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Encyclopedia > Maritime archaeology

Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. One speciality is underwater archaeology, which studies the past through any submerged remains. Another specialty within maritime archaeology is nautical archaeology, which studies vessel construction and use. Sunset at sea Look up Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Look up maritime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Maritime archaeology has three important differences from land archaeology. First structures and artefacts, even organic materials, are sometimes better preserved under water or in bottom sediments especially in freshwater anaerobic environments. A second difference lies in the fact that until recently, submerged sites such as shipwrecks were usually beyond the reach of human intervention or marine salvage, thereby preventing looters from destroying the site. A third difference comes from the fact that shipwrecks (and sites submerged by seismic catastrophes) represent a moment in time rather than a slow deposition of material accumulated over a period of years. This fact has lead to shipwrecks being described as time capsules. It has been suggested that Treasure hunting (marine) be merged into this article or section. ...


There are those in the archaeology community who see maritime archaeology as a segregrated discipline with its own concerns (such as shipwrecks) and requiring the specialised skills of the underwater archaeologist. Others value an integrated approach, stressing that nautical activity has economic and social links to communities on land. Underwater archaeology is the study of past human life, behaviours and cultures using the physical remains found in salt or fresh water or buried beneath water-logged sediment. ...

Contents


Submerged sites

Pre-historic landscapes

Maritime archaeology studies prehistorical objects and sites that are, because of changes in climate and geology, now underwater. Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history and the processes that shape it. ...


Bodies of water, fresh and saline, have been important sources of food for people for as long as we have existed. It should be no surprise that ancient villages weree located at the water's edge. Since the last ice age sea level has risen as much as 250 feet (approximately 75 meters). Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Therefore, a great deal of the record of human activity throughout the Ice Age is now to be found under water.


The flooding of the area now known as the Black Sea (when a land bridge, where the Bosporus is now, collapsed under the pressure of rising water in the Mediterranean Sea) submerged a great deal of human activity that had been gathered round what had been an enormous, fresh-water lake. Map of the Black Sea. ... Bosporus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ...


Significant cave art sites off the coast of western Europe are now reachable only by diving, because the cave entrances are underwater, though the caves themselves are not flooded. Cave, or rock, paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to pre_historic times. ... Alternate meanings: Cave (disambiguation) The outside world viewed from a cave A cave is a natural underground void. ...


Historic sites

Throughout history, seismic events have at times caused submergence of human settlements. The remains of such catastrophes exist all over the world, and sites such as Alexandria and Port Royal now form important archaeological sites. As with shipwrecks, archaeological research can follow multiple themes, including evidence of the final catastrophe, the structures and landscape prior to the catastrophe and the culture and economy of which it formed a part. Unlike the wrecking of a ship, the destruction of a town by a seismic event can take place over many years and there may be evidence for several phases of damage, sometimes with rebuilding in between. Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth. ... This article needs to be updated. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ...


Coastal and foreshore

Not all maritime sites are underwater. There are many structures at the margin of land and water that provide evidence of the human societies of the past. Some are deliberately created for access - such as bridges and walkways. Other structures remain from exploitation of resources, such as dams and fish traps. Nautical remains include early harbours, and places where ships were built or repaired. At the end of their life, ships were often beached. Valuable or easily accessed timber has often been salvaged leaving just a few frames and bottom planking.


Archaeological sites can also be found on the foreshore today that would have been on dry land when they were constructed. An example of such a site is Seahenge, a bronze age timber circle. Seahenge or Holme I is a bronze-age timber circle discovered in 1998 just off the coast of the English county of Norfolk at Holme-next-the-Sea. ...


Shipwrecks

The archaeology of shipwrecks can be divided in a three-tier hierarchy, of which the first tier considers the wrecking process itself: how does a ship break up, how does a ship sink to the bottom, and how do the remains of the ship, cargo and the surrounding environment evolve over time? The second tier studies the ship as a machine, both in itself and in a military or economic system. The third tier consists of the archaeology of maritime cultures, in which nautical technology, naval warfare, trade and shipboard societies are studied. This list of shipwrecks is of those sunken ships whose remains have been located. ... Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, usually with multiple decks. ... Naval warfare is combat in and on seas and oceans. ...


Bronze Age

The earliest boats discovered date from the bronze age and are constructed of sewn planks. Vessels have been discovered where they have been preserved in sediments. Examples include Ferriby and the Dover Boat. These may be an evolution from boats made of sewn hides, but it is highly unlikely that hide boats could have survived. Ferriby is the name of two places, on opposite sides of the River Humber North Ferriby, in the East Riding of Yorkshire South Ferriby, in North Lincolnshire The two were historically linked by a ferry. ...


Ships wrecked in the sea have probably not survived, although remains of cargo (particularly bronze material) have been discovered. A close collecion of artefacts on the sea bed may imply that artefacts were from a ship, even if there are no remains of the actual vessel.


Maritime archaeology by region

Mediterranean area

In the Mediterranean area, maritime archaeology mainly deals with the innumerable retrievals of ancient ages, especially regarding the Roman fleets. The many discoveries in the sea and in some lakes (notably in Nemi, Italy, where Caligula's ships were found) were really helpful in explaining some passages of the history of Romans, Phoenicians and Etruscans, and allowed to track respective presences in the related areas. The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC (mythical), early 1st millennium BC (archaeological) Region Latium Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Nemi, an old town and comune of Italy, is in the province of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in central Lazio, 41°43′N 12°43′E, at 521 metres (1709 ft) above sea-level overlooking Lake Nemi. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (August 31, 12 – January 24, 41), most commonly known as Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor and a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, ruling from 37 to 41. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what are now Lebanon and Syria. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ...


Italy is indeed one of the most important areas for these studies, with particular reference to Roman and Etruscan naval activities. Also because of the extremely high rate of expected wrecks (Romans calculated that at least 30% of cargo would have been lost by storms or pirate assaults), the traffic was proportionally (or perhaps more) increased, and many goods were found (ordinarily contained in amphoras or in the larger dolia) that let us understand what the commerce was about. Sometimes, as in the case of the two "bronzi" found in Riace (Calabria), real artworks were brought to the surface. In other cases, like the very recent retrievals in Sarno river (near Pompeii), other details enlarge the knowledge of some interesting elements: this retrieval allows us to suppose in fact that on the Tyrrhenian shore too there were little towns with palafittes, like in ancient Venice. In the same area, the submerged town of Puteoli (Pozzuoli, close to Naples) contains the "portus Julius" created by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa in 37 BC, later sunk due to bradyseism. Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... Sarno is a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of Salerno, 15 miles northeast from that city and 30 miles east of Naples by the main railway. ... A computer-generated depiction of the eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79 which buried Pompeii, from Discovery Channels Pompeii: The Last Day. ... A palafitte is traditionally a small, single-storeyed house, that sits on stilts imbedded into the ground. ... View of Venice to San Giorgio Maggiore island from St Marks Campanile. ... Pozzuoli (pop. ... Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Nàpule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples. ... Marcus Agrippa Agrippa redirects here. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC... Bradyseism is the gradual uplift (positive bradyseism) or descent (negative bradyseism) of part of the Earths surface caused by the filling or emptying of an underground magma chamber. ...


The Antikythera mechanism, which appears to be an ancient clockwork astronomical computer, was discovered in a shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera. The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient analog computer (as opposed to digital computer) designed to calculate astronomical positions. ...


But other areas too have no less interest, like the waters around Israel, where Herod the Great's port at Caesarea Palaestina was found. Other finds are consistent with some passages of the Bible (like the so-called Jesus boat, which appears to be similar to those in use during the first century AD). Hordos הוֹרְדוֹס, also known as Herod I or Herod the Great, was a Roman client-king of Judaea (c. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... The Gutenberg Bible owned by the United States Library of Congress The Bible (Hebrew: תנ״ך tanakh, Greek: η Βίβλος hē biblos) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Work of God, The Word, The Good Book or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βίβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the name used by Jews and Christians for their... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE — 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ...


See also

A Rusticle is a little similar to an icicle or stalactite in appearance, but occurs under water when wrought iron rusts. ... The Nautical Archaeology Society (NAS) is a charity registered in England and is a company limited by guarantee. ...

Submerged historic and pre-historic sites

This article needs to be updated. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Puteoli, the ancient predecessor of Pozzuoli, was an Italian city of Roman times on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay running north from the Bay of Naples. ...

Coastal and foreshore archaeology

Seahenge or Holme I is a bronze-age timber circle discovered in 1998 just off the coast of the English county of Norfolk at Holme-next-the-Sea. ...

Famous shipwrecks

The Uluburun Shipwreck is a well-documented ancient shipwreck of the Late Bronze Age period, discovered off the southern Turkish coastline on the Mediterranean Sea near the city of KaÅŸ in the early 1980s, and recovered using techniques of underwater excavation in 11 consecutive campaigns of 3-4 months duration... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... Cape Gelidonya near Finike, Turkey was the site of the wreck of a Phoenician merchant ship from about 1200 BC, which sat at about 27 m depth on irregular rocky bottom. ... Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after a reign of 30... Antikythera (Αντικύθηρα) is a Greek island with a land mass of 20 square kilometers, 38 kilometers south-east of Kythira. ... The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient analog computer (as opposed to digital computer) designed to calculate astronomical positions. ... Mary Rose depicted on the Anthony Roll, a survey of Henry VIIIs navy, completed in 1546 Mary Rose was an English carrack of 78 guns (91 guns after 1536), built in Portsmouth, England, in 1509–1510, thought to be named after King Henry VIIIs sister Mary and the... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Vasa from the side Vasa (also Regalskeppet Wasa, or Wasa, of 64 guns) is a famous warship built for King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden of the House of Vasa, between the years 1626 and 1628. ... Events March 1 - writs were issued in February 1628 by Charles I of England that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date. ... The replica of the Batavia The Batavia was a ship of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), built in 1628 in Amsterdam, which was struck by mutiny and shipwreck during her maiden voyage, upon which a drama followed. ... Events March 4 - Massachusetts Bay Colony is granted a Royal charter. ... Replica of the Amsterdam at the Netherlands Maritime Museum The VOC ship Amsterdam ran aground near Hastings, England in January 1749, on its maiden voyage to Batavia. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... The Raft of the Medusa is the name applied to an infamous catastrophic shipwreck of the French ship Medusa (original French name: La Méduse) in 1816 in the Atlantic Ocean off the west coast of Africa. ... RMS Titanic was a passenger liner that became infamous for its collision with an iceberg and dramatic sinking in 1912. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a Pennsylvania-class battleship of the United States Navy. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ...

Famous wrecksites

In the Baltic Sea during WW II several ships that were loaded with evacuees have been torpedoed and sunk. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Gutter Sound is an inlet of the vast anchorage of Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. ... Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom. ... Truk Lagoon is a sheltered body of water almost fifty miles long by thirty miles wide surrounded by a protective reef. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Takashima is the name of several places in Japan: In Nagasaki Prefecture: Takashima Town in Nishisonogi Takashima Town in Kitamatsūra District. ... Kyushu region, Japan Kyushu (九州 kyÅ«shÅ«) is the third largest island of Japan and most southerly and westerly of the four main islands. ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Maritime archaeology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1176 words)
Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes.
There are those in the archaeology community who see maritime archaeology as a segregrated discipline with its own concerns (such as shipwrecks) and requiring the specialised skills of the underwater archaeologist.
The third tier consists of the archaeology of maritime cultures, in which nautical technology, naval warfare, trade and shipboard societies are studied.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Maritime archaeology (3312 words)
Maritime archaeology is a discipline that studies human interaction with the (A division of an ocean or a large body of salt water partially enclosed by land) sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes and human remains.
Maritime archaeology can be divided in a three-tier hierarchy, of which the first tier consists of the archaeology of (An accident that destroys a ship at sea) shipwrecks and wreck sites.
In the (The largest inland sea; between Europe and Africa and Asia) Mediterranean area, maritime archaeology mainly deals with the innumerable retrievals of ancient ages, especially regarding the (An inhabitant of the ancient Roman Empire) Roman (A group of warships organized as a tactical unit) fleets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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