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Encyclopedia > Mark Kellogg (reporter)
A portrait of Mark Kellogg. Date and photographer unknown.
A portrait of Mark Kellogg. Date and photographer unknown.

Mark Kellogg (March 31, 1831 - June 25, 1876) was a newspaper reporter killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Kellogg rode with George Armstrong Custer during the battle and was evidently one of the first men killed by the Sioux and Cheyenne.[1] His dispatches were the only press coverage of Custer and his men in the days leading up to the battle. As a newspaper stringer whose reports were picked up around the country, Kellogg is considered the first Associated Press correspondent to die in the line of duty.[2] Image File history File links Markkellogg. ... Image File history File links Markkellogg. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... A television reporter A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media. ... Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George Armstrong Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties ~200 killed (according to Yellow Horse, Red Horse and Little Buck Elk... George Armstrong Custer Custer redirects here. ... Wahktageli (Gallant Warrior), a Yankton Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer) Horse racing of the Sioux Indians (Karl Bodmer) The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American people. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Stringer can have different meanings, including: In journalism, a stringer is a freelance journalist, who is paid for each piece of published or broadcast work, rather than receiving a regular salary. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ...

Contents

Life

Born Marcus Henry Kellogg on March 31, 1831, in Brighton, Ontario, Canada, Kellogg was the third of ten children. Kellogg's family moved a number of times in his youth before they eventually settled in La Crosse, Wisconsin.[3] While there Kellogg learned to operate a telegraph and went to work for both the Northwestern Telegraph Company and the Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Company. Brighton is a town in the province of Ontario. ... Location in the state of Wisconsin Coordinates: Counties La Crosse County Mayor Mark Johnsrud Area    - City 22. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


He married Martha J. Robinson in 1861 and they had two daughters. During the years of the American Civil War, Kellogg became the assistant editor for the La Cross Democrat newspaper. He also unsuccessfully ran for the office of city clerk in 1867 and played shortstop on one of the town's baseball teams.[4] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... A view of the playing field at Busch Stadium II St. ...


In 1867 Kellogg's wife died. Leaving his daughters to be raised by an aunt, Kellogg began drifting around the upper midwest, working as a reporter and editorial assistant in places such as Council Bluffs, Iowa, and Brainerd, Minnesota. While living in Brainerd he ran for election to the Minnesota Legislature, but was defeated. He also worked as a string correspondent for the St. Paul Dispatch, with his articles often published under the pen name of "Frontier."[5] Satellite photo showing Council Bluffs and Omaha, Nebraska Council Bluffs is a city in Pottawattamie County, Iowa, United States on the east bank of the Missouri River. ... Brainerd is a city located in Crow Wing County, Minnesota. ... The Minnesota State Legislature is the legislative branch of government in the U.S. state of Minnesota. ... The St. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ...


In the early 1870s, he moved to Bismarck, North Dakota, where in 1873 he helped editor Clement A. Lounsberry found The Bismarck Tribune. Even though Kellogg was only an editorial assistant for the paper, he substituted for Lounsberry as editor of the Tribune's second, third and fourth issues.[6] Location in North Dakota Coordinates: Country United States State North Dakota County Burleigh County Founded 1872  - Mayor John Warford Area    - City 71. ... The Bismarck Tribune is a newspaper printed in Bismarck, North Dakota. ...


Battle of the Little Bighorn

When Lounsberry learned that a military column (including the 7th U.S. Cavalry Regiment commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer) would soon leave Fort Abraham Lincoln for the Montana Territory, he agreed to accompany Custer and provide media coverage. However, at the last minute Lounsberry's wife fell ill, so the editor asked Kellogg to take his place as correspondent.[7] Lounsberry expected Kellogg would cover nothing more than a sensational military victory.[8] Distinctive Unit Insignia, US 7th Cavalry The United States 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... George Armstrong Custer Custer redirects here. ... Fort Abraham Lincoln was an important infantry and cavalry post about seven miles south of todays Mandan, North Dakota. ... The Montana Territory was an organized territory of the United States that existed between 1864 and 1889. ...


Kellogg sent three dispatches back to Lounsberry, the last one four days before the battle when they were near the mouth of the Rosebud River. His last dispatch read, "By the time this reaches you we would have met and fought the red devils, with what result remains to be seen. I go with Custer and will be at the death."[9] It should be noted that Kellogg wasn't predicting his own death or Custer's defeat; instead, "at the death" was a common phrase of the day.[10]


Four days after that dispatch, the Battle of the Little Bighorn occurred, resulting in the deaths of Custer and the 208 soldiers, scouts and civilians riding with him. Combatants Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho United States Commanders Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse George Armstrong Custer â€ , Marcus Reno, Frederick Benteen, James Calhoun Strength 949 lodges (probably 950-1200 warriors) 31 officers, 566 troopers, 15 civilians, ~35-40 scouts Casualties ~200 killed (according to Yellow Horse, Red Horse and Little Buck Elk...


Aftermath

Press reports of the day say Kellogg "died early in the retreat from the Little Bighorn River when Custer's left wing was unsuccessfully scouting for a ford."[11] However, Colonel John Gibbon, whose men arrived at the battle on the second day and also helped bury the dead, said he found Kellogg's body in a ravine where a number of men from Company E died.[12] Kellogg's body was scalped and missing an ear; he was identified by the boots he wore. The Little Bighorn River The Little Bighorn River is a tributary of the Bighorn River in the United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. ... John Gibbon John Gibbon (April 20, 1827 – February 6, 1896) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... Native American Big Mouth Spring with decorated scalp lock on right shoulder. ...


When Clement Lounsberry learned of the defeat of Custer's force and Kellogg's death, he "worked tirelessly throughout the night" to produce a special edition of The Bismarck Tribune.[13] Published on July 6, 1876, the article was the battle's first full account. Lounsberry also telegraphed the news, including Kellogg's correspondence, to a number of eastern newspapers, including The New York Herald. Two letters written by Kellogg were published posthumously by the Herald on July 11, 1876. Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


As a newspaper stringer whose reports were picked up around the country, Kellogg is considered the first Associated Press correspondent to die in the line of duty.[14] Stringer can have different meanings, including: In journalism, a stringer is a freelance journalist, who is paid for each piece of published or broadcast work, rather than receiving a regular salary. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


Some of Kellogg's diary and notes survived the battle and these, along with his news accounts, are one of the primary historical sources for information on the days preceeding the battle. His notes are now in the possession of the North Dakota State Historical Society.[15]


Notes

  1. ^ "Mark Kellogg's Prequil to the Battle: A reporter's account of riding with Custer into the Battle of the Little Bighorn," The New York Herald, July 11, 1876. Access Feb 10, 2007.
  2. ^ http://www.ap.org/pages/about/history/history_first.html Associated Press history archives, accessed Feb. 10, 2007.
  3. ^ The Custer Companion: A Comprehensive Guide to the Life of George Armstrong Custer and the Plains by Thom Hatch, Stackpole Books, 2002, pages 203-204.
  4. ^ I Go With Custer: The Life & Death of Reporter Mark Kellogg by Mark Kellogg, AST Press, 1996.
  5. ^ I Go With Custer: The Life & Death of Reporter Mark Kellogg by Mark Kellogg, AST Press, 1996.
  6. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/calounsberry.htm Clement A. Lounsberry Colonel, United States Army, Arlington National Cemetary website, accessed Feb. 10, 2007
  7. ^ The Custer Companion: A Comprehensive Guide to the Life of George Armstrong Custer and the Plains by Thom Hatch, Stackpole Books, 2002, pages 203-204.
  8. ^ I Go With Custer: The Life & Death of Reporter Mark Kellogg by Mark Kellogg, AST Press, 1996.
  9. ^ "The AP Looks Back: 150 Years of Capturing the Moment" by Marlane A. Liddell, Smithsonian Magazine, May 1998; "150th Anniversary of the AP" by John Connolly, The Irish Times, September 1998, accessed Feb 10, 2007.
  10. ^ I Go With Custer: The Life & Death of Reporter Mark Kellogg by Mark Kellogg, AST Press, 1996.
  11. ^ "Mark Kellogg's Prequil to the Battle: A reporter's account of riding with Custer into the Battle of the Little Bighorn," The New York Herald, July 11, 1876. Accessed Feb. 10, 2007.
  12. ^ The Custer Companion: A Comprehensive Guide to the Life of George Armstrong Custer and the Plains by Thom Hatch, Stackpole Books, 2002, pages 203-204.
  13. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/calounsberry.htm Clement A. Lounsberry Colonel, United States Army, Arlington National Cemetary website, accessed Feb. 10, 2007
  14. ^ http://www.ap.org/pages/about/history/history_first.html Associated Press history archives, accessed Feb. 10, 2007.
  15. ^ The Custer Companion: A Comprehensive Guide to the Life of George Armstrong Custer and the Plains by Thom Hatch, Stackpole Books, 2002, pages 203-204.

References

  • "Notes on the Little Big Horn Expedition Under General Custer, 1876," by Mark Kellogg, Contributions to the Historical Society of Montana, v. 9 (1923).
  • I Go With Custer: The Life & Death of Reporter Mark Kellogg by Sandy Barnard, AST Press, (1996). Includes a reprinting of Kellogg's diary.
  • "Custer's 'Mysterious Mr. Kellogg' and the Diary of Mark Kellogg" by John C. Hixon, North Dakota History 17, no.3 (1950).
  • "Colonel Custer's Copperhead: The Mysterious Mark Kellogg" by Lewis O. Saum, Montana: The Magazine of Western History Autumn, 1978: Volume 28, No. 4, published by the Montana Historical Society.
  • "Mark Kellogg Telegraphed for Custer’s Rescue" by Oliver Knight (1960). Reprinted from North Dakota Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 2, Spring 1960.
  • "The 'Custer Campaign Diary' of Mark Kellogg" by Elmo Scott Watson, The Westerners Brand Book 1945-46, Chicago, (1947).

See also

Persondata
NAME Kellogg, Mark
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Kellogg, Marcus Henry
SHORT DESCRIPTION American newspaper reporter
DATE OF BIRTH March 31, 1831
PLACE OF BIRTH Brighton, Ontario, Canada
DATE OF DEATH June 25, 1876
PLACE OF DEATH Near the Little Bighorn River in the eastern Montana Territory

 
 

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