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Encyclopedia > Mark Twain
Samuel Langhorne Clemens

Mark Twain, 1871 photo portrait
Pseudonym: Mark Twain
Born November 30, 1835(1835-11-30)
Florida, Missouri, United States
Died April 21, 1910 (aged 74)
Redding, Connecticut
Occupation Author
Nationality American
Genres Historical fiction, non-fiction, satire, essay
Influences Artemus Ward, Charles Dickens, Thomas Paine, Alexander Macfarlane, Josh Billings
Influenced Kurt Vonnegut, Gore Vidal, Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, H. L. Mencken, Hunter S. Thompson, Hal Holbrook, Jimmy Buffett, Ron Powers, Ralph Ellison

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. Twain is most noted for his novels Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which has since been called the Great American Novel,[3] and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. He is also known for his quotations.[4][5] During his lifetime, Twain became a friend to presidents, artists, leading industrialists and European royalty. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 382 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (521 × 818 pixels, file size: 86 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Date Photographed Feb 7, 1871. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Florida is a village in Monroe County, Missouri, United States, best known as the birthplace of writer Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1835. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Redding is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about work. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Look up historical fiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... Charles Farrar Browne, (April 23, 1834 _ March 6, 1867) was a United States humorous writer, best known under his nom de plume of Artemus Ward. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Alexander MacFarlane (1851 - 1913) was a Scottish-Canadian logician, physicist, and mathematician. ... Humorist and lecturer Josh Billings Josh Billings was the pen name of humorist born Henry Wheeler Shaw (20 April 1818 - 14 October 1885). ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born October 3, 1925) (pronounced and , ) is an American author of novels, stage plays, screenplays, and essays, and the scion of a prominent political family. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... H. L. (Henry Louis) Mencken (September 12, 1880, Baltimore – January 29, 1956, Baltimore), was a journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, acerbic critic of American life and culture, and a student of the American English. ... Hunter Stockton Thompson (July 18, 1937 – February 20, 2005) was an American journalist and author. ... Harold Rowe Holbrook, Jr. ... James William Jimmy Buffett (born December 25, 1946) is a singer, songwriter, author, businessman, and recently a film producer best known for his island escapism lifestyle and music including hits such as Margaritaville (No. ... Ron Powers (born 1941) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, novelist, and non-fiction writer. ... Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... Look up Humanist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A humorist is an author who specializes in short, humorous articles or essays. ... List of satirists below - writers, cartoonists and others known for their involvement in satire - humourous social criticism. ... A lecture on linear algebra at the Helsinki University of Technology A lecture is an oral presentation intended to teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... The Great American Novel is the concept of a novel that perfectly represents the spirit of life in the United States at the time of its publication. ... The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ...


Twain enjoyed immense public popularity, and his keen wit and incisive satire earned him praise from both critics and peers. American author William Faulkner called Twain "the father of American literature."[6] William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born in Florida, Missouri, on November 30, 1835 to a Tennessee country merchant, John Marshall Clemens (August 11, 1798March 24, 1847), and Jane Lampton Clemens (June 18, 1803October 27, 1890).[7] He was the sixth of seven children. Only three of his siblings survived childhood: his brothers Orion (July 17, 1825December 11, 1897) and Henry (July 13, 1838June 21, 1858) and his sister Pamela (September 19, 1827August 31, 1904). His sister Margaret (May 31, 1830August 17, 1839) died when Twain was four years old, and his brother Benjamin (June 8, 1832May 12, 1842) died three years later. Another brother, Pleasant (18281829), died at the age of six months. [8] Florida is a village in Monroe County, Missouri, United States, best known as the birthplace of writer Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1835. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


When Twain was four, his family moved to Hannibal,[9] a port town on the Mississippi River that would serve as the inspiration for the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.[10] At that time, Missouri was a slave state in the Union, and young Twain became familiar with the institution of slavery, a theme he later explored in his writing. Hannibal is a riverfront city of 17,757 (2000 census), located in Marion and Ralls County, Missouri. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The free and slave states as of 1861, with free states in blue and slave states in red. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


In March 1847, when Twain was 11, his father died of pneumonia[11]. The following year, he became a printer's apprentice. In 1851, he began working as a typesetter and contributor of articles and humorous sketches for the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper owned by his brother, Orion. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Cincinnati. He joined the union and educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider sources of information than he would have at a conventional school[12]. At 22, Twain returned to Missouri. On a voyage to New Orleans down the Mississippi, the steamboat pilot, Horace E. Bixby, inspired Twain to pursue a career as a steamboat pilot; it was a richly rewarding occupation with wages set at $250 per month[13], equivalent to $155,000 a year today. This article is about human pneumonia. ... Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in an aesthetic form on paper or some other media. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... Union generally refers to two or more things joined into one, such as an organization of multiple people or organizations, multiple objects combined into one, and so on. ... Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning. ... Librarians and patrons in a typical larger urban public library A public library is a library which is accessible by the public and is often operated by civil servants and funded from public sources. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ...

The library of the Mark Twain House, which features hand-stenciled paneling, fireplaces from India, embossed wallpapers and an enormous hand-carved mantel that the Twains purchased in Scotland (HABS photo)
The library of the Mark Twain House, which features hand-stenciled paneling, fireplaces from India, embossed wallpapers and an enormous hand-carved mantel that the Twains purchased in Scotland (HABS photo)

Because the steamboats at the time were constructed of very dry flammable wood, no lamps were allowed, making night travel a precarious endeavor. A steamboat pilot needed a vast knowledge of the ever-changing river to be able to stop at any of the hundreds of ports and wood-lots along the river banks. Twain meticulously studied 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the Mississippi for more than two years before he received his steamboat pilot license in 1859. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him. Henry was killed on June 21, 1858, when the steamboat he was working on exploded. Twain had foreseen this death in a detailed dream a month earlier[14], which inspired his interest in parapsychology; he was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research[15]. Twain was guilt-stricken over his brother's death and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. However, he continued to work on the river and served as a river pilot until the American Civil War broke out in 1861 and traffic along the Mississippi was curtailed. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x735, 128 KB) Historic American Buildings Survey Mark Twain House File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mark Twain Mark Twain House ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x735, 128 KB) Historic American Buildings Survey Mark Twain House File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mark Twain Mark Twain House ... South view of the Mark Twain House The Mark Twain House was the home of Mark Twain (a. ... HABS photograph: First Bank of the United States, Philadelphia HABS drawing: James Madisons Montpelier HAER photograph: Tacoma Narrows Bridge HALS drawing: Hale O Pi Ilani Heiau, Maui This article is about the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), a program of the U.S. National Park Service. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for possible telepathic communication. ... The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) is a non-profit organization which started in the United Kingdom and later acquired branches in other countries. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Travels and family

Missouri was a slave state and considered by many to be part of the South, but it did not join the Confederacy. When the war began, Twain and his friends formed a Confederate militia (depicted in an 1885 short story, "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed"), which drilled for only two weeks before disbanding.[16] Twain joined his brother, Orion, who had been appointed secretary to the territorial governor of Nevada, and headed west. The free and slave states as of 1861, with free states in blue and slave states in red. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The Private History of a Campaign that Failed is one of Mark Twains sketches (1885), a short memoir of a two-week stint as a Confederate irregular in the West. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ...

1874 engraving of Twain
1874 engraving of Twain

Twain and his brother traveled for more than two weeks on a stagecoach across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, visiting the Mormon community in Salt Lake City along the way. These experiences became the basis of the book Roughing It, and provided material for The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County. Twain's journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia City, Nevada, where he became a miner.[16] Twain failed as a miner and found work at a Virginia City newspaper, the Territorial Enterprise.[17] On February 3, 1863, he signed a humorous travel account "LETTER FROM CARSON - re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson's; music" with "Mark Twain".[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Stagecoach in Switzerland A stagecoach is a type of four-wheeled enclosed passenger and/or mail coach, strongly sprung and drawn by four horses, widely used before the introduction of railway transport. ... For other uses, see Great Plains (disambiguation). ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article is about the history and use of the word Mormon. For information about the religious beliefs and culture of Mormons, see Mormonism. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Roughing It is a semi-non-fiction work written by American author Mark Twain. ... The Front page of booklet for The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County... Can A CON CON a CON? The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County is an 1865 short story by Mark Twain. ... View of Virginia City, Nevada, from a nearby hillside, 1867-68 Virginia City is a city located in Storey County, Nevada. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... The Territorial Enterprise, founded in 1858, is a newspaper currently published in Virginia City, Nevada. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Twain then traveled to San Francisco, California, where he continued as a journalist and began lecturing. He met other writers such as Bret Harte, Artemus Ward and Dan DeQuille. An assignment in Hawaii became the basis for his first lectures.[19] In 1867, a local newspaper funded a steamboat trip to the Mediterranean. During his tour of Europe and the Middle East, he wrote a popular collection of travel letters which were compiled as The Innocents Abroad in 1869. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Portrait of Bret Harte - oil painting by John Pettie (1884)[1] For the professional wrestler, see Bret Hart. ... Charles Farrar Browne, (April 23, 1834 _ March 6, 1867) was a United States humorous writer, best known under his nom de plume of Artemus Ward. ... Dan DeQuille (William Wright) William Wright (1829-1898), better known by the pen name Dan DeQuille or Dan De Quille, was an American author, journalist, and humorist. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Steamboat (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Innocents Abroad cover The Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrims Progress was published by American author Mark Twain in 1869. ...


Twain met Charles Langdon, who showed him a picture of his sister Olivia; Twain claimed to have fallen in love at first sight. They met in 1868, were engaged a year later, and married in February 1870 in Elmira, New York.[19] She came from a "wealthy but liberal family", and through her he met abolitionists, "socialists, principled atheists and activists for women’s rights and social equality", including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass and the utopian socialist William Dean Howells[20]. Olivia Langdon Clemens (November 27, 1845 - June 5, 1904) was the wife of famous American author, Samuel Langhorne Clemens (known as Mark Twain). ... Location in Chemung County in the state of New York Coordinates: , Country State County Chemung County Government  - Mayor John S. Tonello (D) Area  - City  7. ... Feminism is a diverse, competing, and often opposing collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... William Dean Howells (March 1, 1837 – May 11, 1920) was an American realist author. ...


The couple lived in Buffalo, New York from 1869 to 1871. Twain owned a stake in the Buffalo Express, and worked as an editor and writer. Their son Langdon died of diphtheria at 19 months. Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ...


In 1871[21], Twain moved his family to Hartford, Connecticut, where starting in 1873 he arranged the building of a dramatic house for them, which local admirers saved from demolition in 1927 and eventually turned into a museum focused on him. There Olivia gave birth to three daughters: Susy, Clara (c1875-1962) [22], and Jean. The couple's marriage lasted 34 years, until Olivia's death in 1904. Hartford redirects here. ... South view of the Mark Twain House The Mark Twain House was the home of Mark Twain (a. ... Jean Clemens (July 26, 1880–December 24, 1909) was the youngest of the three daughters of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name Mark Twain. ...


During his years in Hartford, Twain became friends with fellow author William Dean Howells. William Dean Howells (March 1, 1837 – May 11, 1920) was an American realist author. ...


Later life and death

Mark Twain in his gown (scarlet with grey sleeves and facings) for his DLitt degree, awarded to him by Oxford University.
Mark Twain in his gown (scarlet with grey sleeves and facings) for his DLitt degree, awarded to him by Oxford University.

Twain made a second tour of Europe, described in the 1880 book, A Tramp Abroad. His tour included a visit to London where, in the summer of 1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House. Twain wrote of Dollis Hill that he had "never seen any place that was so satisfactorily situated, with its noble trees and stretch of country, and everything that went to make life delightful, and all within a biscuit's throw of the metropolis of the world [23]." He returned to America in 1900, having earned enough to pay off his debts. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x805, 62 KB)Official portrait of Mark Twain in his DLitt (Doctor of Letters) tat, awarded by Oxford University (pre-1900s). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (580x805, 62 KB)Official portrait of Mark Twain in his DLitt (Doctor of Letters) tat, awarded by Oxford University (pre-1900s). ... A Doctor of Letters is a university academic degree. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... A Tramp Abroad was a work of non-fiction travel literature published by American author Mark Twain in 1880. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Hugh Gilzean Reid (1836-1911), was a Scottish journalist and politician. ... Dollis Hill House is an early Nineteenth-Century farmhouse located in the North London suburb of Dollis Hill. ... Dollis Hill is an area of north-west London. ...


In 1906, Twain began his autobiography in the North American Review. Oxford University awarded him an Doctorate of Literature a year later. Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... First issue of the North American Review with signature of its editor William Tudor (1779-1830). ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... A Doctor of Letters is a university academic degree. ...


Twain outlived Jean and Susy. He passed through a period of deep depression, which began in 1896 when his favorite daughter Susy died of meningitis. Olivia's death in 1904 and Jean's death on December 24, 1909, deepened his gloom.[24] In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In 1909, Twain is quoted as saying:[25]

I came in with Halley's Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don't go out with Halley's Comet. The Almighty has said, no doubt: 'Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together.'

Twain died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910 in Redding, Connecticut. Upon hearing of Twain's death, President Taft said:[26] [27] This article is about the comet. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Redding is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ...

Mark Twain gave pleasure—real intellectual enjoyment—to millions, and his works will continue to give such pleasure to millions yet to come... His humor was American, but he was nearly as much appreciated by Englishmen and people of other countries as by his own countrymen. He has made an enduring part of American literature.

Mark Twain is buried in his wife's family plot in Elmira, New York. American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... Location in Chemung County in the state of New York Coordinates: , Country State County Chemung County Government  - Mayor John S. Tonello (D) Area  - City  7. ...


Life as a writer

Career overview

Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse but evolved into a grim, almost profane chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies and murderous acts of mankind. At mid-career, with Huckleberry Finn, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative and social criticism. Twain was a master at rendering colloquial speech and helped to create and popularize a distinctive American literature built on American themes and language. Many of Mark Twain's works have been suppressed at times for various reasons. When an anonymous slim volume was published in 1880 entitled 1601: Conversation, as it was by the Social Fireside, in the Time of the Tudors., Twain was among those rumored to be the author. The issue was not settled until 1906, when Twain acknowledged his literary paternity of this scatological masterpiece. Huckleberry Finn has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word "nigger", which was a common term when the book was written. Look up Colloquialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... [Date: 1601. ... Huckleberry Finn is the protagonist of Mark Twains famous book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. ... // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ...


Early journalism and travelogues

Mark Twain’s first important work, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, was first published in the New York Saturday Press on November 18, 1865. The only reason it was published there was because his story arrived too late to be included in a book Artemus Ward was compiling featuring sketches of the wild American West. The Front page of booklet for The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County... Can A CON CON a CON? The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County is an 1865 short story by Mark Twain. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Charles Farrar Browne, (April 23, 1834 _ March 6, 1867) was a United States humorous writer, best known under his nom de plume of Artemus Ward. ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1887. ...


After this burst of popularity, Twain was commissioned by the Sacramento Union to write letters about his travel experiences for publication in the newspaper, his first of which was to ride the steamer Ajax in its maiden voyage to Hawaii, referred to at the time as the Sandwich Islands. These humorous letters proved the genesis to his work with the San Francisco Alta California newspaper, which designated him a traveling correspondent for a trip from San Francisco to New York City via the Panama isthmus. All the while Twain was writing letters meant for publishing back and forth, chronicling his experiences with his burlesque humor. On June 8, 1867, Twain set sail on the pleasure cruiser Quaker City for five months. This trip resulted in The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrims' Progress. Logo used for many decades by the daily The Sacramento Union was a newspaper founded in 1851 in Sacramento, California. ... The Sandwich Islands was the name given to Hawaii by Captain James Cook on his discovery of the islands on January 18, 1778. ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... Two Panamax running the Miraflores Locks Te Panama Canal (Spanish: ) is a major ship canal that traverses the Isthmus of Panama in Central America, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Innocents Abroad cover The Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrims Progress was published by American author Mark Twain in 1869. ...

This book is a record of a pleasure trip. If it were a record of a solemn scientific expedition it would have about it the gravity, that profundity, and that impressive incomprehensibility which are so proper to works of that kind, and withal so attractive. Yet not withstanding it is only a record of a picnic, it has a purpose, which is, to suggest to the reader how he would be likely to see Europe and the East if he looked at them with his own eyes instead of the eyes of those who traveled in those countries before him. I make small pretense of showing anyone how he ought to look at objects of interest beyond the sea – other books do that, and therefore, even if I were competent to do it, there is no need.

In 1872, Twain published a second piece of travel literature, Roughing It, as a semi-sequel to Innocents. Roughing It is a semi-autobiographical account of Twain's journey to Nevada and his subsequent life in the American West. The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that Innocents critiqued the various countries of Europe and the Middle East. Twain's next work kept Roughing It's focus on American society but focused more on the events of the day. Entitled The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, it was not a travel piece, as his previous two books had been, and it was his first attempt at writing a novel. The book is also notable because it is Twain's only collaboration; it was written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner. Roughing It is a semi-non-fiction work written by American author Mark Twain. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Charles Dudley Warner (September 12, 1829 - October 20, 1900), American essayist and novelist, was born of Puritan ancestry, in Plainfield, Massachusetts. ...


Twain's next two works drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. Old Times on the Mississippi, a series of sketches published in the Atlantic Monthly in 1875, featured Twain’s disillusionment with Romanticism. Old Times eventually became the starting point for Life on the Mississippi. Old Times on the Mississippi is a non-fiction work by Mark Twain. ... The Atlantic Monthly (also known as The Atlantic) is an American literary/cultural magazine that was founded in November 1857. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Life on the Mississippi cover Life on the Mississippi is a memoir by Mark Twain detailing his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War. ...


Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn

Twain's next major publication was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, which drew on his youth in Hannibal. The character of Tom Sawyer was modeled on Twain as a child, with traces of two schoolmates, John Briggs and Will Bowen. The book also introduced in a supporting role the character of Huckleberry Finn, based on Twain's boyhood friend Tom Blankenship. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of characters in the Tom Sawyer series#Thomas Sawyer. ...


The Prince and the Pauper, despite a storyline that is omnipresent in film and literature today, was not as well received. Pauper was Twain’s first attempt at fiction, and blame for its shortcomings are usually put on Twain having not been experienced enough in English society and the fact that it was produced after such a massive hit. In between the writing of Pauper, Twain had started Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (which he consistently had problems completing[citation needed]) and started and completed another travel book, A Tramp Abroad, which follows Twain as he travels through central and southern Europe. The Prince and the Pauper was first published in 1881 in Canada before its 1882 publication in the united states. ... // Regular Context The line of a story. ... A Tramp Abroad was a work of non-fiction travel literature published by American author Mark Twain in 1880. ...


Twain’s next major published work, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, solidified him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel. Finn was an offshoot from Tom Sawyer and proved to have a more serious tone than its predecessor. The main premise behind Huckleberry Finn is the young boy’s belief in the right thing to do even though the majority of society believes that it was wrong. The book has become required reading in many schools throughout the United States because Huck ignores the rules and mores of the age to follow what he thinks is just (the story takes place in the 1850s where slavery is present). Four hundred manuscript pages of Huckleberry Finn were written in the summer of 1876, right after the publication of Tom Sawyer. Some accounts have Twain taking seven years off after his first burst of creativity, eventually finishing the book in 1883. Other accounts have Twain working on Finn in tandem with The Prince and the Pauper and other works in 1880 and other years. The last fifth of Finn is subject to much controversy. Some say that Twain experiences—as critic Leo Marx puts it—a "failure of nerve." Ernest Hemingway once said of Huckleberry Finn: “If you read it, you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating.”[28] Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... The Great American Novel is the concept of a novel that perfectly represents the spirit of life in the United States at the time of its publication. ... Leo Marx is a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and an author known for his works in the field of American studies. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ...


Near the end of Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote Life on the Mississippi, which is said to have heavily influenced the former book.[citation needed] The work recounts Twain’s memories and new experiences after a 22-year absence from the Mississippi. The book is of note because Twain introduces the real meaning of his pseudonym. For other uses, see Alias. ...


Later writing

After his great work, Twain began turning to his business endeavors to keep them afloat and to stave off the increasing difficulties he had been having from his writing projects. Twain focused on President Ulysses S. Grant's Memoirs for his fledgling publishing company, finding time in between to write "The Private History of a Campaign That Failed" for The Century Magazine. The name of his publishing company was Charles L. Webster & Company, which he owned with Charles L. Webster, his nephew by marriage.[29] Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... are an autobiography of Ulysses S. Grant, focused mainly on the generals actions during the American Civil War. ... The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City as a successor to Scribners Monthly Magazine. ...

Twain in his old age
Twain in his old age

Twain next focused on A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, which featured him making his first big pronouncement of disappointment with politics. The tone become cynical to the point of almost being a rant against the established political system of the day (which would have been in King Arthur’s time), and eventually devolved into madness for the main character. The book was started in December 1885, then shelved a few months later until the summer of 1887, and eventually finished in the spring of 1889. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1186x1478, 202 KB) From [1], the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs collection (reference number LC-USZ62-5513), copyrighted May 1904. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1186x1478, 202 KB) From [1], the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs collection (reference number LC-USZ62-5513), copyrighted May 1904. ... A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is an 1889 novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ...


Some say[attribution needed] that this work marked the beginning of the end for Twain, as he fell into financial trouble and eschewed his humor vein. Twain had begun to furiously write articles and commentary with diminishing returns to pay the bills and keep his business intentions afloat, but it was not enough because he filed for bankruptcy in 1894. His next large scale work, The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson (also known as Those Extraordinary Twins), drew on his sense of irony, though it has been misconstrued.[citation needed] There were parallels between this work and Twain’s financial failings, notably his desire to escape his current constraints and become a different person. Puddnhead Wilson is a novel by Mark Twain. ...


Twain’s next venture was a work of straight fiction that he called Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc and dedicated to his wife. Twain had long said that this was the work of which he was most proud, despite the criticism he received for it. The book had been a dream of his for a very long time, and he eventually thought it to be the work to save his publishing company. His financial adviser, Henry Huttleston Rogers, squashed that idea and got Twain out of that business altogether, but the book was published nonetheless. Mark Twains work on Joan of Arc is titled in full Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, by the Sieur Louis de Conte who is identified further as Joans page and secretary. ... Henry Huttleston Rogers (January 29, 1840 – May 19, 1909) was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist. ...


Twain’s wife died in 1904, and after an appropriate time Twain allowed himself to publish some works that his wife, a de facto editor and censor throughout his life, had looked down upon. Of these works, The Mysterious Stranger, which places the presence of Satan, also known as “No. 44,” in various situations where the moral sense of humankind is absent, is perhaps the best known. This particular work was not published in Twain’s lifetime. There were three versions found in his manuscripts made between 1897 and 1905: the Hannibal version, the Eseldorf version, and the Print Shop version. Confusion between the versions led to an extensive publication of a jumbled version, and only recently have the original versions as Twain wrote them become available. De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Mysterious Stranger is an unfinished work written by the American author Mark Twain that was worked on periodically from roughly 1890 up until his death in 1910. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...


Twain’s last work was his autobiography, which he dictated and thought would be most entertaining if he went off on whims and tangents in non-sequential order. Some archivists and compilers had a problem with this and rearranged the biography into a more conventional form, thereby eliminating some of Twain’s humor and the flow of the book. Published by Harper & Brothers Publishers, Mark Twain’s Autobiography was a two volume set and was purposely published over ten years after the authors death in order to protect the “guilty. ...


Finance, science, and inventions

Twain made a substantial amount of money through his writing, but he spent much of it in bad investments, mostly in new inventions. He was fascinated with science and scientific inquiry. He developed a close and lasting friendship with Nikola Tesla, and the two spent much time together in Tesla's laboratory. His book A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court features a time traveler from contemporary America, using his knowledge of science to introduce modern technology to Arthurian England. Twain inventions included a bed clamp for infants, a new type of steam engine, and the kaolatype (or collotype, a machine designed to engrave printing plates). The Paige typesetting machine was a beautifully engineered mechanical marvel that amazed viewers when it worked, but was prone to breakdowns; before it could be commercially perfected it was made obsolete by the Linotype. He patented an improvement in adjustable and detachable straps for garments. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Collotype is a dichromate- based process in photography developed for large volume mechanical printing before the widespread use of cheaper offset lithography. ... Linotype (Deutsches Museum) In the printing industry, the Linotype machine, pronounced Line-O-Type, []) uses a keyboard consisting of 91 keys to create an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line of type. ... A man wearing classic suspenders, which hook directly into the trousers instead of using clips. ...

Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894

Twain also lost money through his publishing house, which enjoyed initial success selling the memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant but went bust soon after, losing money on an ill-advised idea that the general public would be interested in a Life of the Pope. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ... 1. ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Twain's writings and lectures combined with the help of a new friend enabled him to recover financially.[30] In 1893, he began a 15-year-long friendship with financier Henry Huttleston Rogers, a principal of Standard Oil. Rogers first made Twain file for bankruptcy. Then Rogers had Twain transfer the copyrights on his written works to his wife, Olivia, to prevent creditors from gaining possession of them. Finally Rogers took absolute charge of Twain's money until all the creditors were paid. Twain then embarked on an around-the-world lecture tour to pay off his creditors in full, despite the fact that he was no longer under any legal obligation to do so.[31] Henry Huttleston Rogers (January 29, 1840 – May 19, 1909) was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist. ... Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ...


Friendship with Henry H. Rogers

While Twain credited Henry Rogers, a Standard Oil executive, with saving him from financial ruin, their close friendship in their later years was mutually beneficial. Clemens lost three of his four children and his beloved wife, and the Rogers family increasingly became a surrogate family for him. He became a frequent guest at their townhouse in New York City, their 48-room summer home in Fairhaven, Massachusetts, and aboard their steam yacht, the Kanawha. Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Fairhaven is a town in Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Kanawha, built in 1899, was the luxury steam yacht of Henry Huttleston Rogers, builder of the coal-hauling Virginian Railway from the Kanawha River in West Virginia to coal piers on Hampton Roads near Norfolk, Virginia. ...

A late life friendship for each, Mark Twain and Henry Huttleston Rogers in 1908.
A late life friendship for each, Mark Twain and Henry Huttleston Rogers in 1908.

The two men introduced each other to their acquaintances. Twain was an admirer of the remarkable deafblind girl, Helen Keller. He first met her and Anne Sullivan at a party in the home of Laurence Hutton in New York City in the winter of 1894. Twain introduced them to Rogers, who, with his wife, paid for Keller's education at Radcliffe College. It was Twain who is credited with labeling Sullivan, Keller's governess and companion, a "miracle worker." His choice of words later became inspiration for the title of William Gibson's play and film adaptation, The Miracle Worker. Twain also introduced Rogers to journalist Ida M. Tarbell, who interviewed the robber baron for a muckraking expose that led indirectly to the break-up of the Standard Oil Trust. On cruises aboard the Kanawha, Twain and Rogers were joined at frequent intervals by Booker T. Washington, the famed former slave who had become a leading educator. Image File history File links Twain_and_rogers_1908. ... Image File history File links Twain_and_rogers_1908. ... Henry Huttleston Rogers (January 29, 1840 – May 19, 1909) was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist. ... Deafblindness (or deaf-blindness) is the condition of a person who is both deaf and blind. ... Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. ... Anne Sullivan in 1887 Anne Sullivan, Annie Sullivan, or Johanna Mansfield Sullivan Macy, (April 14, 1866 – October 20, 1936) was a teacher best known as the tutor of Helen Keller. ... Laurence Hutton (1843-1904) was an American essayist and critic, born in New York City and educated privately there. ... Radcliffe College was a liberal arts womens college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, closely associated with Harvard University. ... A governess is a female employee from outside of the family who teaches children within the family circle. ... A ladys companion was a woman of genteel birth who acted as a paid companion for women of rank or wealth. ... William Gibson (1964) William Gibson (born 13 November 1914) is a Tony Award-winning American playwright. ... The Miracle Worker is a cycle of 20th-century dramatic works ultimately derived from Helen Kellers autobiography, The Story of My Life. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Ida M. Tarbell, 1904 Ida Minerva Tarbell (November 5, 1857–January 6, 1944) was a teacher, an author and journalist. ... Typical toll tower on Rhine in Bingen The term robber baron (German: ) dates back to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, originally referring to certain feudal lords of land through which the Rhine River in Europe flowed. ... Bold text McClures Magazine (cover, Jan, 1901) published many early muckraker articles. ... Standard Oil was an oil refining organization founded by John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and partners beginning in 1863. ... Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ...


While the two famous old men were widely regarded as drinking and poker buddies, they also exchanged letters when apart, and this was often since each traveled a great deal. Unlike Rogers' personal files, which have never become public, these insightful letters were published[32]. The written exchanges between the two men demonstrate Twain's well-known sense of humor and, more surprisingly, Rogers's sense of fun, providing a rare insight into the private side of the robber baron. John D. Rockefeller Sr. ...


In April 1907, Twain and Rogers cruised to the opening of the Jamestown Exposition in Virginia. Twain's public popularity was such that many fans took boats out to the Kanawha at anchor in hopes of getting a glimpse of him. As the gathering of boats around the yacht became a safety hazard, he finally obliged by coming on deck and waving to the crowds. The Jamestown Exposition was one of the many worlds fairs and expositions that were popular in the United States early part of the 20th century. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Because of poor weather conditions, the steam yacht was delayed for several days from venturing into the Atlantic Ocean. Rogers and some of the others in his party returned to New York by rail; Twain disliked train travel and so elected to wait and return on the Kanawha. However, reporters lost track of his whereabouts; when he failed to return to New York City as scheduled, the New York Times speculated that he might have been "lost at sea." Upon arriving safely in New York and learning of this, the humorist wrote a satirical article about the episode, offering to "...make an exhaustive investigation of this report that I have been lost at sea. If there is any foundation for the report, I will at once apprise the anxious public."[33] This bore similarities to an earlier event in 1897 when he made his famous remark "The report of my death is an exaggeration", after a reporter was sent to investigate whether he had died. (In fact it was his cousin who was seriously ill.) See List of premature obituaries. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Various notable people have had their death announced in error. ...


Later that year, Twain and Rogers's son, Henry Jr. returned to the Jamestown Exposition aboard the Kanawha. The humorist helped host Robert Fulton Day on September 23, 1907, celebrating the centennial of Fulton's invention of the steamboat. Twain, filling in for ailing former U.S. President Grover Cleveland, introduced Rear Admiral Purnell Harrington. Twain was met with a five-minute standing ovation; members of the audience cheered and waved their hats and umbrellas. Deeply touched, Twain said, "When you appeal to my head, I don't feel it; but when you appeal to my heart, I do feel it"[34]. For other persons named Robert Fulton, see Robert Fulton (disambiguation). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ...


In April 1909 the two old friends returned to Norfolk, Virginia for the banquet in honor of Rogers and his newly completed Virginian Railway. Twain was the keynote speaker in one of his last public appearances, and was widely quoted in newspapers across the country. [35] Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... The Virginian Railway (AAR reporting marks VGN) was a Class I railroad located in Virginia and West Virginia in the United States. ... A keynote in literature, music or public speaking is the principal underlying theme of a larger idea — a literary story, an individual musical piece or event. ...


A month later, Twain was en route from Connecticut to visit his friend in New York City when Rogers died suddenly on May 20, 1909. Twain arrived at Grand Central Station to be met by his daughter with the news. Stricken with grief, he uncustomarily avoided news reporters who had gathered, saying only "This is terrible...I cannot talk about it." Two days later, he served as an honorary pallbearer at the funeral in New York City. However, he declined to join the funeral party on the train ride for the interment at Fairhaven. He said "I cannot bear to travel with my friend and not converse." is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The clock in the Main Concourse © 2004 Metropolitan Transportation Authority Grand Central Terminal (often still called Grand Central Station, although technically that is the name of the nearby post office) is a train station at 15 Vanderbilt Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York, a borough of New York City, located...


Political and religious views

While his reputation as a popular author overshadows his contributions as a social critic, Twain held strong views on the political topics of his day; his friend Helen Keller had her radicalism similarly neutralised by history. Through his wife's family, Twain had contact with many well-placed progressives. He spent the last 20 years of his life as an "outspoken anti-imperialist and anti-capitalist"[36]. Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was a deafblind American author, activist and lecturer. ... Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking, is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of imperialism. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ...


Changing his views

Although Twain remained neutral during the Civil War, his views became more radical as he grew older. He acknowledged that his views changed and developed over his life, referring to one of his favorite works: Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

When I finished Carlyle’s French Revolution in 1871, I was a Girondin; every time I have read it since, I have read it differently – being influenced and changed, little by little, by life and environment ... and now I lay the book down once more, and recognize that I am a Sansculotte! – And not a pale, characterless Sansculotte, but a Marat.[37] The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze Thomas Carlyle (December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... The French Revolution: A History was written by the Scottish essayist, philosopher, and historian Thomas Carlyle. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (May 24, 1743 - July 13, 1793), was a Swiss-born scientist and physician, who made much of his career in England, but is best known as a French Revolutionary. ...

He describes his transformation and political awakening, in the context of the Philippine-American War, from being "a red-hot imperialist": Combatants United States Philippines several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Wesley Merritt Elwell Stephen Otis J. Franklin Bell Henry Ware Lawton† John J. Pershing Joseph Wheeler Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar Pio del Pilar Manuel Tinio Gregorio del Pilar† Licerio Geronimo Vicente Lukban Juan Cailles Maximino Hizon Antonio...

I wanted the American eagle to go screaming into the Pacific ...Why not spread its wings over the Philippines, I asked myself? ... I said to myself, Here are a people who have suffered for three centuries. We can make them as free as ourselves, give them a government and country of their own, put a miniature of the American Constitution afloat in the Pacific, start a brand new republic to take its place among the free nations of the world. It seemed to me a great task to which we had addressed ourselves. But I have thought some more, since then, and I have read carefully the treaty of Paris [which ended the Spanish-American War], and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem. It should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own domestic questions in their own way. And so I am an anti-imperialist. I am opposed to having the eagle put its talons on any other land.[38] Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is... The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. ...

Anti-imperialism

From 1901, soon after his return from Europe, until his death in 1910, Twain was vice-president of the American Anti-Imperialist League[39], which opposed the annexation of the Philippines by the United States and had "tens of thousands of members"[40]. He wrote many political pamphlets for the organization. The Incident in the Philippines, posthumously published in 1924, was in response to the Moro Crater Massacre, in which six hundred Moros were killed. Many of his neglected and previously uncollected writings on anti-imperialism appeared for the first time in book form only in 1992.[citation needed] The American Anti-Imperialist League was formed in the United States on June 15, 1898 to fight the American annexation of the Philippines and other U.S. territories, officially called insular areas. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... The Moro Crater massacre was the 1906 massacre, carried out by the U.S. Army during the subjugation of the Philippines. ... â–ˆ Bangsamoro territory under Moro control â–ˆ Historical extent The Moros form the largest non-Christian ethnic group in the Philippines, comprising about 5% of the total Filipino population as of 2005. ...


Twain was also critical of imperialism in other countries too. In Following the Equator, Twain expresses "hatred and condemnation of imperialism of all stripes"[41]. He was highly critical of European imperialism, notably of Cecil Rhodes, who greatly expanded the British Empire, and of Leopold II, King of the Belgians[42]. King Leopold's Soliloquy is a stinging political satire about his private colony, the Congo Free State. Reports of outrageous exploitation and grotesque abuses led to widespread international protest in the early 1900s, arguably the first large-scale human rights movement. In the soliloquy, the King supposedly argues that bringing Christianity to the country outweighs a little starvation. Leopold's rubber gatherers were tortured, maimed and slaughtered until the turn of the century, when the conscience of the Western world forced Brussels to call a halt. Following the Equator is basically a tour of the British Empire undertaken by Mark Twain as a response to regain his financial status and extricate himself from debt incurred from his failed investment in the revolutionary typesetting machine. ... This is a list of former European colonies. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Leopold II can refer to: Leopold II of Austria (1050-1095) Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1797-1870) Léopold II of Belgium (1835-1909) Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747-1792) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... King Leopolds Soliloquy is a 1905 pamphlet by Mark Twain. ... Political satire is a subgenre of general satire that specializes in gaining entertainment from politics, politicians and public affairs. ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Occident redirects here. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ...


Pacifist or revolutionary?

I am said to be a revolutionist in my sympathies, by birth, by breeding and by principle. I am always on the side of the revolutionists, because there never was a revolution unless there were some oppressive and intolerable conditions against which to revolt. [43]

During the Philippine-American War, Twain wrote a pacifist story entitled The War Prayer. Through this internal struggle, Twain expresses his opinions of the absurdity of slavery and the importance of following one's personal conscience before the laws of society. It was submitted to Harper's Bazaar for publication, but on March 22, 1905, the magazine rejected the story as "not quite suited to a woman's magazine." Eight days later, Twain wrote to his friend Daniel Carter Beard, to whom he had read the story, "I don't think the prayer will be published in my time. None but the dead are permitted to tell the truth." Because he had an exclusive contract with Harper & Brothers, Mark Twain could not publish The War Prayer elsewhere; it remained unpublished until 1923. It was republished as campaigning material by Vietnam War protestors[44]. Combatants United States Philippines several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Wesley Merritt Elwell Stephen Otis J. Franklin Bell Henry Ware Lawton† John J. Pershing Joseph Wheeler Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar Pio del Pilar Manuel Tinio Gregorio del Pilar† Licerio Geronimo Vicente Lukban Juan Cailles Maximino Hizon Antonio... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The War Prayer The War Prayer, a short story or prose poem by Mark Twain, is a scathing indictment of war, and particularly of blind patriotic and religious fervor as motivations for war. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Harpers & Queen. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... This is a list of womens magazines, magazines published primarily for a readership of women. ... Daniel Carter (Uncle Dan) Beard (June 21, 1850– June 11, 1941) was an American illustrator, author, and social reformer from Covington, Kentucky. ... Group portrait of the four Harper brothers by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ...


Twain supported the revolutionaries in Russia against the reformists, arguing that the Czar must be got rid of, by violent means, because peaceful ones would not work[45]. Russian Revolution can refer to: Russian Revolution (1905), a series of strikes against Tsar Nicholas II Russian Revolution (1917) February Revolution, resulting in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia October Revolution, the Bolshevik seizure of power Third Russian Revolution, the failed anarchist revolution against the Bolsheviks and the White... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...


Abolition, emancipation, and anti-racism

Twain was an adamant supporter of abolition and emancipation, even going so far to say “Lincoln’s Proclamation ... not only set the black slaves free, but set the white man free also,”[46]. He argued that non-whites did not receive justice in the United States, once saying “I have seen Chinamen abused and maltreated in all the mean, cowardly ways possible to the invention of a degraded nature....but I never saw a Chinaman righted in a court of justice for wrongs thus done to him.” [47] Abolition is the act of formally destroying something through legal means, either by making it illegal, or simply no longer allowing it to exist in any form. ... For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


Labor unions

He wrote glowingly about unions in the riverboating industry in Life on the Mississippi, which was read in union halls decades later [48]. He supported labor movement in general, especially one of the most important unions, the Knights of Labor[49]. In a speech to them, he said: Union generally refers to two or more things joined into one, such as an organization of multiple people or organizations, multiple objects combined into one, and so on. ... Life on the Mississippi cover Life on the Mississippi is a memoir by Mark Twain detailing his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War. ... Union Hall (Bréantrá in Irish) is a small fishing village located in County Cork, Ireland. ... The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... Knights of Labor seal The Knights of Labor, also known as Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was founded by seven Philadelp tailors in 1869, led by Uriah S. Stephens. ...

Who are the oppressors? The few: the King, the capitalist, and a handful of other overseers and superintendents. Who are the oppressed? The many: the nations of the earth; the valuable personages; the workers; they that make the bread that the soft-handed and idle eat.[50]

Vivisection and vegetarianism

Twain was opposed to vivisection of any kind, not on a scientific basis but rather an ethical one. He was a vegetarian, and stated that no sentient being should be made to suffer for another without consent.[51] Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...

I am not interested to know whether vivisection produces results that are profitable to the human race or doesn't. ... The pain which it inflicts upon unconsenting animals is the basis of my enmity toward it, and it is to me sufficient justification of the enmity without looking further.

Religion

After his death, Twain's family suppressed some of his work which was especially irreverent toward conventional religion, notably Letters from the Earth, which was not published until 1962. The anti-religious The Mysterious Stranger was published in 1916, although there is some scholarly debate as to whether Twain actually wrote the most familiar version of this story. Twain was critical of organized religion and certain elements of Christianity through most of his later life. Letters from the Earth is one of Mark Twains posthumously published works. ... The Mysterious Stranger is an unfinished work written by the American author Mark Twain that was worked on periodically from roughly 1890 up until his death in 1910. ... Churchianity is a negative description of organized religion that characterizes it as emphasizing the institutional forms of Christianity (traditions, rituals, committees, and programs) and omitting the actual gospel teachings of Jesus Christ that forms the basis of Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


Legacy

Further information: Mark Twain in popular culture
A statue of Mark Twain at Mark Twain Elementary School in the Braeswood Place neighborhood of Houston, Texas
A statue of Mark Twain at Mark Twain Elementary School in the Braeswood Place neighborhood of Houston, Texas

Twain's legacy lives on today as his namesakes continue to multiply. Several schools are named after him, including Twain Elementary School in Houston, Texas, which has a statue of Twain sitting on a bench, and Mark Twain Intermediate School. There are also other structures, such as the Mark Twain Memorial Bridge. Mark Twain has appeared in popular culture as a character in books, films and comics: The Star Trek: The Next Generation episode Times Arrow featured a fictionalized version of Mark Twain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 840 KB) Summary Taken by WhisperToMe Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 840 KB) Summary Taken by WhisperToMe Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Mark Twain Elementary School Mark Twain Elementary School is a public primary school located at 7500 Braes Boulevard in Houston, Texas, United States. ... A sign marking Braeswood Place Braeswood Place is a neighborhood in Houston, Texas. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Mark Twain Elementary School Mark Twain Elementary School is a public primary school located at 7500 Braes Boulevard in Houston, Texas, United States. ... Houston redirects here. ... Mark Twain Intermediate School 239 (affectionately called “Twain”) is a public middle school in Coney Island. ... The Mark Twain Memorial Bridge is a bridge over the Mississippi River at Hannibal, Missouri, childhood home of Mark Twain, for whom the bridge is named. ...


Awards in his name proliferate. In 1998, The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts created the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor, awarded annually. The Mark Twain Award is an award given annually to a book for children in grades four through eight by the Missouri Association of School Librarians. Stetson University in DeLand, Florida, sponsors the Mark Twain Young Authors' Workshop each summer in collaboration with the Boyhood Home and Museum in Hannibal. The program is open to young authors in grades five through eight.[52] The museum sponsors the Mark Twain Creative Teaching Award.[53] The Kennedy Center as seen from the Potomac River. ... The Mark Twain Prize for American Humor is awarded by the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts annually since 1998. ... The Mark Twain Award is an award given annually to a book for children in grades four through eight by the Missouri Association of School Librarians. ... Stetson University is a private, co-educational, liberal arts university that consistently earns high rankings in national college guides. ... The Annual Dog Parade in DeLand Old Volusia County Courthouse in DeLand Manatees in Blue Spring State Park near DeLand DeLand is the county seat of Volusia County, Florida. ...


Buildings associated with Twain, including some of his many homes, have been preserved as museums. His birthplace is preserved in Florida, Missouri. The Mark Twain Boyhood Home and Museum in Hannibal, Missouri preserves the setting for some of the author's best-known work. The home of childhood friend Laura Hawkins, said to be the inspiration for his fictional character Becky Thatcher, is preserved as the "Thatcher House." In May 2007, a painstaking reconstruction of the home of Tom Blankenship, the inspiration for Huckleberry Finn, was opened to the public. The family home he had built a family home in Hartford, Connecticut, where he and his wife raised their three daughters, is preserved and open to visitors as the Mark Twain House. Florida is a village in Monroe County, Missouri, United States, best known as the birthplace of writer Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1835. ... The Mark Twain Boyhood Home and Museum includes the whitewashed fence Norman Rockwell original paintings on display inside the Mark Twain Museum The Mark Twain Boyhood Home and Museum [1] is located in Hannibal, Missouri on the west bank of the Mississippi River. ... Hannibal is a riverfront city of 17,757 (2000 census), located in Marion and Ralls County, Missouri. ... South view of the Mark Twain House The Mark Twain House was the home of Mark Twain (a. ...


Actor Hal Holbrook created a one man show called "Mark Twain Tonight", which he has performed regularly for 50 years. The broadcast by CBS in 1967 won him an Emmy Award. Of the three runs on Broadway (1966, 1977, and 2005), the first won him a Tony Award. Harold Rowe Holbrook, Jr. ... Mark Twain tonight is a one-man play created and realized by actor Hal Holbrook. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... An Emmy Award. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... What is popularly called the Tony Award (formally, the Antoinette Perry Award for Excellence in Theatre) is an annual award celebrating achievements in live American theater, including musical theater, primarily honoring productions on Broadway in New York. ...


Additionally, like countless influential individuals, Mark Twain was honored by having an asteroid, 2362 Mark Twain, named after him. For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ...


Pen names

Twain used different pen names (pseudonyms or "noms de plume") before deciding on "Mark Twain". He signed humorous and imaginative sketches "Josh" until 1863. Additionally, he used the pen name "Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass" for a series of humorous letters.[54] A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ...


He maintained that his primary pen name came from his years working on Mississippi riverboats, where two fathoms, a depth indicating "safe water" for the boat to float over, was measured on the sounding line. A fathom is a maritime unit of depth, equivalent to two yards (six feet, approximately 1.8 metres); "twain" is an archaic term for "two". The riverboatman's cry was "mark twain" or, more fully, "by the mark twain", meaning "according to the mark [on the line], [the depth is] two [fathoms]", that is, "there are 12 feet of water under the boat and it is safe to pass". A sounding line or lead line is a length of thin rope with a weight, generally of lead at its end. ... A fathom is the name of a unit of length in the Imperial system (and the derived U.S. customary units). ... A yard (abbreviation: yd) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Archaic is a generic adjective that can refer to several things from the past. ...


Twain claimed that his famous pen name was not entirely his invention. In Life on the Mississippi, he wrote:[55]

Captain Isaiah Sellers was not of literary turn or capacity, but he used to jot down brief paragraphs of plain practical information about the river, and sign them "MARK TWAIN," and give them to the New Orleans Picayune. They related to the stage and condition of the river, and were accurate and valuable; ... At the time that the telegraph brought the news of his death, I was on the Pacific coast. I was a fresh new journalist, and needed a nom de guerre; so I confiscated the ancient mariner's discarded one, and have done my best to make it remain what it was in his hands—a sign and symbol and warrant that whatever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified truth; how I have succeeded, it would not be modest in me to say. Isaiah Sellers (c. ... The New Orleans Times-Picayune is the major daily newspaper serving New Orleans, Louisiana. ...

Twain's version of the story regarding his nom de plume is not without detractors and has been called into question by biographer George Williams III[56], the Territorial Enterprise newspaper[57] and Purdue University's Paul Fatout[58]. These sources claim that "mark twain" refers to a running bar tab that Clemens would regularly incur while drinking at John Piper's saloon in Virginia City, Nevada. Purdue redirects here. ... View of Virginia City, Nevada, from a nearby hillside, 1867-68 Virginia City is a city located in Storey County, Nevada. ...


Bibliography

Humorous short story written by Mark Twain in 1867. ... The Front page of booklet for The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County... Can A CON CON a CON? The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County is an 1865 short story by Mark Twain. ... Innocents Abroad cover The Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrims Progress was published by American author Mark Twain in 1869. ... Mark Twains (Burlesque) Autobiography and First Romance This short volume, published by Sheldon in 1871, is Mark Twains third book. ... Roughing It is a semi-non-fiction work written by American author Mark Twain. ... Sketches New and Old is a group of fictional stories by Mark Twain. ... Old Times on the Mississippi is a non-fiction work by Mark Twain. ... The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, by Mark Twain, is a popular 1876 novel about a young boy growing up in the Antebellum South on the Mississippi River in St. ... A Murder, A Mystery, and A Marriage is a short story written by Mark Twain in 1876. ... A Tramp Abroad was a work of non-fiction travel literature published by American author Mark Twain in 1880. ... [Date: 1601. ... The Prince and the Pauper was first published in 1881 in Canada before its 1882 publication in the united states. ... Life on the Mississippi cover Life on the Mississippi is a memoir by Mark Twain detailing his days as a steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War. ... Mark Twain Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) by Mark Twain is commonly accounted as one of the first Great American Novels. ... A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is an 1889 novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain. ... The £1,000,000 Bank Note and Other New Stories is a 1893 collection of short stories by American writer Mark Twain. ... Tom Sawyer Abroad is a novel by Mark Twain published in 1894. ... Puddnhead Wilson is a novel by Mark Twain. ... Tom Sawyer, Detective is an 1896 novel by Mark Twain. ... Mark Twains work on Joan of Arc is titled in full Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc, by the Sieur Louis de Conte who is identified further as Joans page and secretary. ... A series of essays by Twain which describe his own writing style, attack the idiocy of a fellow author, defend the virtue of a dead woman, and try to protect ordinary citizens from insult by railroad conductors. ... Following the Equator is basically a tour of the British Empire undertaken by Mark Twain as a response to regain his financial status and extricate himself from debt incurred from his failed investment in the revolutionary typesetting machine. ... Is He Dead? is a play written by Mark Twain. ... The Man Who Corrupted Hadleyburg is a piece of short fiction by Mark Twain. ... The Battle Hymn of the Republic, Updated was written in 1901 by Mark Twain, as a parody of American imperialism, in the wake of the Philippine-American War. ... Edmund Burke on Croker and Tammany is an earnest satire by Mark Twain. ... To the Person Sitting in Darkness is an essay by Mark Twain published in 1901. ... King Leopolds Soliloquy is a 1905 pamphlet by Mark Twain. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The War Prayer The War Prayer, a short story or prose poem by Mark Twain, is a scathing indictment of war, and particularly of blind patriotic and religious fervor as motivations for war. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Eves Diary is a comic short story by Mark Twain. ... Christian Science by Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) is a highly critical essay on the beliefs of Christian Scientists. ... Cover of the first edition Is Shakespeare Dead? is a short, semi-autobiographical work by American humorist Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain. ... Captain Stormfields Visit to Heaven is a short-story written by American writer Mark Twain and published in 1909. ... Letters from the Earth is one of Mark Twains posthumously published works. ... The Mysterious Stranger is an unfinished work written by the American author Mark Twain that was worked on periodically from roughly 1890 up until his death in 1910. ... Published by Harper & Brothers Publishers, Mark Twain’s Autobiography was a two volume set and was purposely published over ten years after the authors death in order to protect the “guilty. ... Letters from the Earth is one of Mark Twains posthumously published works. ... The Mysterious Stranger is an unfinished work written by the American author Mark Twain that was worked on periodically from roughly 1890 up until his death in 1910. ...

See also

Bernard Augustine DeVoto (January 11, 1897 - November 13, 1955) was an American historian and author who specialized in the history of the American West. ... The poets listed below were either born in the United States or else published much of their poetry while living in that country. ... In literature, regionalism, or local-color fiction, was a perspective of literature that gained popularity in America after the Civil War. ...

References

  1. ^ The Mark Twain House Biography. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  2. ^ anonymous (April 22, 1910). Mark Twain, Humanist. The Kansas City Star. Retrieved on 2007-11-27.
  3. ^ Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  4. ^ Mark Twain quotations. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  5. ^ Mark Twain Quotes - The Quotations Page. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  6. ^ Jelliffe, Robert A. (1956). Faulkner at Nagano. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, Ltd. 
  7. ^ Kaplan, Fred (October 2007). "Chapter 1: The Best Boy You Had 1835-1847", The Singular Mark Twain. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47715-5. . Cited in "Excerpt: The Singular Mark Twain. About.com: Literature: Classic. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  8. ^ Mark Twain's Family Tree. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  9. ^ Mark Twain, American Author and Humorist. Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  10. ^ Lindborg, Henry J.. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Retrieved on 2006-11-11.
  11. ^ John Marshall Clemens. State Historical Society of Missouri. Retrieved on 2007-10-29.
  12. ^ Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain: Social Critic (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p.13, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in the International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65, at [1]
  13. ^ Life on the Mississippi, chapter 15
  14. ^ authobiography
  15. ^ For more of an account of Twain's involvement with parapsychology see Blum, Deborah, Ghost Hunters: William James and the Search for Scientific Proof of Life After Death" (Penguin Press, (2006).
  16. ^ a b Mark Twain Biography. The Hannibal Courier-Post. Retrieved on 2007-08-25.
  17. ^ Comstock Commotion: The Story of the Territorial Enterprise and Virginia City News, Chapter 2.
  18. ^ Mark Twain quotations.
  19. ^ a b Samuel Clemens. PBS:The West. Retrieved on 2007-08-25.
  20. ^ whole sentence -- Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  21. ^ The Mark Twain House and Museum: History of the House. The Mark Twain House & Museum. Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  22. ^ "Mrs. Jacques Samossoud Dies; Mark Twain's Last Living Child; Released 'Letters From Earth'", New York Times, November 21, 1962, Wednesday. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “San Diego, California, Nov. 20 (UPI) Mrs. Clara Langhorne Clemens Samossoud, the last living child of Mark Twain, died last night in Sharp Memorial Hospital. She was 88 years old.” 
  23. ^ "History of Dollis Hill House", Dollis Hill House Trust, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-07-03. 
  24. ^ The Mark Twain House. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.
  25. ^ Albert Bigelow Paine. Mark Twain, a Biography. Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  26. ^ Esther Lombardi, about.com. Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens). Retrieved on 2006-11-01.
  27. ^ "Mark Twain is Dead at 74. End Comes Peacefully at His New England Home After a Long Illness.", New York Times, April 22, 1910. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Danbury, Connecticut, April 21, 1910. Samuel Langhorne Clemens, "Mark Twain," died at 22 minutes after 6 to-night. Beside him on the bed lay a beloved book -- it was Carlyle's " French Revolution" -- and near the book his glasses, pushed away with a weary sigh a few hours before. Too weak to speak clearly, "Give me my glasses," he had written on a piece of paper.” 
  28. ^ from Chapter 1 of The Green Hills of Africa
  29. ^ American Experience — People & Events: Samuel Langhorne Clemens, 1835-1910. PBS. Retrieved on 2007-11-28.
  30. ^ Lauber, John. The Inventions of Mark Twain: a Biography. New York: Hill and Wang, 1990.
  31. ^ Cox, James M. Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor. Princeton University Press, 1966.
  32. ^ see Mark Twain's Correspondence with Henry Huttleston Rogers, 1893-1909
  33. ^ Mark Twain Investigating. The New York Times, May 5, 1907.
  34. ^ a report in Norfolk's Virginian-Pilot newspaper
  35. ^ Mark Twain Delighted the Little Ones. Norfolk Ledge-Dispatch, Monday, April 5, 1909.
  36. ^ Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  37. ^ Andrew Jay Hoffman, Inventing Mark Twain: The Lives of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (New York: William Morrow, 1997), p.8, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  38. ^ From Andrew Jay Hoffman, Inventing Mark Twain: The Lives of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (New York: William Morrow, 1997), cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  39. ^ Mark Twain's Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War. (1992, Jim Zwick, ed.) ISBN 0-8156-0268-5
  40. ^ Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  41. ^ Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  42. ^ Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  43. ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., Mark Twain and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p.159
  44. ^ Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  45. ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., Mark Twain and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p.169, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  46. ^ Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain: Social Critic (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 200
  47. ^ Maxwell Geismar, ed., Mark Twain and the Three Rs: Race, Religion, Revolution and Related Matters (Indianapolis: Bobs-Merrill, 1973), p. 98
  48. ^ Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain: Social Critic (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p.98
  49. ^ Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  50. ^ Philip S. Foner, Mark Twain: Social Critic (New York: International Publishers, 1958), p. 200, cited in Helen Scott's "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school" (2000) in International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65
  51. ^ Mark Twain Quotations - Vivisection. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  52. ^ The First Annual Mark Twain Young Authors Workshop. Stenson University.
  53. ^ The Mark Twain Boyhood Home Museum: Education
  54. ^ Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass, (Charles Honce, James Bennet, ed.), Pascal Covici, Chicago, 1928
  55. ^ Life on the Mississippi, chapter 50
  56. ^ Williams, III, George (1999). "Mark Twain Leaves Virginia City for San Francisco", Mark Twain and the Jumping Frog of Calaveras County: How Mark Twain's humorous frog story launched his legendary career.. Tree By The River Publishing. ISBN 0-935174-45-1. . Cited in "Excerpt: The Singular Mark Twain. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  57. ^ Origin of Twain's Name Revealed
  58. ^ Paul Fatout. Mark Twain's Nom de Plume. American Literature, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Mar., 1962), pp. 1-7. doi:10.2307/2922241

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The International Socialist Review is a socialist magazine-periodical currently published by the International Socialist Organization. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Lucius Beebe. Comstock Commotion: The Story of the Territorial Enterprise and Virginia City News. Standford: Standford University Press, 1954 (ISBN 978-1-12218798-5)
  • Louis J. Budd, ed. Mark Twain, Collected Tales, Sketches, Speeches & Essays 1891-1910 (Library of America, 1992) (ISBN 978-0-94045073-8)
  • Ken Burns, Dayton Duncan, and Geoffrey C. Ward, Mark Twain: An Illustrated Biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001 (ISBN 0-3754-0561-5)
  • Gregg Camfield. The Oxford Companion to Mark Twain. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-1951-0710-1)
  • Guy Cardwell, ed. Mark Twain, Mississippi Writings (Library of America, 1982) (ISBN 978-0-94045007-3)
  • Guy Cardwell, ed. Mark Twain, The Innocents Abroad & Roughing It (Library of America, 1984) ISBN 978-0-94045025-7
  • James M. Cox. Mark Twain: The Fate of Humor. Princeton University Press, 1966 (ISBN 0-8262-1428-2)
  • Everett Emerson. Mark Twain: A Literary Life. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000 (ISBN 0-8122-3516-9)
  • Shelley Fisher Fishkin, ed. A Historical Guide to Mark Twain. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002 (ISBN 0-1951-3293-9)
  • Susan K. Harris, ed. Mark Twain, Historical Romances (Library of America, 1994) (ISBN 978-0-94045082-0)
  • Hamlin L. Hill, ed. Mark Twain, The Gilded Age and Later Novels (Library of America, 2002) ISBN 978-1-93108210-5
  • Jason Gary Horn. Mark Twain: A Descriptive Guide to Biographical Sources. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-8108-3630-0)
  • William Dean Howells. My Mark Twain. Mineloa, New York: Dover Publications, 1997 (ISBN 0-486-29640-7)
  • Fred Kaplan. The Singular Mark Twain: A Biography. New York: Doubleday, 2003 (ISBN 0-3854-7715-5)
  • Justin Kaplan. Mr. Clemens and Mark Twain: A Biography. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966 (ISBN 0-6717-4807-6)
  • J. R. LeMaster and James D. Wilson, eds. The Mark Twain Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 1993 (ISBN 0-8240-7212-X)
  • Patrick K. Ober . Mark Twain and Medicine: "Any Mummery Will Cure". Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003 (ISBN 0-8262-1502-5)
  • Albert Bigelow Paine. Mark Twain, A Biography: The Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens. New York: Harper & Bros., 1912. (ISBN 1-8470-2983-3)
  • Ron Powers. Dangerous Water: A Biography of the Boy Who Became Mark Twain. New York: Da Capo Press, 1999. (ISBN 0-3068-1086-7)
  • Ron Powers. Mark Twain: A Life. New York: Random House, 2005. (0-7432-4899-6)
  • R. Kent Rasmussen. Critical Companion to Mark Twain: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work. New York: Facts On File, 2007. (Revised edition of Mark Twain A to Z) (ISBN 0-8160-6225-0)
  • R. Kent Rasmussen, ed. The Quotable Mark Twain: His Essential Aphorisms, Witticisms and Concise Opinions. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1997 (ISBN 0-8092-2987-0)

Lucius Beebe (r), with Charles Clegg at the office of the Territorial Enterprise newspaper, Virginia City, Nevada. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American director and producer of documentary films known for his style of making use of original prints and photographs. ... Geoffrey Champion Ward (b. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... Volumes in the Library of America series The Library of America (LoA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature. ... William Dean Howells (March 1, 1837 – May 11, 1920) was an American realist author. ... Justin Kaplan (September 5, 1925, New York) was an American writer and editor. ... Albert Bigelow Paine (10 July 1861 – 9 April 1937) was an American author and biographer best known for his work with Mark Twain. ... Ron Powers (born 1941) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, novelist, and non-fiction writer. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Works by Mark Twain
  • Mark Twain Project Online
  • Works by Mark Twain at Project Gutenberg. More than 60 texts are freely available.
  • Free to read on a cell phone - Twain works.
  • Mark Twain Quotes
  • Mark Twain Quotes, Newspaper Collections and Related Resources
  • Full text of My Platonic Sweetheart , a dream journal by Mark Twain
  • Punch, Brothers, Punch! – text of this famous work
  • Essays by Mark Twain at Quotidiana.org
  • Twain on The Awful German Language
  • Mark Twain on Scientific Research / Pains of Lowly Life (1900)
Academic studies
  • The Mark Twain Papers and Project of the Bancroft Library, University of California Berkeley. Home to the largest archive of Mark Twain's papers and the editors of a critical edition of all of his writings.
  • Buffalo Library Mark Twain Room, which houses the manuscript of Huckleberry Finn
  • The University of California Press Publishers of the critical edition of Mark Twain's writings.
  • Elmira College Center for Mark Twain Studies
  • "The Mark Twain they didn’t teach us about in school", by Helen Scott, from International Socialist Review 10, Winter 2000, pp.61-65.
Life
  • Full text of the biography Mark Twain by Archibald Henderson
  • Obituary in San Francisco Call
  • The Mark Twain House in Hartford, CT
  • The Mark Twain Boyhood Home in Hannibal, MO
  • The Hannibal Courier Post A Look at the Life and Works of Mark Twain
  • Mark Twain: Known To Everyone—Liked By All, a Ken Burns film shown on PBS.
Other
  • Ever the Twain Shall Meet, a guide to Mark Twain on the Web
  • Literary Pilgrimages—Mark Twain sites
  • "Origins of the name Mark Twain", from Encyclopaedia Britannica latest edition, full article.
  • PBS Twain Interactive Scrapbook and San Francisco Chronicle article documenting that Clemens did not say "The coldest winter I ever spent was summer in San Francisco".
  • The Fountain Pens used by Mark Twain
Persondata
NAME Twain, Mark
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Samuel Langhorne Clemens
SHORT DESCRIPTION American humorist, novelist, writer, and lecturer
DATE OF BIRTH November 30, 1835
PLACE OF BIRTH Florida, Missouri
DATE OF DEATH April 21, 1910
PLACE OF DEATH Redding, Connecticut

A humorist is an author who specializes in short, humorous articles or essays. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... A lecture on linear algebra at the Helsinki University of Technology A lecture is an oral presentation intended to teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Florida is a village in Monroe County, Missouri, United States, best known as the birthplace of writer Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain) in 1835. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Redding is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mark Twain - Books and Biography (1561 words)
Mark Twain (pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, 1835-1910) was born in Florida, Missouri, of a Virginian family.
Twain had abandoned the work in 1874, but returned to it in the following summer and even then was undecided if he were writing a book for adults or for young readers.
In Philip José Farmer's Riverworld epic Mark Twain was one of the central characters.
Twain, Mark. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (768 words)
Soon the humorist “Mark Twain” emerged, a writer of tall tales and absurd anecdotes.
Over the years Twain had invested a great deal of money in unsuccessful printing and publishing ventures, and in 1893 he found himself deeply in debt.
The narrative device of a raft carrying Huck and a runaway slave down the Mississippi enabled Twain to achieve a realistic portrait of American life in the 19th cent.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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