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Encyclopedia > Mark Antony
Bust of Mark Antony
Bust of Mark Antony

Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) (c. January 14 83 BCAugust 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. He was an important supporter of Gaius Julius Caesar as a military commander and administrator. After Caesar's assassination, Antony allied with Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus to form an official triumvirate which modern scholars have labelled the second triumvirate. The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony turned to civil war in 31 BC. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium and then in a short land battle at Alexandria. Antony committed suicide in 30 BC. His lover, Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, killed herself soon afterwards. Image File history File links Illus266_-_Marcus_Antonius. ... Image File history File links Illus266_-_Marcus_Antonius. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 88 BC 87 BC 86 BC 85 BC 84 BC - 83 BC - 82 BC 81 BC 80... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS[1]), d. ... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... The Second Triumvirate is the name historians give to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian, later Caesar Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony formed on 26 November 43 BC. There have been two 5-year terms, covering the period 43 BC – 33 BC. Unlike the... May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the willful act of killing oneself. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ...

Contents

Early life

A member of the Antonia gens, Antony was born in Rome, around 82 BC. His father was his namesake, Marcus Antonius Creticus, the son of the great rhetorician Marcus Antonius Orator executed by Gaius Marius' supporters in 86 BC. Through his mother, Julia Antonia, he was a distant cousin of Caesar. His father died at a young age, leaving him and his brothers, Lucius and Gaius, in the care of his mother, who married Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, a politician involved in and executed during the Catiline conspiracy of 63 BC. Antonius (fem. ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Marcus Antonius Creticus (lived 1st century BC) was a Roman politician, member of the Antonius family. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has been contested since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in Universities. ... Marcus Antonius Orator (died 87 BC) was a Roman politician of the Antonius family and one of the most distinguished Roman orators of his time. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... Julia Caesaris (104 BC - 40 BC) or Julia Antonia (known from the sources to distinguish her from the other Juliae Caesares) was a daughter to consul Lucius Julius Caesar III and a sister to consul Lucius Julius Caesar IV. The identity of her mother is unknown and she was born... Lucius Antonius (1st century BC) was the younger brother and supporter of Marcus Antonius, a Roman politician. ... Gaius Antonius Creticus (died 42 BC) was the second son of Marcus Antonius Creticus and Julia Antonia, and thus, younger brother of Mark Antony, triumvir and enemy of Caesar Augustus. ... Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura, (d. ... Lucius Sergius Catilina (110 BC?–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. ...


Antony's early life was characterized by a lack of parental guidance. According to historians like Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering the streets of Rome with his brothers and friends, Publius Clodius among them. The connection was eventually severed by a disagreement arising from his relations with Clodius's wife, Fulvia. While they were friends, they embarked on a rather wild life, frequenting gambling houses, drinking too much, and involving themselves in scandalous love affairs. Plutarch mentions the rumor that before Antony reached 20 years of age, he was already indebted the sum of 250 talents (equivalent to $165,000,000 USD). Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC, murdered January 18, 52 BC). ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ... The term gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... A talent is an ancient unit of mass. ...


After this period of recklessness, Antony fled to Greece to escape his creditors and to study rhetoric. After a short time spent in attendance on the philosophers at Athens, he was summoned by Aulus Gabinius, proconsul of Syria, to take part in the campaigns against Aristobulus in Judea, and in support of Ptolemy XII in Egypt. In the ensuing campaign, he demonstrated his talents as a cavalry commander and distinguished himself with bravery and courage. It was during this campaign that he first visited Alexandria and Egypt. Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has been contested since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in Universities. ... Nickname: Το κλεινόν άστυ Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Government  - Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area [1][2]  - City 38. ... Aulus Gabinius, Roman statesman and general, and supporter of Pompey, was a prominent figure in the later days of the Roman Republic. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Aristobulus (reigned 104-103 BC) was a king of the Hebrew Hasmonean Dynasty, and the eldest of the five sons of King John Hyrcanus. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (117 BCE - 51 BCE) was son of Ptolemy IX Soter II. His mother is unknown. ... ---- Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ...


Supporter of Caesar

In 54 BC, Antony became a member of the staff of Caesar's armies in Gaul and early Germany. He again proved to be a competent military leader in the Gallic Wars, but his personality caused instability wherever he went. Caesar himself was said to be frequently irritated by his behavior. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Combatants Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus Mark Antony Quintus Cicero Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius, among other The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns by several invading Roman legions under the command of Julius Caesar into Gaul, and the subsequent uprisings of the Gallic tribes. ...


Nevertheless, raised by Caesar's influence to the offices of quaestor, augur, and tribune of the plebs (50 BC), he supported the cause of his patron with great energy. Caesar's two proconsular commands, during a period of ten years, were expiring, and the general wanted to return to Rome for the consular elections. But resistance from the conservative faction of the Roman Senate, led by Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, demanded that Caesar resign his proconsulship and the command of his armies before being allowed to seek re-election to the consulship. Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by several elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Consul (abbrev. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ...


This Caesar would not do, as such an act would leave him a private citizen—and therefore open to prosecution for his acts while proconsul—in the interim between his proconsulship and his second consulship; it would also leave him at the mercy of Pompey's armies. The idea was rejected, and Antony resorted to violence, ending up being expelled from the Senate. He left Rome, joining Caesar, who had led his armies to the banks of the Rubicon, the river that marked the southern limit of his proconsular authority. With all hopes of a peaceful solution for the conflict with Pompey gone, Caesar led his armies across the river into Italy and marched on Rome, starting the last Republican civil war. During the civil war, Antony was Caesar's second in command. In all battles against the Pompeians, Antony led the left wing of the army, a proof of Caesar's confidence in him. Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ...


When Caesar became dictator, Antony was made Master of the Horse, the dictator's right hand man, and in this capacity remained in Italy as the peninsula's administrator in 47 BC, while Caesar was fighting the last Pompeians, who had taken refuge in the African provinces. But Antony's skills as administrator were a poor match to those as general, and he seized the opportunity of indulging in the most extravagant excesses, depicted by Cicero in the Philippics. In 46 BC he seems to have taken offense because Caesar insisted on payment for the property of Pompey which Antony professedly had purchased, but had in fact simply appropriated. Conflict soon arose, and, as on other occasions, Antony resorted to violence. Hundreds of citizens were killed and Rome herself descended into a state of anarchy. Caesar was most displeased with the whole affair and removed Antony from all political responsibilities. The two men did not see each other for two years. The estrangement was not of long continuance; for we find Antony meeting the dictator at Narbo (45 BC), and rejecting the suggestion of Trebonius that he should join in the conspiracy that was already afoot. Reconciliation arrived in 44 BC, when Antony was chosen as partner for Caesar's fifth consulship. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Dictator Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula (from the latin words paene insula, almost island) is a geographical landform consisting of an extension of a body of land from a larger body of land, surrounded by water on three sides. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... In the Roman Republic and later in the Roman Empire, all men could be very roughly divided into three classes. ... Consul (abbrev. ...


Whatever conflicts existed between the two men, Antony remained faithful to Caesar at all times. On February 15, 44 BC, during the Lupercalia festival, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diadem. This was an event fraught with meaning: a diadem was a symbol of a king, and in refusing it, Caesar demonstrated that he did not intend to assume the throne. February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Lupercalia was an annual very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, held on February 15 to honour Faunus, god of fertility and forests. ... This article is about a type of crown called a diadem; for alternate meanings, see Diadem. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On March 14, 44 BC, Antony was alarmed by a talk he had with a Senator named Casca, who told him the gods would make a strike against Caesar in the Roman Forum. Fearing the worst, the next day he went down to head off the dictator. The Liberatores reached Caesar first, however, and he was assassinated on March 15, 44 B.C, the date known as the Ides of March. In the turmoil that surrounded the event, Antony escaped Rome dressed as a slave, fearing that the dictator's assassination would be the start of a bloodbath among his supporters. When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome, discussing a truce with the assassins' faction. For a while, Antony, as consul of the year, seemed to pursue peace and the end of the political tension. Following a speech by Cicero in the Senate, an amnesty was agreed for the assassins. Then came the day of Caesar's funeral. As Caesar's ever-present second in command, partner in consulship and cousin, Antony was the natural choice to make the funeral eulogy. In his speech, he sprang his accusations of murder and ensured a permanent breach with the conspirators. Showing a talent for rhetoric and dramatic interpretation, Antony snatched the toga from Caesar's body to show the crowd the stab wounds, pointing at each and naming the authors, publicly shaming them. During the eulogy he also read Caesar's will, which left most of his property to the people of Rome, demonstrating that, contrary to the conspirator's assertions, Caesar had no intention of forming a royal dynasty. Public opinion turned, and that night, the Roman populace attacked the assassins' houses, forcing them to flee for their lives. For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Julius Caesar. ... Liberatores is the Latin name that the murderers of Caius Julius Caesar gave themselves. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... It has been suggested that Extrajudicial Executions and Assasinations be merged into this article or section. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up eulogy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar involved a number of high ranking Romans who did assassinate Julius Caesar on March 15, 44 B.C. History The following passage is part of an eyewitness account of this conspiracy written by Nicolaus of Damascus, a few years after the assassination: The conspirators... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has been contested since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in Universities. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ...


Antony surrounded himself with a bodyguard of Caesar's veterans, and forced the senate to transfer to him the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which was then administered by Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of the conspirators. Brutus refused to surrender the province, and Antony set out to attack him in October 44 BC. Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ... Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC, one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC...


Later in October Antony set out to Egypt and met Caesar's former lover, Cleopatra. He wanted Cleopatra for Egypt's wealth, and she wanted Antony for the Roman armies under his control.


Second triumvirate

Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. On the reverse, the standard of his Third legion.
Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. On the reverse, the standard of his Third legion.

Caesar's death left a power vacuum in Rome. The Republic was dying, and yet another civil war was beginning. Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, arrived from Illyria, and claimed the inheritance of his "father." Veteran troops of the dead dictator flocked to his banner, and Octavian obtained the support of the senate and Cicero. Mark Anthony. ... Mark Anthony. ... First row : c. ... Legio III Cyrenaica, meaning from Cyrenaica (a Roman province), was a Roman legion probably levied by Marcus Antonius around 36 BC, then governor of Cyrenaica. ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Illyria Illyria (disambiguation) Illyria (Anc. ...


Octavian still had to fight for power with two other main contestants: Antony and Lepidus. Antony was denounced as a public enemy, and Octavian took command of the war against him. Antony was defeated at Mutina (43 BC) where he was besieging Brutus; however, the consuls Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus fell in the battle, and the Senate became suspicious of Octavian. Irritated that he was refused a Triumph and at the appointment of Brutus to the command over his head, Octavian entered Rome at the head of his troops, and forced the senate to bestow the consulship upon him (August 19). Meanwhile, Antony escaped to Cisalpine Gaul, effected a junction with Lepidus and marched towards Rome with a large force of infantry and cavalry. Octavian betrayed his party, and came to terms with Antony and Lepidus. The three leaders met at Bononia and adopted the title of Triumviri reipublicae constituendae as joint rulers. Gaul was to belong to Antony, Hispania to Lepidus, and Africa, Sardinia and Sicily to Octavian. Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS[1]), d. ... Modena is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Cisalpine Gaul (Latin: Gallia Cisalpina, meaning Gaul this side of the Alps) was a province of the Roman Republic, in Emilia and Lombardy of modern-day northern Italy. ... The Second Triumvirate is the name historians give to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian, later Caesar Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony formed on 26 November 43 BC. There have been two 5-year terms, covering the period 43 BC – 33 BC. Unlike the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ...


The Triumvirs for the Organization of the People gained official recognition by the Lex Titia, a law passed by the Assembly in 43 BC, which granted them virtually all powers for a period of five years. To solidify the alliance, Octavian married Clodia Pulchra, Antony's step-daughter. The triumvirs then set to pursue the assassins' faction, who had fled to the East, and to murder the conspirators' supporters who remained in Rome. A reign of terror followed; proscriptions, confiscations, and executions became general; some of the noblest citizens were put to death. Cicero was the most famous victim of this period when, according to Anthony Everitt's recent biography, he was executed while attempting to flee. Antony and his new third wife Fulvia did not spare the body: Cicero's head and hands were posted in the Rostra, with his tongue pierced by Fulvia's golden hairpins. After the twin battles at Philippi and the suicides of Brutus and Cassius, the senatorial and republican parties were annihilated leaving no one to defy the triumvirate's power. This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ... Clodia Pulchra (Also known as Claudia) was the daughter of Fulvia (Later wife of Mark Antony) and her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ... The Rostra can be seen in the middle left of the photo. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


With the political and military situations resolved, the triumvirs divided the Roman world among themselves. Lepidus, marked out as an unequal partner, took control of Africa. Octavian remained in Italy with control of the Western provinces and the responsibility of securing lands for the veteran soldiers—an important task, since the loyalty of the legions depended heavily on this promise. Antony went to the Eastern provinces to pacify yet another rebellion in Judea and to attempt to conquer the Parthian Empire. During this trip, he met Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt in Tarsus, in 41 BC, became her lover and spent the winter in her company at Alexandria. Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... Tarsus is a city in present day Turkey, on the mouth of the Tarsus Cay (Cydnus) into the Mediterranean. ...


Meanwhile, in Italy, the situation was not pacified. Octavian's administration was not appeasing, and a revolt was about to occur. Moreover, he divorced Clodia, giving a curious explanation: she was annoying. The leader of this revolt was Fulvia, the wife of Antony, a woman known to history for her political ambition and tempestuous character. She feared for her husband's political position and was not keen to see her daughter put aside. Assisted by Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's brother, Fulvia raised 8 legions with her own money. Her army invaded Rome, and for a while managed to create problems for Octavian. However, in the winter of 41–40 BC, Fulvia was besieged in Perusia and forced to surrender by starvation. Fulvia was exiled to Sicyon, where she died waiting for Antony's return. For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ... Another Lucius Antonius was a grandson to Mark Antony. ... The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria. ... Sicyon was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea. ...

Coin depicting Mark Antony and his wife Octavia Minor, sister of Octavian.
Coin depicting Mark Antony and his wife Octavia Minor, sister of Octavian.

Fulvia's death was providential. A reconciliation was effected between the triumvirs, and cemented by the marriage of Antony to Octavia, Octavian's beloved sister, in October 40 BC. A new division of the Roman world was made, Lepidus receiving Africa, Octavian the West, and Antony the East. This peace, known as the Treaty of Brundisium, reinforced the triumvirate and allowed Antony to finally prepare his long-awaited campaign against the Parthians. Image File history File links Syd_1197. ... Image File history File links Syd_1197. ... For other Roman noble women of this name see Octavia (69 - 11 BC.) Octavia Thurina Minor was one of the most prominent women in Roman history, respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... For other Roman noble women of this name see Octavia (69 - 11 BC.) Octavia Thurina Minor was one of the most prominent women in Roman history, respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues. ...


Antony and Cleopatra

With this military purpose on his mind, Antony sailed to Greece with his new wife, where he behaved in a most extravagant manner, assuming the attributes of the god Dionysus (39 BC). But the rebellion in Sicily of Sextus Pompeius, the last of the Pompeians, kept the army promised to Antony in Italy. With his plans again severed, Antony and Octavian quarreled once more. This time with the help of Octavia, a new treaty was signed in Tarentum in 38 BC. The triumvirate was renewed for a period of another five years (ending in 33 BC) and Octavian promised again to send legions to the East. Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus (Latin) or Dionysos (Greek) (from Ancient Greek: or ; in both Greek and Roman mythology and associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ...


But by now, Antony was skeptical of Octavian's true support of his Parthian cause. Leaving Octavia pregnant of her second Antonia in Rome, he sailed to Alexandria, where he expected funding from Cleopatra, the mother of his twins. The queen of Egypt lent him the money he needed for the army, and after capturing Jerusalem and surrounding areas in 37 BC, he put in Herod the Great as puppet king of Judaea. After liberating modern Israel, Syria and Turkey from Parthian occupation, he invaded the Parthian Empire with an army of 100,000 legionnaries[2]but the campaign proved a disaster. After a series of defeats in battle, Antony lost most of his army during a retreat through Armenia in the peak of winter. ---- Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... Fraternal twin boys bathing Twins in animal biology is a form of multiple birth in which the mother gives birth to two offspring from the same pregnancy, some of the same gender, others of opposite. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC... Hordes (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, ; Greek: , ; trad. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhûḏāh) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of historic Palestine, an area now divided... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and...


Meanwhile, in Rome, the triumvirate was no more. Lepidus was forced to resign after an ill-judged political move. Now in sole power, Octavian was occupied in wooing the traditional Republican aristocracy to his side. He married Livia and started to attack Antony in order to raise himself to power. He argued that Antony was a man of low morals to have left his faithful wife abandoned in Rome with the children to be with the promiscuous queen of Egypt. Antony was accused of everything, but most of all, of "becoming native", an unforgivable crime to the proud Romans. Several times Antony was summoned to Rome, but remained in Alexandria with Cleopatra. The Ancient Greek term aristocracy originally meant a system of government with rule by the best. The word is derived from two words, aristos meaning the best and kratein to rule. Aristocracies have most often been hereditary plutocracies (see below), where a sense of historical gravitas and noblesse oblige demands... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Julia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later IVLIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... Morality is a complex of principles based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which an individual determines whether his or her actions are right or wrong. ...


Again with Egyptian money, Antony invaded Armenia, this time successfully. In the return, a mock Roman Triumph was celebrated in the streets of Alexandria. The parade through the city was a pastiche of Rome's most important military celebration. For the finale, the whole city was summoned to hear a very important political statement. Surrounded by Cleopatra and her children, Antony was about to put an end to his alliance with Octavian. He distributed kingdoms between his children: Alexander Helios was named king of Armenia and Parthia (not conquered yet), his twin Cleopatra Selene got Cyrenaica and Libya, and the young Ptolemy Philadelphus was awarded Syria and Cilicia. As for Cleopatra, she was proclaimed Queen of Kings and Queen of Egypt, to rule with Caesarion (Ptolemy XV Caesar, son of Julius Caesar), King of Kings and King of Egypt. Most important of all, Caesarion was declared legitimate son and heir of Caesar. These proclamations were known as the Donations of Alexandria and caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Rome. A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... The word pastiche describes a literary or other artistic genre. ... Alexander Helios (25 December 40 BC – ? ) was the son of Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Mark Antony, and the twin brother of Cleopatra Selene. ... Cleopatra Selene (40 BC – 6 AD), sometimes referred to as Cleopatra VIII, was the daughter of Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Mark Antony and the twin sister of Alexander Helios. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Ptolemy Philadelphus (Autumn 36 - ? BC) was the youngest child of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra VII... Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator (December, 70 BC or January, 69 BC–August 12?, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt. ...


Distributing insignificant lands among the children of Cleopatra was not a peace move, but it was not a serious problem either. What did seriously threaten Octavian's political position, however, was the acknowledgement of Caesarion as legitimate and heir to Caesar's name. Octavian's base of power was his link with Caesar through adoption, which granted him much-needed popularity and loyalty of the legions. To see this convenient situation attacked by a child borne by the richest woman in the world was something Octavian could not accept. The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed. Another civil war was beginning. Possibly the most famous Roman adoptee, Augustus Caesar In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class. ...


During 33 and 32 BC, a propaganda war was fought in the political arena of Rome, with accusations flying between sides. Antony (in Egypt) divorced Octavia and accused Octavian of being a social upstart, of usurping power, and of forging the adoption papers by Caesar. Octavian responded with treason charges: of illegally keeping provinces that should be given to other men by lots, as was Rome's tradition, and of starting wars against foreign nations (Armenia and Parthia) without the consent of the Senate. Antony was also held responsible for Sextus Pompeius' execution with no trial. In 32 BC, the Senate deprived him of his powers and declared war against Cleopatra. Both consuls (Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius) and a third of the Senate abandoned Rome to meet Antony and Cleopatra in Greece. An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... Traitor redirects here. ... Cleromancy, sortilege, casting lots or casting bones is a form of divination in which an outcome is determined by random means, such as the rolling of a die. ... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... Gaius Sosius, was a Roman general and politician. ...


In 31 BC, the war started. Octavian's loyal and talented general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa captured the Greek city and naval port of Methone, loyal to Antony. The enormous popularity of Octavian with the legions secured the defection of the provinces of Cyrenaica and Greece to his side. On September 2, the naval Battle of Actium took place. Antony and Cleopatra's navy was destroyed, and they were forced to escape to Egypt with 60 ships. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 BC–12 BC) was a Roman statesman and general. ... Methone could refer to in Greek mythology, Methone was one of the Alkyonides, the seven beautiful daughters of the Giant Alkyoneus. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between...


Octavian, now close to absolute power, did not intend to give them rest. In August 30 BC, assisted by Agrippa, he invaded Egypt. With no other refuge to escape to, Antony committed suicide by falling on his sword in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done so (30 BC). A few days later, Cleopatra committed suicide. Her servants, Iras and Charmion, also killed themselves, and Caesarion was murdered. Antony's daughters by Octavia were spared, as was his son, Iullus Antonius. But his elder son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus, was killed by Octavian's men while pleading for his life in the Caesarium. Iullus Antonius Creticus (45 BC-2 BC), also known as Iulus, Julus, Jullus or Julius Antony, was the second son of Mark Antony and his third wife Fulvia. ... Marcus Antonius Creticus IV (47-30bc). ...


Aftermath and legacy

When Antony died, Octavian became uncontested ruler of Rome. In the following years, Octavian, who was known as Augustus after 27 BC, managed to accumulate in his person all administrative, political, and military offices. When Augustus died in 14 AD, his political powers passed to his adopted son Tiberius; the Roman Principate had begun. The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Tiberius Caesar Augustus, born Tiberius Claudius Nero (November 16, 42 BC – March 16 AD 37), was the second Roman Emperor, from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until his own death in 37. ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ...


The rise of Caesar and the subsequent civil war between his two most powerful adherents effectively ended the credibility of the Roman oligarchy as a governing power and ensured that all future power struggles would centre upon which of two (or more) individuals would achieve supreme control of the government, rather than upon an individual in conflict with the Senate. Thus Antony, as Caesar's key adherent and one of the two men around whom power coalesced following his assassination, was one of the three men chiefly responsible for the fall of the Roman Republic. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


Antony's marriages and descendants

Antony had been married in succession to Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia and Octavia, and left behind him a number of children. Through his daughters by Octavia, he would be ancestor to the emperors Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41 AD), most commonly known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from AD 37 to AD 41. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, AD 37 – June 9, AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ...

  1. Marriage to Fadia
  2. Marriage to Antonia Hybrida (his paternal first cousin). According to Plutarch, Antony threw her out of his house, because she slept with his friend, the tribune Publius Cornelius Dolabella. Antony divorced her, before he married Fulvia.
  3. Marriage to Fulvia, by whom he had two sons
  4. Marriage to Octavia Minor, sister of Octavian, later Augustus; they had two daughters
  5. Children with Cleopatra VII, Queen of Egypt, and former lover of Julius Caesar

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Publius Cornelius Dolabella, Roman general and son-in-law of Cicero, was born about 70 BC. He was by far the most important of the Dolabellae, a family of the patrician Cornelii. ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ... Marcus Antonius Creticus IV (47-30bc). ... Iullus Antonius Creticus (45 BC-2 BC), also known as Iulus, Julus, Jullus or Julius Antony, was the second son of Mark Antony and his third wife Fulvia. ... Claudia Marcella was the name of both daughters of Octavia Minor (Octavia Thurina Minor), the sister of Caesar Augustus, from her first husband, the consul Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor. ... For other Roman noble women of this name see Octavia (69 - 11 BC.) Octavia Thurina Minor was one of the most prominent women in Roman history, respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues. ... Augustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS;[1] September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of... Julia Antonia Cretica Major (Latin for “the elder”) (b. ... Ahenobarbus (brazen-bearded or red-haired) is the name of a plebeian Roman family of the gens Domitia. ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, AD 37 – June 9, AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the younger son of Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar, and her first husband, Tiberius... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Julia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later IVLIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41 AD), most commonly known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from AD 37 to AD 41. ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, AD 37 – June 9, AD 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (54–68). ... // Cleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; January 69 BC–November 30, 30 BC) was a Hellenistic co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes) and later with her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. She later became the supreme ruler of Egypt, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified... Alexander Helios (25 December 40 BC – ? ) was the son of Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Mark Antony, and the twin brother of Cleopatra Selene. ... Cleopatra Selene (II) Cleopatra Selene II (Greek: η Κλεοπάτρα Σελήνη) (25 December 40 BC - 6), also known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt was a Ptolemaic Princess and was an only daughter to Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony. ... Juba II Juba II (Iuba in Latin; Ιóβας (Ιóβα) or Ιουβας in Greek)[1] or Juba II of Numidia (52-50 BC - 23 AD) was a king of Numidia and then later moved to Mauretania. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... Mauretania was a Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Mauri tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria and northern Morocco. ... Ptolemy Philadelphus (Autumn 36 - ? BC) was the youngest child of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. ...

Chronology

  • 83 BC—born in Rome
  • 54–50 BC—joins Caesar's staff in Gaul and fights in the Gallic wars
  • 50 BC—Tribune of the Plebeians
  • 48 BC—Serves as Caesar's Master of the Horse
  • 47 BC—Ruinous administration of Italy: political exile
  • 44 BC—First Consulship with Caesar
  • 43 BC—Forms the Second Triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus
  • 42 BC—Defeats Cassius and Brutus in the Battle of Philippi; travels through the East
  • 41 BC—Meets Cleopatra
  • 40 BC—Returns to Rome, marries Octavia Minor; treaty of Brundisium
  • 38 BC—Treaty of Tarentum: Triumvirate renewed until 33 BC
  • 36 BC—Disastrous campaign against the Parthians
  • 35 BC—Conquers Armenia
  • 34 BC—The Donations of Alexandria
  • 33 BC—End of the triumvirate
  • 32 BC—Exchange of accusations between Octavian and Antony
  • 31 BC—Defeated by Octavian in the naval Battle of Actium
  • 30 BC—Antony commits suicide in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done so

Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by several elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Consul (abbrev. ... The Second Triumvirate is the name historians give to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Octavian, later Caesar Augustus), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony formed on 26 November 43 BC. There have been two 5-year terms, covering the period 43 BC – 33 BC. Unlike the... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS[1]), d. ... Cassius may refer to: Cassius, http://www. ... Brutus is a Roman cognomen used by several politicians of the Junii family, especially in the Roman Republic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other Roman noble women of this name see Octavia (69 - 11 BC.) Octavia Thurina Minor was one of the most prominent women in Roman history, respected and admired by contemporaries for her loyalty, nobility and humanity and for maintaining traditional Roman feminine virtues. ... Map of Italy showing Taranto in the bottom right Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between...

See also

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare probably written in 1599. ... Antony and Cleopatra is a historical tragedy by William Shakespeare, originally printed in the First Folio of 1623. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Marcus Antonius Marci Filius Marci Nepos, in English "Mark Antony, son of Mark, grandson of Mark".
  2. ^ Klaus Schippmann, Dynasty of Arsacids, (LINK); accessed March 23, 2007.

References

  • Caesar, De Bello Gallico, De Bello Civili
  • Cicero, Letters and Philippics
  • Appian, Bell. Civ. i.–v.
  • Dio Cassius xli.–liii
  • Plutarch, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans
  • article by Groebe in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie
  • and a short but vivid sketch by de Quincey in his Essay on the Caesars
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Antony and Cleopatra, William Haines Lytle (1826–1863)
  • Southern, Pat. Mark Antony. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Tempus Publishing, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7524-1406-2).

Thomas de Quincey (August 15, 1785 – December 8, 1859) was an English author and intellectual. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Antony and Cleopatra is a historical tragedy by William Shakespeare, originally printed in the First Folio of 1623. ... William Haines Lytle (November 2, 1826 - September 20, 1863) was a captain in the Mexican War and in the American Civil War he commanded the Fourth Ohio Regiment in General O.M. Mitchels brigade. ...

External links

Preceded by
Gaius Julius Caesar without colleague
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Gaius Julius Caesar and Publius Cornelius Dolabella (suffectus)
44 BC
Succeeded by
Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Preceded by
Lucius Cornificius and Sextus Pompeius
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Lucius Scribonius Libo and Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (suffectus)
34 BC
Succeeded by
Imperator Caesar Augustus and Lucius Volcacius Tullus
The Works of Plutarch
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The Lives

Alcibiades and Coriolanus1Alexander the Great and Julius CaesarAratus of Sicyon & Artaxerxes and Galba & Otho2Aristides and Cato the Elder1
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... This list of Republican Roman Consuls is based on the Varronian chronology, which intercalates four dictator years and has other peculiarities. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Publius Cornelius Dolabella, Roman general and son-in-law of Cicero, was born about 70 BC. He was by far the most important of the Dolabellae, a family of the patrician Cornelii. ... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d. ... Lucius Cornificius, a member of the plebeian gens Cornificia, was a Roman politician and consul in 35 BC. Cornificius served as the accuser of Marcus Junius Brutus in the court which tried the murderers of Julius Caesar. ... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... This list of Republican Roman Consuls is based on the Varronian chronology, which intercalates four dictator years and has other peculiarities. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... There were three Lucius Scribonius Libo in the Roman Republic, all member of the gens Scribonia: Lucius Scribonius Libo was apart of a senatorial family. ... Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (full name: Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus) (d. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Plutarch in Greek Plutarchs Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings. ... External links The Moralia (loosely translatable as Matters relating to customs and mores) of Plutarch is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches, which includes On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander the Great — an important adjunct to his Life of the great general — On... Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the unknown authors of a number of pseudepigrapha attributed to Plutarch. ... Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (Greek: ; English /ælsɪbaɪədi:z/; 450 BC–404 BC), also transliterated as Alkibiades, was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general. ... Gaius Marcius Coriolanus is widely believed to be a legendary figure who is said to have lived during the 5th century BC. He was given the agnomen Coriolanus as a result of his action in capturing the Volscian town of Corioli in 493 BC. Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... Aratus (271 BC - 213 BC) was a tyrant of the ancient Greek city-state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC. He deposed Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was a supporter of Greek unity and promoted the ideas of the Achæan League. ... Artaxerxes II Memnon (c. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aristides (530 BC–468 BC) was an Athenian statesman, nicknamed the Just. He was the son of Lysimachus, and a member of a family of moderate fortune. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Nicias (d. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, DÄ“mosthénÄ“s) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. ... Cicero at about age 60, from an ancient marble bust Marcus Tullius Cicero (IPA:Classical Latin pronunciation: , usually pronounced in English; January 3, 106 BC – December 7, 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, lawyer, political theorist, philosopher, widely considered one of Romes greatest orators and prose stylists. ... Dion (408-354 BC), tyrant of Syracuse in Sicily, was the son of Hipparinus, and brother-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... Pericles or Perikles (c. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lysander (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX)[1] ( 138 BC–78 BC), usually known simply as Sulla,[2] was a Roman general and dictator. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... Lycurgus Lycurgus (Greek: , Lukoûrgos; 700 BCE?–630 BCE) was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi. ... Pelopidas (d. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... Philopoemen (253-184 B.C.), Greek general, was born at Megalopolis, and educated by the academic philosophers Ecdemus and Demophanes or Megalophanes, who had distinguished themselves as champions of freedom. ... Titus Quinctius Flamininus (c. ... Phocion (c402 - c318 BC), Athenian statesman and general, was born the son of a small manufacturer. ... Marcus Porcius Catō UticÄ“nsis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder, was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Agesilaus II, or Agesilaos II (Greek Ἀγησιλάος), king of Sparta, of the Eurypontid family, was the son of Archidamus II and Eupolia, and younger step-brother of Agis II, whom he succeeded about 401 BC. Agis had, indeed, a son Leotychides, but he was set aside as illegitimate, current rumour representing... Publius Valerius Publicola (or Poplicola, his surname meaning friend of the people) was a Roman consul, the colleague of Lucius Junius Brutus in 509 BC, traditionally considered the first year of the Roman Republic. ... Solon Solon (Greek: , ca. ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Gaius Marius Gaius Marius (Latin: C·MARIVS·C·F·C·N)[1] (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and politician elected Consul an unprecedented seven times during his career. ... This page describes the ancient heroes that founded the city of Rome. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night. ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... Son of Eudamidas II., of the Eurypontid family, commonly called Agis IV. He succeeded his father probably in 245 BC, in his twentieth year. ... Cleomenes III was the son of Leonidas II. In keeping with the Spartan agoge and the native pederastic tradition he was the hearer (aites) of Xenares and later the inspirer (eispnelos) of Panteus. ... Timoleon (c. ... Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a Roman general and politician. ... Themistocles (ca. ... Marcus Furius Camillus (circa 446- 365 BC) was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. ...

The Translators John Dryden | Thomas North | Jacques Amyot | Philemon Holland | Arthur Hugh Clough
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1 Comparison extant 2 Four unpaired Lives John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Mark Antony - MSN Encarta (544 words)
Mark Antony (Latin Marcus Antonius) (83?-30 bc), Roman statesman and general, who defeated the assassins of Julius Caesar and, with Gaius Octavius and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed the Second Triumvirate, which ultimately secured the end of the Roman Republic.
Antony was born in Rome and educated for a short time in Greece.
Later in the same year, Antony summoned the Egyptian queen Cleopatra to attend him in the city of Tarsus, in Cilicia (now in Turkey), and explain her refusal to aid the triumvirate in the civil war.
Mark Antony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3256 words)
Antony surrounded himself with a bodyguard of Caesar's veterans, and forced the senate to transfer to him the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which was then administered by Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of the conspirators.
Gaul was to belong to Antony, Hispania to Lepidus, and Africa, Sardinia and Sicily to Octavian.
Crassus and Nicias - Demetrius and Antony - Demosthenes and Cicero - Dion and Brutus - Fabius and Pericles - Lucullus and Kimon
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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