. ...

See also

Next big thing redirects here. ... Media ethics is that universe of ethics dealing with the particular ethical principles and standards of media, worldwide. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Consumerist redirects here. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ... Customer relationship management (CRM) is a broad term that covers concepts used by companies to manage their relationships with customers, including the capture, storage and analysis of customer, vendor, partner, and internal process information. ... Marketing warfare strategies are a type of strategies, used in business and marketing, that try to draw parallels between business and warfare, and then apply the principles of military strategy to business situations. ... See business ethics, political economy and Philosophy of business for an overview. ...

References

  1. ^ American Marketing Association Statement of Ethics (2004)
  2. ^ Lizabeth England,Marketing With A Conscience: Sales and Ethics, US Dept. of State.
  3. ^ A.J.Kandy, Is marketing evil?,King Marketing, 2004; William DeJong, Marketing Gets Unfairly Branded as Evil, Youth Today; Kathy Sierra, You ARE a marketer. Deal with it, 2005.
  4. ^ The vastness of the literature on this topic is perhaps best conveyed by D. Slaters 1999 bibliography of consumer culture with over 1500 items. W.R. Childs (Ohio State University) has posted a shorter bibliography of consumer culture.
  5. ^ Marc Faber / William Rees-Mogg, Consumerism: The Problem with Saturated Markets in Western Societies, Whiskey & Gunpowder, 2005
  6. ^ American Marketing Association Statement of Ethics
  7. ^ The term "selective marketing" is preferred. The term market exclusion is normally used in the different context of a cartel of suppliers excluding newcomers from distribution chains.
  8. ^ CBS News, Plus-Size People, Plus-Size Stuff, Nov 10, 2003
  9. ^ Mark H. Waymack, The ethics of selectively marketing the Health Maintenance Organization, Journal of Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, Issue Volume 11, Number 4 / December, 1990, Pages 301-309
  10. ^ Ruairí Brugha, Antiretroviral treatment in developing countries, BMJ 2003;326:1382-1384
  11. ^ Senior Journal, Hundreds Arrested in Mass-Marketing Fraud Targeting Senior Citizens, May 24, 2006
  12. ^ Washington State Department of Financial Institutions, Frauds That Target The Elderly, July 11, 2006 (Originally from: FDIC Consumer News)
  13. ^ US Federal Trade Commission, Consumer fraud against the elderly.
  14. ^ Tom McGee and Kevin Heubusch, `Getting Inside Kids' Heads', American Demographics, Vol. 19, No. 1 (1997), quoted in Sharon Beder, Marketing to Children, University of Wollongong, 1998.
  15. ^ ibid.
  16. ^ Deborah Josefson, Marketing of antipsychotic drugs attacked BMJ 1998;316:645
  17. ^ Chickenhead Productions, Truth in Advertising.
  18. ^ Lew McCreary, Lies, Damn Lies and Puffery: Is it OK to bend the truth if no one believes you anyway?, CMO Magazine, July 2005.
  19. ^ S.Gilman, Ethics Today Newsletter, Sept.17, 2003
  20. ^ S.J.Gould, Sexuality and ethics in advertising: A research agenda and policy guideline perspective, Journal of Advertising, Sep 2004.
  21. ^ David S. Waller, What factors make controversial advertising offensive?, ANZCA04 Conference, Sydney, July 2004
  22. ^ Vladimir Cole, Sony's fony graffiti sparks lashback, Joystiq, Dec 3, 2005
  23. ^ Richard Monson-Haefel, Amazon.com reviews are a farce, Jave.net, Nov 16, 2003.
  24. ^ Shill Bidding Exposed in E-Bay Auctions, Consume Affairs, Nov 2004.
  25. ^ Jon Entine, A social and environmental audit of the body shop, July 1996 - July 2003.
  26. ^ Nick Mathiason, Body Shop ethics bite back, The Observer, April 9, 2006.
  27. ^ Liberation Marketing and Consumer Society, KLM Inc., 2001.
  28. ^ Thomas Frank, Liberation Marketing and the Culture Trust, (date unknown).
  29. ^ Definition of marketing ethics (in German), excerpted from: Bruhn, M., Homburg, C.: Gabler Marketing Lexikon, Wiesbaden 2001.
  30. ^ Brendan I. Koerner. Dr. No Free Lunch. Mother Jones, March/April, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-10-06.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Davidson, D. Kirk (2002). The Moral Dimension of Marketing: Essays on Business Ethics. South-Western Educational. ISBN 0-87757-300-X. 
  • Murphy, Patrick E.; Gene R. Laczniak, Norman E. Bowie (2004). Ethical Marketing. Prentice Hall. ISBN ISBN 0-13-184814-3. OCLC 54805964. 

Norman E. Bowie is a professor of strategic management, and of philosophy. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

  • American Marketing Association Statement of Ethics (2004)
  • "Ethics in Marketing." Encyclopedia of Business and Finance. Mohandeep Singh. Thomson Gale, 2001. eNotes.com. 2006. 16 Oct, 2006
  • Global Advertising Lawyers Alliance, Country reports on advertising, marketing and promotion law developments (2004). Over 100 cases, mostly case reports. Offers insight into cross-cultural variations in moral values and advertising regulation.
  • Marketing Ethics Resources from the Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions, Illinois Institute of Technology.
  • Anti-Marketing
  • Direct Marketing Association, Guidelines for Ethical Business Practice (Sept.2006)
  • The Catholic Church's Handbook on Ethics in Advertising
  • Federal Trade Commission, hello FTC Guidelines on Advertising
  • Ethics of marketing overkill & its challenge for tourism
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