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Encyclopedia > Maritimes
The Maritime provinces.
The Maritime provinces.

The Maritime provinces, also the Canadian Maritimes or simply the Maritimes, is a region of eastern Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of the three provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. From the latin maritimus, maritime refers to things relating to the sea. ... Image File history File links Canada_Maritime_provinces_map. ... Image File history File links Canada_Maritime_provinces_map. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The Maritimes front the Atlantic Ocean and its various sub-basins such as the Gulf of Maine and Gulf of St. Lawrence systems. The region is located east of New England, south of Quebec's Gaspé Peninsula, and southwest of Newfoundland. (The initial "m" in maritime(s) is typically capitalized only in political references, not generally when describing the eastern coasts.) Gulf of Maine The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the northeastern coast of North America. ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... NASA satellite image of the Gaspé Peninsula. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Capitalization (or capitalisation) is writing a word with its first letter as a majuscule (upper case letter) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lower case letters), in those writing systems which have a case distinction. ...


Newfoundland and Labrador is often mistakenly identified as a Maritime province: it is properly part of Atlantic Canada (with the other three provinces) and, thus, referred to as an Atlantic province. Although it is located on the Atlantic coast, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence physically separates this province from the Maritimes. It also has a uniquely different history, as the dominion joined Canada eight decades after the three Maritime provinces. The four provinces of Atlantic Canada, sometimes combined with the two of Central Canada, are sometimes referred to as Eastern Canada. This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... Eastern Canada, defined politically. ...


There was talk of a Maritime Union of the three provinces to have a greater say in national affairs; however, the first discussions on the subject in 1864 at the Charlottetown Conference led to the larger Canadian Confederation instead. A Maritime Union refers to a potential political union of the three Maritime provinces of Canada to form a single new province which would be the fifth largest in Canada by population. ... Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ...

A typical Maritime scene, in this case, Peggy's Cove, Nova Scotia
A typical Maritime scene, in this case, Peggy's Cove, Nova Scotia

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 986 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 986 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Peggys Cove is a small village at 44° 29′ 34″ north 63° 55′ 3″ west in St. ...

Major communities

Communities of the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada As designated by the Union of Nova Scotia Municipalities. ... Communities of the Province of New Brunswick, Canada See also: List of parishes in New Brunswick Incorporated municipalities Alma, New Brunswick Aroostook, New Brunswick Atholville, New Brunswick Baker Brook, New Brunswick Balmoral, New Brunswick Bas Caraquet, New Brunswick Bath, New Brunswick Bathurst, New Brunswick Belledune, New Brunswick Beresford, New Brunswick... Communities of the Province of Prince Edward Island, Canada See also List of Prince Edward Island lots Alberton, Prince Edward Island Borden, Prince Edward Island Breadalbane, Prince Edward Island Cavendish, Prince Edward Island Central Bedeque, Prince Edward Island Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island Cornwall, Prince Edward Island Foxley River, Prince Edward...

Society and culture

Halifax skyline from Dartmouth, NS
Halifax skyline from Dartmouth, NS

Maritime society is based upon a mixture of traditions and class backgrounds. Predominantly rural until recent decades, the region traces many of its cultural activities to those rural resource-based economies of fishing, farming, forestry, and coal mining. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 311 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,008 pixels, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 311 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,592 × 1,008 pixels, file size: 335 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


While Maritimers are predominantly of west European heritage (Scottish, Irish, English, and Acadian - descendants of the French), immigration to Industrial Cape Breton during the hey-day of coal mining and steel manufacturing brought people from eastern Europe as well as Newfoundland. The Maritimes also has a black population of Loyalist ancestry, largely concentrated in Nova Scotia, but also in various communities throughout southern New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. The Mi'kmaq Nation's reserves throughout Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and eastern New Brunswick dominate aboriginal culture in the region, compared to the much smaller population of the Maliseet Nation in western New Brunswick. This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... Industrial Cape Breton refers to the eastern portion of Cape Breton County fronting the Atlantic Ocean on the southeastern part of Cape Breton Island. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Loyalist (disambiguation). ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New...

Skyline of Saint John, New Brunswick
Skyline of Saint John, New Brunswick

Cultural activities are fairly diverse throughout the region, with the music, dance, theatre, and literary art forms tending to follow the particular cultural heritage of specific locales. Notable Nova Scotian folklorist and cultural historian Helen Creighton spent the majority of her lifetime recording the various Celtic musical and folk traditions of rural Nova Scotia during the mid-20th century, prior to this knowledge being wiped out by mass media assimilation with the rest of North America. A fragment of Gaelic culture remains in Nova Scotia but primarily on Cape Breton Island. Download high resolution version (1034x239, 213 KB)Saint John, New Brunswick. ... Download high resolution version (1034x239, 213 KB)Saint John, New Brunswick. ... Helen Creighton (5th September 1899 - 1989) was a prominent Canadian folklorist. ...

Skyline of Moncton, New Brunswick

A trend in Canada has witnessed a "Celtic revival" which saw many Maritime musicians and songs rise to prominence in recent decades. Some companies, particularly breweries such as Alexander Keith's and Moosehead have played up a connection between folklore with alcohol consumption during their marketing campaigns. Ironically the Maritimes were among the strongest supporters of prohibition (Prince Edward Island lasting until 1949) and some predominantly rural communities maintain "dry" status banning the retail sale of alcohol to this day as a vestige of the original temperance movement in the region. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 163 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 199 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 163 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 199 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Alexander Keiths is a Canadian brewery founded in 1820 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, by Alexander Keith, who emigrated from Scotland in 1817, where it is still the only location of an Alexander Keiths brewery. ... This article is about the brewery. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...

Economy

Present status

Fredericton City Hall

Unlike the rest of Canada, the Maritime region's population of 1.8 million is geographically distributed throughout the three provinces. Halifax, Saint John, Moncton, Sydney-Glace Bay, Fredericton, and Charlottetown are the largest population centres in the region, with the Halifax, Saint John, Moncton, and Sydney conurbations all having populations exceeding 100,000. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 777 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fredericton Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 777 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Fredericton Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Motto: {{Unhide = {{{}}}}} E Mari Merces (Wealth from the Sea) Logo: Location City Information Established: April 1, 1996 Area: urban area 79. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ... Motto: Fortuna Non Mutat Genus (Circumstances Do Not Change Our Origin) Country Province Established 1995 Government  - Type Regional Council  - Mayor John W. Morgan  - Governing Body Cape Breton Regional Council  - MPs Rodger Cuzner, Mark Eyking  - MLAs Frank Corbett, Cecil Clarke, Gordie Gosse, Manning MacDonald, Alfie MacLeod, David Wilson Area  - Municipality 2... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Fredericpolis silvae filia noblis (Fredericton noble daughter of the forest) Established: {{{Established}}} Area: 131. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = CUNABULA FOEDERIS (Birthplace of Confederation) Location City Information Established: 1764 Area: 44. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ...


Given the relatively small population of the region (compared with the Central Canadian provinces, or the New England states), the regional economy is a net exporter of natural resources, manufactured goods, and services. The regional economy has long been tied to natural resources such as fishing, logging, farming, and mining activities. Significant industrialisation in second half of the 19th century saw the first steel poured in Canada at Trenton, Nova Scotia, and subsequent creation of a widespread industrial base to take advantage of the region's large underground coal deposits. After Confederation, however, this industrial base withered with technological change and as trading links to Europe and the USA were reduced in favour of those with Ontario and Quebec. In recent years, however, the Maritime regional economy has seen increased contributions from manufacturing again, and the steady transition to a service economy. Trenton is a town located in Pictou County, Nova Scotia. ...


Important manufacturing centres in the region, in addition to the previously-mentioned population centres, include Pictou County, Truro, the Annapolis Valley and the South Shore, and the Strait of Canso area in Nova Scotia, as well as Summerside in Prince Edward Island, and the Miramichi area, the North Shore and the upper Saint John River valley of New Brunswick. Pictou County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Begun In Faith, Continued In Determination Location of Truro, Nova Scotia Coordinates: , Country Province Municipality Colchester County Founded 1759 Government  - Mayor Mayor W.R. (Bills) Mills  - Governing Body Truro Town Council Area  - Town 37. ... Annapolis Valley is a valley in western Nova Scotia, formed by a trough between two parallel mountain ranges along the shore of the Bay of Fundy. ... The South Shore is a region of Nova Scotia Canada. ... The Strait of Canso (also Gut of Canso or Canso Strait), is located in northeastern North America near the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Summerside (pop. ... Ritchie Wharf on the Newcastle waterfront in the City of Miramichi. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ...


Some predominantly coastal areas have become major tourist centres, such as parts of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, the South Shore of Nova Scotia and the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Bay of Fundy coasts of New Brunswick. Additional service-related industries in information technology, pharmaceuticals, insurance and financial sectors, as well as research-related spin-offs from the region's numerous universities and colleges are significant economic contributors. The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. ... This article is about the concept. ...


Another important contribution to Nova Scotia's provincial economy is through spin-offs and royalties relating to off-shore petroleum exploration and development. Mostly concentrated on the continental shelf of the province's Atlantic coast in the vicinity of Sable Island, exploration activities began in the 1960s and resulted in the first commercial production field for oil beginning in the 1980s. Natural gas was also discovered in the 1980s during exploration work and this is being commercially recovered, beginning in the late 1990s. Initial optimism in Nova Scotia about the potential of off-shore resources appears to have diminished with the lack of new discoveries, although exploration work continues unabated and is moving farther off-shore into waters on the continental margin. Petro redirects here. ... Sable Island is situated 180 km southeast of Nova Scotia, Canada in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ...

Peakes Quay on the Charlottetown waterfront.

Regional transportation networks have also changed significantly in recent decades with port modernizations, new expressways and ongoing arterial highway construction, the abandonment of various low-capacity railway branchlines (including the entire railway system of Prince Edward Island and southwestern Nova Scotia), the construction of the Canso Causeway and the Confederation Bridge, as well as airport improvements at various centres providing improved connections to markets and destinations in the rest of North America and overseas. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 347 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 520 pixels, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 347 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,200 × 520 pixels, file size: 408 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = CUNABULA FOEDERIS (Birthplace of Confederation) Location City Information Established: 1764 Area: 44. ... The 0 kilometre peg marks the start of a branch line in Western Australia. ... Canso Causeway from Cape Breton Island Swing bridge after causeway, entering Cape Breton Island The Canso Causeway ( ) is a 1385 m (4583 feet)rock-fill causeway in Nova Scotia, Canada. ... The Confederation Bridge (French: ) is a bridge spanning the Abegweit Passage of Northumberland Strait, linking Prince Edward Island with mainland New Brunswick, Canada. ...


Improvements in infrastructure and the regional economy notwithstanding, the three provinces remain one of the poorer regions of Canada. While urban areas are growing and thriving, economic adjustments have been harsh in rural and resource-dependent communities and out-migration has been an ongoing problem for some parts of the region. Another problem is seen in the lower average wages and family incomes within the region, and depressed property values, resulting in a smaller tax base for these three provinces, particularly when compared with the national average which benefits from central and western Canadian economic growth.


This has been particularly problematic with the growth of the welfare state in Canada since the 1950s, resulting in the need to draw upon equalization payments to provide nationally-mandated social services. Since the 1990s the region has experienced an exceptionally tumultuous period in its regional economy with the collapse of large portions of the ground fishery throughout Atlantic Canada, the closing of coal mines and a steel mill on Cape Breton Island, and the closure of military bases in all three provinces. There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to state or provincial governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services. ... For other uses, see Cape Breton. ...


Growth

Delegates of the Charlottetown Conference on the steps of Government House.
Delegates of the Charlottetown Conference on the steps of Government House.

While the relative economic underperformance of the Maritime economy has been long lasting, it has not always been present. The mid-19th century, especially the 1850s and 1860s has long been seen as a "Golden Age" in the Maritimes. Growth was strong and the region had one of British North America's most extensive manufacturing sectors. The question of why the Maritimes fell from being a centre of Canadian manufacturing to being an economic hinterland is thus a central one to the study of the region's pecuniary difficulties. The period in which the decline occurred had a great many potential culprits. The year 1867 saw Nova Scotia and New Brunswick merged with the Canadas in Confederation, with Prince Edward Island joining them six years later in 1873. Canada was formed only a year after free trade with the United States (in the form of the Reciprocity Agreement) had ended. As a result, the 1870s saw the introduction and implementation of John A. Macdonald's National Policy creating a system of protective tariffs around the new nation. Throughout the period there was also significant technological change both in the production and transportation of goods. Charlottetown Conference of Delegates from the Legislatures of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island to take into consideration the Union of the British North American Colonies, September 1, 1864 Name Key: Col. ... Charlottetown Conference of Delegates from the Legislatures of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island to take into consideration the Union of the British North American Colonies, September 1, 1864 Name Key: Col. ... Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... Government House in Charlottetown is the official residence of the Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The Canadian-American Reciprocity Treaty was a trade treaty between the colonies of British North America and the United States. ... For other persons named John Alexander Macdonald, see John Alexander Macdonald (disambiguation). ... The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonalds Conservative Party in 1879 after it returned to power. ... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ...

Decline

The cause of economic malaise in the Maritimes is an issue of great debate and controversy among historians, economists, and geographers. The differing opinions can approximately be divided into the "structuralists," who argue that poor policy decisions are to blame, and the others, who argue that unavoidable technological and geographical factors caused the decline.

Shipping magnate Sir Samuel Cunard.
Shipping magnate Sir Samuel Cunard.

The exact date that the Maritimes began to fall behind the rest of Canada is difficult to determine. Historian Kris Inwood places the date very early, at least in Nova Scotia, finding clear signs that the Maritimes "Golden Age" of the mid-nineteenth century was over by 1870, before Confederation or the National Policy could have had any significant impact. Richard Caves places the date closer to 1885, however. T.W. Acheson takes a similar view and provides considerable evidence that the early 1880s were in fact a booming period in Nova Scotia and this growth was only undermined towards the end of that decade. David Alexander argues that any earlier declines were simply part of the global Long Depression, and that the Maritimes first fell behind the rest of Canada when the great boom period of the early twentieth century had little effect on the region. E.R. Forbes, however, emphasizes that the precipitous decline did not occur until after the First World War during the 1920s when new railway policies were implemented. Forbes also contends that significant Canadian defence spending during the Second World War favoured powerful political interests in Central Canada such as C.D. Howe, when major Maritime shipyards and factories, as well as Canada's largest steel mill, located in Cape Breton Island, fared poorly. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sir Samuel Cunard Sir Samuel Cunard, 1st Baronet (21 November 1787–28 April 1865) was a Canadian-born British shipping magnate. ... The Long Depression (1873 – 1896) affected much of the world from the early 1870s until the mid-1890s and was contemporary with the Second Industrial Revolution. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Right Honourable Clarence Decatur C.D. Howe, PC (January 15, 1886 - December 31, 1960) was a leading Canadian politician. ...

Yarmouth in 1910.
Yarmouth in 1910.

One of the most important changes, and one that almost certainly had an effect, was the revolution in transportation that occurred at this time. The Maritimes were connected to central Canada by the Intercolonial Railway in the 1870s, removing a longstanding barrier to trade. For the first time this placed the Maritime manufacturers in direct competition with those of Central Canada. Maritime trading patterns shifted considerably from mainly trading with New England, Britain, and the Caribbean, to being focused on commerce with the Canadian interior, enforced by the federal government's tariff policies. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1640x1048, 493 KB) Postcard from about 1910. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1640x1048, 493 KB) Postcard from about 1910. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... Intercolonial Railway of Canada logo or herald The Intercolonial Railway of Canada (IRC), also referred to as the Intercolonial Railway, was a historic Canadian railway. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... West Indies redirects here. ...


Simultaneously with the construction of railways in the region, the age of the wooden sailing ship began to come to an end, being replaced by larger and faster steel steam ships. The Maritimes had long been a centre for shipbuilding and this industry was hurt by the change. The larger ships were also less likely to call on the smaller population centres such as Saint John and Halifax, preferring to travel to cities like New York and Montreal. Even the Cunard Line, founded by Haligonian Samuel Cunard, stopped making more than a single ceremonial voyage to Halifax each year. Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... This article is about the state. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... The Cunard Line, formerly Cunard White Star Line, is a British cruise line, operator of ocean liners RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2) and RMS Queen Mary 2 (QM2). ... Sir Samuel Cunard Sir Samuel Cunard, 1st Baronet (21 November 1787–28 April 1865) was a Canadian-born British shipping magnate. ...


More controversial than the role of technology is the argument over the role of politics in the origins of the region's decline. Confederation and the tariff and railway freight policies that followed have often been blamed for having a deleterious effect on the Maritime economies. Arguments have been made that the Maritimes' poverty was caused by control over policy by Central Canada which used the national structures for its own enrichment. This was the central view of the Maritime Rights Movement of the 1920s, which advocated greater local control over the region's finances. T.W. Acheson is one of the main proponents of this theory. He notes the growth that was occurring during the early years of the National Policy in Nova Scotia demonstrates how the effects of railway fares and the tariff structure helped undermine this growth. Capitalists from Central Canada purchased the factories and industries of the Maritimes from their bankrupt local owners and proceeded to close down many of them, consolidating the industry in Central Canada. The Maritime Rights Movement is an integral part of Nova Scotian culture. ...

Princess and Water Street in Saint John, NB

The policies in the early years of Confederation were designed by Central Canadian interests, and they reflected the needs of that region. The unified Canadian market and the introduction of railroads created a relative weakness in the Maritime economies. Central to this concept, according to Acheson, was the lack of metropolises in the Maritimes. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Montreal and Toronto were well suited to benefit from the development of large-scale manufacturing and extensive railway systems in Quebec and Ontario, these being the goals of the Macdonald and Laurier governments. In the Maritimes the situation was very different. Today New Brunswick has a number of mid-sized centres in Saint John, Moncton, and Fredericton but no significant population centre. Nova Scotia has a growing metropolitan area surrounding Halifax, but a contracting population in industrial Cape Breton, and several smaller centres in Bridgewater, Kentville, Yarmouth, and Pictou County. Prince Edward Island's only significant population centres are in Charlottetown and Summerside. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, just the opposite was the case with little to no population concentration in major industrial centres as the predomoniantly- rural resource-dependent Maritime economy continued on the same path as it had since European settlement on the region's shores. This article needs cleanup. ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Diversity Our Strength Image:Toronto, Ontario Location. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... For other uses, see Moncton (disambiguation). ... Template:Hide = Motto: Template:Unhide = Fredericpolis silvae filia noblis (Fredericton noble daughter of the forest) Established: {{{Established}}} Area: 131. ... For other uses, see Halifax, Nova Scotia. ... Cape Breton County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island. ... Website: http://www. ... Kentville is a town in Kings County, Nova Scotia. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ... Pictou County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = CUNABULA FOEDERIS (Birthplace of Confederation) Location City Information Established: 1764 Area: 44. ... Summerside (pop. ...


Despite the region's absence of economic growth on the same scale as other parts of the nation, the Maritimes has changed markedly throughout the 20th century, partly as a result of global and national economic trends, and partly as a result of government intervention. Each sub-region within the Maritimes has developed over time to exploit different resources and expertise. Saint John became a centre of the timber trade and shipbuilding, and is currently a centre for oil refining and some manufacturing. The northern New Brunswick communities of Edmundston, Campbellton, Dalhousie, Bathurst, and Miramichi are focused on the pulp and paper industry and some mining activity. Moncton was a centre for railways and has changed its focus to becoming a multi-modal transportation centre with associated manufacturing and retail interests. The Halifax metropolitan area has come to dominate peninsular Nova Scotia as a retail and service centre, but that province's industries were spread out from the coal and steel industries of industrial Cape Breton and Pictou counties, the mixed farming of the North Shore and Annapolis Valley, and the fishing industry was primarily focused on the South Shore and Eastern Shore. Prince Edward Island is largely dominated by farming, fishing, and tourism. Saint John[3] is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the oldest incorporated city in Canada. ... Edmundston is a city in Madawaska County at the junction of the Saint John and Madawaska Rivers in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada only a few kilometres from the border with Quebec and on the border with the United States, opposite the town of Madawaska, Maine. ... J.C. Van Horne Bridge crossing between Campbellton and Pointe-à-la-Croix, Québec The Restigouche River showing the J.C. Van Horne Bridge crossing between Campbellton and Pointe-à-la-Croix, Québec Campbellton (2001 population 7,798) is the smallest of the eight officially incorporated cities in New Brunswick... Dalhousie (2006 population: 3,676) is a Canadian town located in Restigouche County, New Brunswick. ... Bathurst (2006 population 12,714; UA 18,154; CA population 31,424) is a Canadian city in Gloucester County, New Brunswick. ... Ritchie Wharf on the Newcastle waterfront in the City of Miramichi. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ... Cape Breton County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island. ... Pictou County is a county in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Annapolis Valley is a valley in western Nova Scotia, formed by a trough between two parallel mountain ranges along the shore of the Bay of Fundy. ... The South Shore is a region of Nova Scotia Canada. ... Home to Eastern Shore District High School, and includes communities such as Porters Lake, Lake Echo, Jeddore, Musquodoboit Harbour, Lake Charlotte, etc. ...


Given the geographic diversity of the various sub-regions with the Maritimes, policies to centralize the population and economy were not initially successful, thus Maritime factories closed while those in Ontario and Quebec prospered.


The traditional staples thesis, advocated by scholars such as S.A. Saunders, looks at the resource endowments of the Maritimes and argues that it was the decline of the traditional industries of shipbuilding and fishing that lead to Maritime poverty, since these processes were rooted in geography, and thus all but inevitable. Kris Inwood, has revived the staples approach and looks at a number of geographic weaknesses relative to Central Canada. He repeats Acheson's argument that the region lacks major urban centres, but adds that the Maritimes were also lacking the great rivers that lead to the cheap and abundant hydro-electric power, key to Quebec and Ontario's urban and manufacturing development, that the extraction costs of Maritime resources were relatively higher (particularly in the case of Cape Breton coal), and that the soils of the region were poorer and thus the agricultural sector weaker. The staples thesis is a theory of Canadian economic development. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...


The Maritimes are the only provinces in Canada which entered Confederation in the 19th century and have kept their original colonial boundaries. All three provinces have the smallest land base in the country and have been forced to make do with resources within. By comparison, former colonies such as Canada East, Canada West and the western provinces were dozens of times larger and in some cases were expanded to take in territory formerly held in British Crown grants to companies such as the Hudson's Bay Company. The economic riches of energy and natural resources held within this larger land base was only realized by other provinces during the 20th century. Canada East (French: Canada-Est) was the eastern portion of the Province of Canada. ... Canada West was the western portion of the former Province of Canada from 1841 to 1867. ... Hudsons Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie dHudson in French) is the oldest commercial corporation in North America and is one of the oldest in the world. ...


One comparison made with the wealthier areas of Canada is that of the region's political and/or work culture. Today few academics make such a claim, but it still a common explanation in other circles. Some writers have also alleged that Maritime business people were unwilling to take risks or invest in manufacturing, a thesis Acheson devotes much attention to debunking.


In recent years dependency theory has been used to examine the situation of the Maritimes, and while it rejects most traditional economic models it does correspond with the evidence. Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic...


Politics

All three provinces were governed by provincial Progressive Conservative parties until 2006, when New Brunswick voters elected Liberal leader Shawn Graham to the premiership in a general election. However, Maritime conservatism since the Second World War has been very much part of the Red Tory tradition, key influences being former Premier of Nova Scotia and federal Progressive Conservative Party leader Robert Stanfield and New Brunswick Tory strategist Dalton Camp. The New Brunswick Liberal Association (NBLA) is one of the two major political parties in the Canadian provice of New Brunswick. ... Shawn Graham, MLA (born February 22, 1968 in Kent County, New Brunswick, Canada) is a New Brunswick politician and is the current Premier of New Brunswick. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Red Tory Tradition: Ancient Roots-New Routes, by Ron Dart Red Tory is a term given to a political philosophy, tradition, and disposition in Canada. ... Categories: Stub | Nova Scotia premiers ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Honourable Dalton Kingsley Camp, PC, OC, M.Sc, LL.D (September 11, 1920 – March 18, 2002) was a Canadian journalist, politician, political strategist and commentator and supporter of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ...


In recent years, the social democratic New Democratic Party has made significant inroads both federally and provincially in the region. The NDP has elected Members of Parliament (MPs) from New Brunswick, but most of the focus of the party at the federal and provincial levels is currently in the Halifax area of Nova Scotia. Industrial Cape Breton has historically been a region of labour activism, electing Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (and later NDP) MPs, and even produced many early members of the Communist Party of Canada in the pre-World War II era. In the 2004 federal election, the NDP captured 28.45% of the vote in Nova Scotia, more than any other province; former NDP leader Alexa McDonough was and is MP for Halifax. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups, and the League for Social Reconstruction. ... The Communist Party of Canada is a communist political party in Canada. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Alexa McDonough (born August 11, 1944) is a Canadian politician, and former leader of the New Democratic Party. ... Halifax in relation to the other Nova Scotia ridings Halifax is a federal electoral district in Nova Scotia, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1867. ...


The Maritimes are generally socially conservative but, unlike the province of Alberta, they also have fiscally socialist tendencies. It is because of the lack of support for fiscal conservatism that federal parties such as the Canadian Alliance never had much success in the region, and the level of support for the new Conservative Party of Canada in the region is uncertain. In the 2004 federal election, the Conservatives had one of the worst showings in the region for a right-wing party, going back to Confederation, with the possible exception of the 1993 election. Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Fiscal conservatism (also known as economic liberalism) is a term used in the United States to refer to economic and political policy that advocates restraint of government taxation, government expenditures and deficits, and government debt. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ...


An area within the region where both fiscal and social conservatism do coincide and where the federal Reform Party and Canadian Alliance have met success is in the central-western part of New Brunswick, in the St. John River valley north of Saint John and south of Grand Falls. Contributing demographics include a predominantly Anglophone population residing in a largely rural agrarian setting. One influence might be proximity to the International Boundary and the state of Maine. The valley is also settled by descendants of United Empire Loyalists, some of whom established fundamentalist Christian congregations in the area which continue to influence certain segments of society. There are also a large number of active and retired military personnel located in the Fredericton and Oromocto area as a result of the large military base at CFB Gagetown. Another area in the region with smatterings of coinciding fiscal and social conservatism is the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia. The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party that existed from 1987 to 2000. ... This article is about a city in New Brunswick. ... Look up Anglophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The name United Empire Loyalists is given to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Oromocto is a town in west-central New Brunswick, Canada; approximately 20 kilometres southeast of Fredericton on the Saint John River. ... Canadian Forces Base Gagetown, also referred to as CFB Gagetown, is a large Canadian Forces Base located in southwestern New Brunswick. ... Annapolis Valley is a valley in western Nova Scotia, formed by a trough between two parallel mountain ranges along the shore of the Bay of Fundy. ...


The Liberal Party of Canada has done well in the Maritimes in the past due to its interventionist policies. The Acadian Peninsula region of New Brunswick, long dependent upon seasonal employment in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence fishery, tends to vote for the Liberals or NDP for this reason. In the 1997 federal election, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberals endured a bitter defeat to the PCs and NDP in many ridings as a result of unpopular cuts to unemployment benefits for seasonal workers, as well as closures of several Canadian Forces Bases, the refusal to honour a promise to rescind the Goods and Services Tax, cutbacks to provincial equalization payments, health care, post-secondary education and regional transportation infrastructure such as airports, fishing harbours, seaports, and railways. The Liberals only managed to hold onto seats in Prince Edward Island and certain parts of Newfoundland and Labrador and New Brunswick, while being shut out of Nova Scotia entirely for the second time in history (the only other time being the Diefenbaker sweep). The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Keynesian economics (pronounced kainzian, IPA ), also called Keynesianism, or Keynesian Theory, is an economic theory based on the ideas of the 20th-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. ... Bathymetry of the Gulf, with the Laurentian Channel visible Gulf of Saint Lawrence (French: golfe du Saint-Laurent), the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, BCL, LLD (h. ... Unemployment benefits are payments made by governments to unemployed people. ... A Canadian Forces Base or CFB (fr. ... The Goods and Services Tax is a Value-added tax that exists in a number of countries. ... Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to state or provincial governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... ... A harbor (or harbour) or haven is a place where ships may shelter from the weather or are stored. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... The 24th general election was held just nine months after the 23rd and transformed Prime Minister John Diefenbakers minority into the largest ever majority government in Canadian history. ...


The Maritimes is currently represented in the Canadian Parliament by 25 Members of the House of Commons (Nova Scotia - 11, New Brunswick - 10, Prince Edward Island - 4) and 24 Senators (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick - 10 each, Prince Edward Island - 4). This level of representation was established at the time of Confederation when the Maritimes had a much larger proportion of the national population. The comparatively large population growth of western and central Canada during the immigration boom of the 20th century has reduced the Maritimes' proportion of the national population to less than 10%, resulting in an over-representation in Parliament, with some federal ridings having fewer than 35,000 people, compared to central and western Canada where ridings typically contain 100,000-120,000 people.


The Canadian Senate is structured along regional lines, giving an equal number of seats (24) to the Maritimes, Ontario, Quebec, and western Canada, in addition to the later entry of Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as the three territories. Enshrined in the Constitution, this model was developed to ensure that no area of the country is able to exert undue influence in the Senate. The Maritimes, with its much smaller proportion of the national population (compared to the time of Confederation) also have an over-representation in the Senate, particularly compared to the population growth of Ontario and the western provinces. This has led to calls to reform the Senate; however, such a move would entail constitutional changes. The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... The Triple-E Senate (standing for equal, elected, and effective) is a topic of constitutional debate in Canada and a proposed plan to reform the current Canadian Senate. ...


Another factor related to the number of Senate seats is that a federal court decision in the early 20th century mandated that no province can have fewer Members of Parliament than it has senators. This court decision resulted from a legal challenge by the Government of Prince Edward Island after that province's number of MPs was proposed to change from 4 to 3, accounting for its declining proportion of the national population at that time. When PEI entered Confederation in 1873, it was accorded 6 MPs and 4 Senators; however this was reduced to 4 MPs by the early 1900s. Senators having been appointed for life at this time, these coveted seats rarely went unfilled for a long period of time anywhere in Canada. As a result, PEI's challenge was accepted by the federal court and its level of federal representation was secured. In the aftermath of the 1989 budget, which saw a fillibuster by Liberal Senators in attempt to kill legislation creating the Goods and Services Tax, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney "stacked" the Senate by creating additional seats in several provinces across Canada, including New Brunswick; however, there was no attempt by these provinces to increase the number of MPs to reflect this change in Senate representation. The Canadian Goods and Services Tax (GST) (French: Taxe sur les produits et services, TPS) is a multi-level value-added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and finance minister Michael Wilson. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ...


History

Following the northerly retreat of glaciers at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation over ten thousand years ago, human settlement by Native Americans or First Nations began in the Maritimes with Paleo-Indians during the Early Period, ending around six thousand years ago. The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... Paleo-Indians is an English term used to refer to the ancient peoples of America who were present at the end of the last Ice Age. ...


The Middle Period, starting six thousand years ago, and ending three thousand years ago, was dominated by rising sea levels from the melting glaciers in polar regions. This is also when what is called the Laurentian tradition started among Archaic Indians, existing First Nations peoples of the time. Evidence of Archaic Indian burial mounds and other ceremonial sites existing in the St. John River valley has been uncovered.


The Late Period extended from three thousand years ago until first contact with European settlers and was dominated by the organization of First Nations peoples into the Algonquian-influenced Abenaki Nation which existed largely in present-day interior Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, and theMi'kmaq Nation which inhabited all of Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, eastern New Brunswick and the southern Gaspé. The primarily agrarian Maliseet Nation settled throughout the St. John River and Allagash River valleys of present-day New Brunswick and Maine. The Passamaquoddy Nation inhabited the northwestern coastal regions of the present-day Bay of Fundy. The Mi'kmaq Nation is also assumed to have crossed the present-day Cabot Strait at around this time to settle on the south coast of Newfoundland but were in a minority position compared to the Beothuk Nation. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Abenaki (also Wabanuok or Wabanaki) are a tribe of Native Americans/First Nations belonging to the Algonquian peoples of northeastern North America. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ... The Maliseet (also known as Wolastoqiyik and Malecite and in French also as Malécites or Étchemins (the latter collectively referring to the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy)) are a Native American/First Nations people who inhabit the Saint John River valley and its tributaries, roughly overlapping the International Boundary between New... The Allagash River is a tributary of the St. ... Passamaquoddy Territory The Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati in the Passamaquoddy language) are a Native American/First Nations people who live in northeastern North America, primarily in Maine and New Brunswick. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Cabot Strait is a strait in eastern Canada approximately 110 kilometres wide between Cape Ray, Newfoundland Island and Cape North, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Newfoundland, home of the Beothuk The Beothuk (IPA: ) were the native inhabitants of the island of Newfoundland at the time of European contact in the 15th and 16th centuries. ...


Pre-history–1604

The Maritimes was the first area in Canada to be settled by Europeans. There is speculation that Viking explorers discovered and settled in the Vinland region around 1000 AD, which is when the L'Anse aux Meadows settlement in Newfoundland and Labrador has been dated, and it is possible that further exploration was made into the present-day Maritimes and northeastern United States. There have also been undocumented reports of other explorers having sighted the Maritimes in the form of Irish Monks (before 1000 AD) and of Scotland's Prince Henry Sinclair in 1398. For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For the historical novel by George Mackay Brown, which depicts Leif Eiríkssons voyage, see Vinland (novel). ... AD redirects here. ... LAnse aux Meadows (from the French LAnse-aux-Méduses or Jellyfish Cove) is a site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Viking village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... This article is about the country. ... Henry Sinclair, 1st Earl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin, and Lord of Shetland (c. ...


Both Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) and Giovanni da Verrazzano are reliably reported to have sailed in or near Maritime waters during their voyages of discovery for England and France respectively. Several Portuguese explorers have also documented various parts of the Maritimes, namely Diego Homem. However, it was French explorer Jacques Cartier who made the first detailed reconnaissance of the region for a European power, and in so doing, claimed the region for the King of France. Cartier was followed by nobleman Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Monts who was accompanied by explorer/cartographer Samuel de Champlain in a 1604 expedition where they established the second permanent European settlement in North America, following Spain's settlement at St. Augustine. Champlain's settlement at Saint Croix Island, later moved to Port-Royal, survived where the ill-fated English settlement at Roanoke did not, and pre-dated the more successful English settlement at Jamestown by three years. Champlain went on to greater fame as the founder of New France which comprises much of the present-day lower Saint Lawrence River valley in the province of Quebec. John Cabot. ... Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jacques Cartier (disambiguation). ... Pierre Dugua, the Sieur de Monts, (c. ... Statue symbolizing Samuel de Champlain in Ottawa. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... See also Saint Croix an island in the United States Virgin Islands Saint Croix Island, or Dochet Island as it is called today, is a small uninhabited island in Maine located at 45º 07 42 N latitude, 067º 08 02 W longitude, near the mouth of the Saint Croix River... The Habitation at Port-Royal is a National Historic Site located at Port Royal in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. ... Lost Colony redirects here. ... At Jamestown Settlement, replicas of Christopher Newports 3 ships are docked in the harbour. ... Capital Quebec Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King See List of French monarchs Governor See list of Governors Legislature Sovereign Council of New France Historical era Ancien Régime in France  - Royal Control 1655  - Articles of Capitulation of Quebec 1759  - Articles of Capitulation of Montreal 1760  - Treaty... a broat veiew of the St LAwrence River, with a Quebec City on a background The Saint Lawrence River (In French: fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large south west-to-north east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


1604–1713

Champlain's success in the region, which came to be called Acadie, led to the fertile tidal marshes surrounding the southeastern and northeastern reaches of the Bay of Fundy being populated by French immigrants who called themselves Acadien. Acadians eventually built small settlements throughout what is today mainland Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, as well as Ile-Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island), Ile-Royale (Cape Breton Island), and other shorelines of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in present-day Newfoundland and Labrador, and Quebec. Acadian settlements had primarily agrarian economies, although there were many early examples of Acadian fishing settlements in southwestern Nova Scotia and in Ile-Royale, as well as along the south and west coasts of Newfoundland, the Gaspe Peninsula, and the present-day Côte-Nord region of Quebec. It should be noted that most Acadian fishing activities were overshadowed by the comparatively enormous seasonal European fishing fleets based out of Newfoundland which took advantage of proximity to the Grand Banks. Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... The Gaspé Peninsula or just the Gaspé (la Gaspésie in French) is a North American peninsula on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, in Quebec. ... Map of Cote-Nord in relation to Quebec Côte-Nord (literally Northern Coast) is the second largest administrative (235,742 km², 17%) region by land area in Quebec, Canada, after Nord-du-Quebec. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ...


The growing English colonies along the American seaboard to the south, and various European wars between England and France during the 17th and 18th centuries saw Acadia, and Acadians at the centre of world-scale geopolitical forces. In 1613, Virginian raiders captured Port Royale and in 1621 Acadia, that being most of present-day Atlantic Canada, Anticosti Island and the Gaspe Peninsula, was ceded to Scotland's Sir William Alexander who renamed it Nova Scotia. By 1632, Acadia was returned from Scotland to France under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and the Port Royale settlement was moved to the site of nearby present-day Annapolis Royal. More French settlers, primarily from the Vienne, Normandie, and Brittany regions of France, continued to populate the colony of Acadia during the latter part of the 17th and early part of the 18th centuries. Important settlements also began in the Beaubassin region of the present-day Isthmus of Chignecto, and in the St. John River valley, and settlers began to establish communities on Ile-Saint-Jean and Ile-Royale as well. Anticosti - Landsat photo Anticosti Island (French, lÎle dAnticosti) is a rocky, forest covered island at the outlet of the Saint Lawrence River into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, in Quebec, Canada, between 49° and 50° N., and between 61° 40 and 64° 30 W.. It is separated on... This article is about the country. ... For others with similar names, see: William Alexander (disambiguation). ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Île-de-France Department Yvelines (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Saint-Germain-en-Laye Canton Chief town of 2 cantons Intercommunality none as of 2005 Mayor Emmanuel Lamy (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 22 m–107 m (avg. ... Website: http://www. ... This article is about the French département. ... Mont Saint Michel is a historic pilgrimage site and a symbol of Normandy Normandy is a former country (a Duchy) situated in northern France occupying the lower Seine area (upper or Haute-Normandie) and the region to the west (lower or Basse-Normandie) as far as the Cotentin Peninsula. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... A typical view of the Marsh The Tantramar Marshes are on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins Nova Scotia to New Brunswick and the Canadian mainland. ... The Isthmus of Chignecto is an isthmus bordering the Maritime provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia which connects the mainland portion of Nova Scotia with North America. ... The Saint John River is a river, approximately 418 mi (673 km) long, located in the U.S. state of Maine and the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ...


In 1654, New England raiders attacked Acadian settlements on the Annapolis Basin, starting a period of uncertainty for Acadians throughout the English constitutional crises under Oliver Cromwell, and only being properly resolved under the Treaty of Breda in 1667 when France's claim to the region was reaffirmed. Colonial administration by France throughout the history of Acadia was contemptuous at best. France's priorities were in settling and strengthening its claim on New France and the exploration and settlement of interior North America and the Mississippi River valley. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... The Annapolis Basin is a sub-basin of the Bay of Fundy, located on the southwestern shores of the bay, along the northwestern shore of Nova Scotia and at the western end of the Annapolis Valley. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... The Treaty of Breda was signed at the Dutch city of Breda, July 31, 1667, by England, the Dutch Republic, France, and Denmark. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ...


1713–1745

Further French-English conflict resulted in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 which saw France formally relinquish Acadia to Britain. Confusion over the boundaries between Acadia, New France, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts left Britain in possession of what is the present-day Nova Scotia peninsula. The early British capital of the Colony of Nova Scotia (sometimes referred to as the 14th Colony) was established at Annapolis Royal, where Fort Anne was constructed. The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ... Flag History  - Established 1604  - English conquest 1713 Acadia (1754) Acadia (in the French language lAcadie) was the name given to a colonial territory in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day New England, stretching as far south as Philadelphia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Map of Nova Scotia highlighting the Nova Scotia peninsula The Nova Scotia peninsula* is a peninsula on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Fort Anne is a typical star fort built to protect the harbour of Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia. ...


France still maintained control over much of present-day New Brunswick and northern Maine, Ile-Saint-Jean, and Ile-Royale. In 1719, to further protect strategic interests in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and St. Lawrence River, France began the 20-year construction of a large fortress at Louisbourg on Ile-Royale. Massachusetts was increasingly concerned over reports of the capabilities of this fortress, and of privateers staging out of its harbour to raid New England fishermen on the Grand Banks. The War of the Austrian Succession saw Britain and France in conflict with each other, and in 1745 several warships and a small contingent of troops were sent from Boston, first to the Nova Scotian fishing port of Canso, and on to Louisbourg where they laid siege to the fortress until the French surrendered and were evacuated. Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Nova Scotia peninsula (white), and Cape Breton Island (red) Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (French: île Royale, Scottish Gaelic: Eilean Cheap Breatuinn, Míkmaq: Únamakika, simply: Cape Breton) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Fortress Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction of an 18th century French fortress at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Canso (2001 population: 992) is a small Canadian town in Guysborough County, on the north-eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia. ...


1745–1763

The British returned control of Ile-Royale to France with the fortress virtually intact three years later under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and the French reestablished their forces there. In 1749, to counter the rising threat of Louisbourg, Halifax was founded and the Royal Navy established a major naval base and citadel. There were two Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Inside Citadel Hill. ...


The Seven Years' War from 1756 to 1763 was the final struggle for European domination of North America. The French colony of New France was the objective and the present-day Maritime provinces saw conflict beginning in 1755 with the British capture of French forces at Fort Beausejour and Fort Gaspereau, guarding the Isthmus of Chignecto. In 1758, the fortress of Louisbourg was laid siege for a second time within 15 years, this time by in excess of 27,000 British soldiers and sailors with over 150 warships. After the French surrender, Louisbourg was thoroughly destroyed by British engineers to ensure it would never be reclaimed. With the fall of Louisbourg, French resistance in the region crumbled. British forces seized remaining French control over Acadia in the coming months, with Ile-Saint-Jean falling in 1759 to British forces on their way to Quebec City for the Siege of Quebec and ensuing Battle of the Plains of Abraham. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Fort Beauséjour is a Canadian national historic site in Aulac, New Brunswick. ... View of Fort Gaspaeraux overlooking the Northumberland Strait. ... Motto: « Don de Dieu feray valoir Â» (I shall put Gods gift to good use) Site in the province of Québec Official logo Provincial region Province Country Capitale-Nationale Québec Canada Gentilé Québécois, Québécoise Mayor Jean-Paul LAllier 1989-Dec. ... Combatants Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of France Commanders James Wolfe â€  Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm â€  Strength 4,800 regulars 4,000 regulars 300 militia Casualties 658 dead or wounded 644 dead or wounded The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a pivotal battle in the North American theatre...


It was also during the course of this war that British administrators in Nova Scotia began the expulsion of the Acadians from their adopted homeland. Many were expelled to Louisiana, but some Acadian families, and sometimes entire communities, escaped British soldiers tasked with their deportation, by hiding for years in hidden forest settlements, aided by the Mi'kmaq First Nations. These Acadians during the 19th century created new settlements in western Nova Scotia, southwestern and northwestern Cape Breton Island, and western Prince Edward Island, but their most significant concentration was along the New Brunswick shores of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Mikmaq The Mikmaq (; (also spelled Míkmaq, Migmaq, Micmac or MicMac) are a First Nations people, indigenous to northeastern New England, Canadas Atlantic Provinces, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. ...


1763–1784

Following the Seven Years' War, empty Acadian lands were settled first by New England Planters and then by immigrants brought from Yorkshire. Ile-Royale was renamed to Cape Breton Island and incorporated into the Colony of Nova Scotia at this time. Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... The New England Planters were settlers from the New England colonies who responded to requests by the lieutenant governor and, subsequently, governor of Nova Scotia, Charles Lawrence, to settle lands left vacant by the Acadian Expulsion of 1755. ... The Yorkshire Emigration to Nova Scotia occurred between 1772 and 1775 and involved an approximate one thousand migrants from mainly Yorkshire, England arriving to Nova Scotia to settle the colony upon the expulsion of its Acadian population. ...


Both the colonies of Nova Scotia (present-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) and St. John's Island (Prince Edward Island) were impacted during the American War of Independence, largely by privateering against American shipping, but several coastal communities were also the targets of American raiders. Most notably, Charlottetown, the capital of the new colony of St. John's Island was ransacked in 1775 with the provincial secretary kidnapped and the Great Seal stolen. The largest military action in the maritimes during the revolutionary war was the attack on Fort Cumberland (the renamed Fort Beausejour) in 1776 by a force of American sympathizers led by Jonathan Eddy. The fort was partially overrun after a month long siege but the attackers were ultimately repelled after the arrival of British reinforcements from Halifax. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... For other uses, see Charlottetown (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Fort Cumberland resulted in the defeat of an American army trying to invade and inspire rebellion in the British colony of Nova Scotia during the American Revolutionary War. ... Fort Beauséjour is a Canadian national historic site in Aulac, New Brunswick. ...


The most significant impact from this war were the settling of large numbers of Loyalist refugees in the region, especially in Shelburne and Parrtown (Saint John). Following the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Loyalist settlers in what would become New Brunswick persuaded British administrators to split the Colony of Nova Scotia to create the new colony of New Brunswick in 1784. At the same time, another part of the Colony of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, was split off to become the Colony of Cape Breton Island. Britannia gives a heros welcome to returning American Loyalists. ... Painting by Benjamin West depicting (from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


1784–1814

The Colony of St. John's Island was renamed to Prince Edward Island on November 29, 1798. This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The War of 1812 had some impact on the shipping industry in the Maritime colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Breton Island; however, the significant Royal Navy presence in Halifax and other ports in the region prevented any serious attempts by American raiders. Maritime and American privateers targeted unprotected shipping of both the United States and Britain respectively, further reducing trade. The American border with New Brunswick did not have any significant action during this conflict, although British forces did occupy a portion of coastal Maine at one point. The most significant incident from this war which occurred in the Maritimes was the British capture and detention of the American frigate USS Chesapeake in Halifax. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Privateer (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ...


1814–1865

In 1820, the Colony of Cape Breton Island was merged back into the Colony of Nova Scotia for the second time by the British government. For other uses, see Cape Breton. ...


British settlement of the Maritimes, as the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island came to be known, accelerated throughout the late 18th century and into the 19th century with significant immigration to the region as a result of Scottish migrants displaced by the Highland Clearances and Irish escaping the Great Irish Famine (1845-1849). As a result, significant portions of the three provinces are influenced by Celtic heritages, with Scottish Gaelic having been widely spoken, particularly in Cape Breton, although it is less prevalent today. This article is about the country. ... The Highland Clearances (Scottish Gaelic: Fuadaich nan Gàidheal, the expulsion of the Gael) is a name given to the forced displacement of the population of the Scottish Highlands from their ancient ways of warrior clan subsistence farming, leading to mass emigration. ... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ... This article is about the European people. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


The American Civil War saw some Maritimers emigrate to the United States for participating in military service. However, the majority of the conflict's impact was felt in the shipping industry since diplomatic tensions between Britain and the Unionist North had deteriorated after Britain expressed support for the secessionist Confederate South. The Union navy, although much smaller than the Royal Navy, did posture off Maritime coasts at times. Although an amphibious invasion was never in question, blockading by Union naval forces was relatively common, particularly at Halifax, where Confederate navy ships sought refuge and reprovisioning. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Northern states. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion...


The immense size of the Union army (the largest on the planet toward the end of the Civil War), however, was viewed with increasing concern by Maritimers throughout the early 1860s. Another concern was the rising threat of Fenian raids on border communities in New Brunswick by those seeking to end British rule of Ireland. This combination of events, coupled with an ongoing decline in British military and economic support to the region as the Home Office favoured newer colonial endeavours in Africa and elsewhere, led to a call among Maritime politicians for a conference on Maritime Union, to be held in early September, 1864 in Charlottetown - chosen in part because of Prince Edward Island's reluctance to give up its jurisdictional sovereignty in favour of uniting with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into a single colony. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia felt that if the union conference were held in Charlottetown, they might be able to convince Island politicians to support the proposal. Fenian is a term used since the 1850s for Irish nationalists (who oppose British rule in Ireland). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... A Maritime Union refers to a potential political union of the three Maritime provinces of Canada to form a single new province which would be the fifth largest in Canada by population. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = CUNABULA FOEDERIS (Birthplace of Confederation) Location City Information Established: 1764 Area: 44. ...


The Charlottetown Conference, as it came to be called, was also attended by a slew of visiting delegates from the neighbouring colony of Canada, who had largely arrived at their own invitation with their own agenda. This agenda saw the conference dominated by discussions of creating an even larger union of the entire territory of British North America into a single new nation. The Charlottetown Conference ended with an agreement to meet the following month in Quebec City, whereby more formal discussions ensued, culminating with meetings in London and the signing of the British North America Act. Only Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were initially party to the BNA Act, Prince Edward Island's reluctance, combined with a booming agricultural and fishing export economy having led to that colony opting not to sign on. Delegates of the Charlottetown Convention The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation. ... British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... Nickname: Motto: Don de Dieu feray valoir (I shall put Gods gift to good use; the Don de Dieu was Champlains ship) Coordinates: , Country Province Agglomeration Quebec City Statute of the city Capitale-Nationale Administrative Region Capitale-Nationale Founded 1608 by Samuel de Champlain Constitution date 1833 Government... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The British North America Acts 1867–1975 are a series of Acts of the British Parliament dealing with the government of Canada. ...


See also

The four Canadian Atlantic provinces. ... Central Canada, defined politically. ... // Canadian provinces and territories are normally grouped into the following regions (generally from west to east): Northern Canada (The North) Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Western Canada British Columbia Prairies Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba Eastern Canada Central Canada Ontario Quebec Atlantic Canada Maritimes New Brunswick Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia Newfoundland and... The Maritime Film Classification Board is a government organization responsible for reviewing films and granting film ratings in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... The Maritime provinces. ...

External links


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